Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 April 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 226 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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Author Title [ Type(Desc)] Year
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Journal Article
R. Brauer, Smeeth, L., Anaya-Izquierdo, K., Timmis, A., Denaxas, S. C., Farrington, C. P., Whitaker, H., Hemingway, H., and Douglas, I., Antipsychotic drugs and risks of myocardial infarction: a self-controlled case series study, Eur Heart J, vol. 36, pp. 984-92, 2015.
M. Pujades-Rodriguez, Duyx, B., Thomas, S. L., Stogiannis, D., Smeeth, L., and Hemingway, H., Associations between polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis and 12 cardiovascular diseases, Heart, vol. 102, pp. 383-9, 2016.
V. Kuan, Denaxas, S., A Izquierdo, G. -, Direk, K., Bhatti, O., Husain, S., Sutaria, S., Hingorani, M., Nitsch, D., Parisinos, C. A., Lumbers, T., Mathur, R., Sofat, R., Casas, J. P., Wong, I. C. K., Hemingway, H., and Hingorani, A. D., A chronological map of 308 physical and mental health conditions from 4 million individuals in the English National Health Service, The Lancet Digital Health, 2019.
O. Archangelidi, Pujades-Rodriguez, M., Timmis, A., Jouven, X., Denaxas, S., and Hemingway, H., Clinically recorded heart rate and incidence of 12 coronary, cardiac, cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial diseases in 233,970 men and women: A linked electronic health record study, Eur J Prev Cardiol, vol. 25, pp. 1485-1495, 2018.
I. J. Douglas, Evans, S. J., Hingorani, A. D., Grosso, A. M., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., and Smeeth, L., Clopidogrel and interaction with proton pump inhibitors: comparison between cohort and within person study designs, Bmj, vol. 345, p. e4388, 2012.
R. Boggon, van Staa, T. P., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., Ray, K. K., Begg, A., Emmas, C., and Fox, K. A., Clopidogrel discontinuation after acute coronary syndromes: frequency, predictors and associations with death and myocardial infarction–a hospital registry-primary care linked cohort (MINAP-GPRD), Eur Heart J, vol. 32, pp. 2376-86, 2011.
K. J. Rothnie, Smeeth, L., Herrett, E., Pearce, N., Hemingway, H., Wedzicha, J., Timmis, A., and Quint, J. K., Closing the mortality gap after a myocardial infarction in people with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Heart, vol. 101, pp. 1103-10, 2015.
E. Herrett, Shah, A. D., Boggon, R., Denaxas, S., Smeeth, L., Van Staa, T., Timmis, A., and Hemingway, H., Completeness and diagnostic validity of recording acute myocardial infarction events in primary care, hospital care, disease registry, and national mortality records: cohort study, Bmj, vol. 346, p. f2350, 2013.
R. Boggon, Eaton, S., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., Gabriel, H., Minhas, I., and van Staa, T. P., Current prescribing of statins and persistence to statins following ACS in the UK: a MINAP/GPRD study, Br J Cardiol, vol. 19, p. 24, 2012.
S. C. Denaxas, George, J., Herrett, E., Shah, A. D., Kalra, D., Hingorani, A. D., Kivimaki, M., Timmis, A. D., Smeeth, L., and Hemingway, H., Data resource profile: cardiovascular disease research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER), Int J Epidemiol, vol. 41, pp. 1625-38, 2012.
V. Kuan, Fraser, H. C., Hingorani, M., Denaxas, S., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Direk, K., Nitsch, D., Mathur, R., Parisinos, C. A., Lumbers, R. T., Sofat, R., Wong, I. C. K., Casas, J. P., Thornton, J. M., Hemingway, H., Partridge, L., and Hingorani, A. D., Data-driven identification of ageing-related diseases from electronic health records, Sci Rep, vol. 11, p. 2938, 2021.
M. Daskalopoulou, George, J., Walters, K., Osborn, D. P., Batty, G. D., Stogiannis, D., Rapsomaniki, E., Pujades-Rodriguez, M., Denaxas, S., Udumyan, R., Kivimaki, M., and Hemingway, H., Depression as a Risk Factor for the Initial Presentation of Twelve Cardiac, Cerebrovascular, and Peripheral Arterial Diseases: Data Linkage Study of 1.9 Million Women and Men, PLoS One, vol. 11, p. e0153838, 2016.
K. K. Poppe, Doughty, R. N., Wells, S., Gentles, D., Hemingway, H., Jackson, R., and Kerr, A. J., Developing and validating a cardiovascular risk score for patients in the community with prior cardiovascular disease, Heart, vol. 103, pp. 891-892, 2017.
M. Pujades-Rodriguez, Assi, V., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Wilkinson, T., Schnier, C., Sudlow, C., Hemingway, H., and Whiteley, W. N., The diagnosis, burden and prognosis of dementia: A record-linkage cohort study in England, PLoS One, vol. 13, p. e0199026, 2018.
J. K. Quint, Herrett, E., Bhaskaran, K., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., Wedzicha, J. A., and Smeeth, L., Effect of beta blockers on mortality after myocardial infarction in adults with COPD: population based cohort study of UK electronic healthcare records, Bmj, vol. 347, p. f6650, 2013.
J. Gho, Schmidt, A. F., Pasea, L., Koudstaal, S., Pujades-Rodriguez, M., Denaxas, S., Shah, A. D., Patel, R. S., Gale, C. P., Hoes, A. W., Cleland, J. G., Hemingway, H., and Asselbergs, F. W., An electronic health records cohort study on heart failure following myocardial infarction in England: incidence and predictors, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e018331, 2018.
A. G. Lai, Pasea, L., Banerjee, A., Hall, G., Denaxas, S., Chang, W. H., Katsoulis, M., Williams, B., Pillay, D., Noursadeghi, M., Linch, D., Hughes, D., Forster, M. D., Turnbull, C., Fitzpatrick, N. K., Boyd, K., Foster, G. R., Enver, T., Nafilyan, V., Humberstone, B., Neal, R. D., Cooper, M., Jones, M., Pritchard-Jones, K., Sullivan, R., Davie, C., Lawler, M., and Hemingway, H., Estimated impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer services and excess 1-year mortality in people with cancer and multimorbidity: near real-time data on cancer care, cancer deaths and a population-based cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e043828, 2020.
A. Banerjee, Pasea, L., Harris, S., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Torralbo, A., Shallcross, L., Noursadeghi, M., Pillay, D., Sebire, N., Holmes, C., Pagel, C., Wong, W. K., Langenberg, C., Williams, B., Denaxas, S., and Hemingway, H., Estimating excess 1-year mortality associated with the COVID-19 pandemic according to underlying conditions and age: a population-based cohort study, Lancet, vol. 395, pp. 1715-1725, 2020.
A. Banerjee, Chen, S., Pasea, L., Lai, A. G., Katsoulis, M., Denaxas, S., Nafilyan, V., Williams, B., Wong, W. K., Bakhai, A., Khunti, K., Pillay, D., Noursadeghi, M., Wu, H., Pareek, N., Bromage, D., McDonagh, T. A., Byrne, J., Teo, J. T. H., Shah, A. M., Humberstone, B., Tang, L. V., Shah, A. S. V., Rubboli, A., Guo, Y., Hu, Y., Sudlow, C. L. M., Lip, G. Y. H., and Hemingway, H., Excess deaths in people with cardiovascular diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic, Eur J Prev Cardiol, 2021.
Z. Wang, Shah, A. D., Tate, A. R., Denaxas, S., Shawe-Taylor, J., and Hemingway, H., Extracting diagnoses and investigation results from unstructured text in electronic health records by semi-supervised machine learning, PLoS One, vol. 7, p. e30412, 2012.
A. D. Shah, Martinez, C., and Hemingway, H., The freetext matching algorithm: a computer program to extract diagnoses and causes of death from unstructured text in electronic health records, BMC Med Inform Decis Mak, vol. 12, p. 88, 2012.
M. Pikoula, Quint, J. K., Nissen, F., Hemingway, H., Smeeth, L., and Denaxas, S., Identifying clinically important COPD sub-types using data-driven approaches in primary care population based electronic health records, BMC Med Inform Decis Mak, vol. 19, p. 86, 2019.
M. Pujades-Rodriguez, Guttmann, O. P., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Duyx, B., O'Mahony, C., Elliott, P., and Hemingway, H., Identifying unmet clinical need in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using national electronic health records, PLoS One, vol. 13, p. e0191214, 2018.
C. Warren-Gash, Hayward, A. C., Hemingway, H., Denaxas, S., Thomas, S. L., Timmis, A. D., Whitaker, H., and Smeeth, L., Influenza infection and risk of acute myocardial infarction in England and Wales: a CALIBER self-controlled case series study, J Infect Dis, vol. 206, pp. 1652-9, 2012.
A. D. Shah, Bailey, E., Williams, T., Denaxas, S., Dobson, R., and Hemingway, H., Natural language processing for disease phenotyping in UK primary care records for research: a pilot study in myocardial infarction and death, J Biomed Semantics, vol. 10, p. 20, 2019.
M. Katsoulis, Pasea, L., Lai, A. G., Dobson, R. J. B., Denaxas, S., Hemingway, H., and Banerjee, A., Obesity during the COVID-19 pandemic: both cause of high risk and potential effect of lockdown? A population-based electronic health record study, Public Health, vol. 191, pp. 41-47, 2020.
R. M. Martin, Hemingway, H., Gunnell, D., Karsch, K. R., Baumbach, A., and Frankel, S., Population need for coronary revascularisation: are national targets for England credible?, Heart, vol. 88, pp. 627-33, 2002.
M. Pujades-Rodriguez, Duyx, B., Thomas, S. L., Stogiannis, D., Rahman, A., Smeeth, L., and Hemingway, H., Rheumatoid Arthritis and Incidence of Twelve Initial Presentations of Cardiovascular Disease: A Population Record-Linkage Cohort Study in England, PLoS One, vol. 11, p. e0151245, 2016.
A. Uijl, Koudstaal, S., Direk, K., Denaxas, S., Groenwold, R. H. H., Banerjee, A., Hoes, A. W., Hemingway, H., and Asselbergs, F. W., Risk factors for incident heart failure in age- and sex-specific strata: a population-based cohort using linked electronic health records, Eur J Heart Fail, 2019.
R. Boggon, Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., Raju, S., Malvestiti, F. M., and van Staa, T. P., Smoking cessation interventions following acute coronary syndrome: a missed opportunity?, Eur J Prev Cardiol, vol. 21, pp. 767-73, 2014.
A. Banerjee, Allan, V., Denaxas, S., Shah, A., Kotecha, D., Lambiase, P. D., Jacob, J., Lund, L. H., and Hemingway, H., Subtypes of atrial fibrillation with concomitant valvular heart disease derived from electronic health records: phenotypes, population prevalence, trends and prognosis, Europace, 2019.
N. Conrad, Judge, A., Tran, J., Mohseni, H., Hedgecott, D., Crespillo, A. P., Allison, M., Hemingway, H., Cleland, J. G., McMurray, J. J. V., and Rahimi, K., Temporal trends and patterns in heart failure incidence: a population-based study of 4 million individuals, Lancet, vol. 391, pp. 572-580, 2018.
A. D. Shah, Nicholas, O., Timmis, A. D., Feder, G., Abrams, K. R., Chen, R., Hingorani, A. D., and Hemingway, H., Threshold haemoglobin levels and the prognosis of stable coronary disease: two new cohorts and a systematic review and meta-analysis, PLoS Med, vol. 8, p. e1000439, 2011.
S. C. Chung, Pujades-Rodriguez, M., Duyx, B., Denaxas, S. C., Pasea, L., Hingorani, A., Timmis, A., Williams, B., and Hemingway, H., Time spent at blood pressure target and the risk of death and cardiovascular diseases, PLoS One, vol. 13, p. e0202359, 2018.
E. Herrett, George, J., Denaxas, S., Bhaskaran, K., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., and Smeeth, L., Type and timing of heralding in ST-elevation and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction: an analysis of prospectively collected electronic healthcare records linked to the national registry of acute coronary syndromes, Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care, vol. 2, pp. 235-45, 2013.
S. Denaxas, Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Direk, K., Fitzpatrick, N. K., Fatemifar, G., Banerjee, A., Dobson, R. J. B., Howe, L. J., Kuan, V., Lumbers, R. T., Pasea, L., Patel, R. S., Shah, A. D., Hingorani, A. D., Sudlow, C., and Hemingway, H., UK phenomics platform for developing and validating electronic health record phenotypes: CALIBER, J Am Med Inform Assoc, 2019.
E. Rapsomaniki, Thuresson, M., Yang, E., Blin, P., Hunt, P., Chung, S. C., Stogiannis, D., Pujades-Rodriguez, M., Timmis, A., Denaxas, S. C., Danchin, N., Stokes, M., Thomas-Delecourt, F., Emmas, C., Hasvold, P., Jennings, E., Johansson, S., Cohen, D. J., Jernberg, T., Moore, N., Janzon, M., and Hemingway, H., Using big data from health records from four countries to evaluate chronic disease outcomes: a study in 114 364 survivors of myocardial infarction, Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes, vol. 2, pp. 172-183, 2016.
M. Asaria, Walker, S., Palmer, S., Gale, C. P., Shah, A. D., Abrams, K. R., Crowther, M., Manca, A., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., and Sculpher, M., Using electronic health records to predict costs and outcomes in stable coronary artery disease, Heart, vol. 102, pp. 755-62, 2016.
[Page last reviewed 6 April 2021]