Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 3,000 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography listed below is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 9 May 2023).

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.

Download: CPRD bibliography PDF May 2023 (PDF, 4.2MB, 286 pages) 

Download: CPRD bibliography .BIB May 2023 (BIB, 1.3MB, 1 page)

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website

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Incidence of acute otitis media from 2003 to 2019 in children ≤ 17 years in England


Authors: S. Mohanty, B. Podmore, Cuñado Moral, T. Weiss, I. Matthews, E. Sarpong, I. Méndez, N. Qizilbash


Treatment Patterns, Healthcare Utilization and Clinical Outcomes of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Initiating Single-Inhaler Long-Acting β(2)-Agonist/Long-Acting Muscarinic Antagonist Dual Therapy in Primary Care in England


Authors: G. Requena, V. Banks, A. Czira, R. Wood, T. Tritton, R. Wild, C. Compton, A. Ismaila


Association between outpatient follow-up and incidence of revision after knee and hip replacements: a population-based cohort study


Authors: R. Pinedo-Villanueva, S. Kolovos, E. Burn, A. Delmestri, L. Smith, A. Judge, S. Kingsbury, M. Stone, P. Conaghan


Sulfonylureas versus metformin and the risk of ventricular arrhythmias among people with type 2 diabetes: a population-based cohort study


Authors: N. Islam, P. Reynier, A. Douros, O. H. Y. Yu, K. Filion


Polypharmacy during pregnancy and associated risk factors: a retrospective analysis of 577 medication exposures among 1.5 million pregnancies in the UK, 2000-2019


Authors: A. Subramanian, A. Azcoaga-Lorenzo, A. Anand, K. Phillips, S. Lee, N. Cockburn, A. Fagbamigbe, C. Damase-Michel, C. Yau, C. McCowan, D. O'Reilly, G. Santorelli, H. Hope, J. Kennedy, K. Abel, K. Eastwood, L. Locock, M. Black, M. Loane, N. Moss, R. Plachcinski, S. Thangaratinam, S. Brophy, U. Agrawal, Z. Vowles, P. Brocklehurst, H. Dolk, C. Nelson-Piercy, K. Nirantharakumar


Estimating individualized treatment rules in longitudinal studies with covariate-driven observation times


Authors: J. Coulombe, E. Moodie, S. Shortreed, C. Renoux


Analysis of Mortality Among Transgender and Gender Diverse Adults in England


Authors: S. Jackson, J. Brown, R. Pfeiffer, D. Shrewsbury, S. O'Callaghan, A. Berner, S. Gadalla, M. Shiels


Combinations of medicines in patients with polypharmacy aged 65-100 in primary care: Large variability in risks of adverse drug related and emergency hospital admissions


Authors: A. Fahmi, D. Wong, L. Walker, I. Buchan, M. Pirmohamed, A. Sharma, H. Cant, D. Ashcroft, T. van Staa


Sodium channel-inhibiting drugs and cancer-specific survival: a population-based study of electronic primary care data


Authors: C. Fairhurst, F. Martin, I. Watt, M. Bland, T. Doran, W. Brackenbury


Therapeutic inertia related to the injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists dulaglutide and semaglutide in patients with type 2 diabetes in UK primary care


Authors: L. von Arx, J. Rachman, J. Webb, C. Casey, A. Patel, C. Diomatari, R. Wood, I. Idris


Burden of Pertussis in Adults Aged 50 Years and Older: A Retrospective Database Study in England


Authors: L. Harrington, E. Aris, A. Bhavsar, N. Jamet, E. Akpo, J. Simeone, A. Ramond, D. Lambrelli, J. Oppenheimer, Y. Sergerie, P. Mukherjee, K. Meszaros


Risk of venous thromboembolism with gout flares


Authors: E. Cipolletta, L. Tata, G. Nakafero, A. Avery, M. Mamas, A. Abhishek


Prevalence of co-morbidity and history of recent infection in patients with neuromuscular disease: A cross-sectional analysis of United Kingdom primary care data


Authors: I. Carey, N. Nirmalananthan, T. Harris, S. DeWilde, U. Chaudhry, E. Limb, D. Cook


Healthcare costs associated with short-acting β(2)-agonists in asthma: observational UK SABINA study


Authors: D. Attar-Zadeh, T. Capstick, D. Leese, S. Arnetorp, E. Rapsomaniki, K. Da Costa, E. Maslova, Y. Xu, D. Gibson, J. Quint


Proton pump inhibitors and the risk of inflammatory bowel disease: population-based cohort study


Authors: D. Abrahami, R. Pradhan, H. Yin, R. Yanofsky, E. McDonald, A. Bitton, L. Azoulay


Inequalities in cancer mortality trends in people with type 2 diabetes: 20 year population-based study in England


Authors: S. Ling, F. Zaccardi, E. Issa, M. Davies, K. Khunti, K. Brown


Derivation and validation of the CFracture competing risk fracture prediction tool compared with QFracture in older people and people with comorbidity: a population cohort study


Authors: S. Livingstone, B. Guthrie, M. McMinn, C. Eke, P. Donnan, D. Morales


5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitors and Risk of Kidney and Bladder Cancers in Men with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Population-Based Cohort Study


Authors: N. Doherty, C. Cardwell, P. Murchie, C. Hill, L. Azoulay, B. Hicks


The incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in the United Kingdom 2013-2018: A retrospective cohort study of UK primary care data


Authors: S. Wigglesworth, A. Neligan, J. Dickson, A. Pullen, E. Yelland, T. Anjuman, M. Reuber


Bariatric Surgery and Incident Heart Failure: a Propensity Score Matched Nationwide Cohort Study


Authors: L. Kostanjsek, M. Ardissino, O. Moussa, B. Rayes, R. Amin, P. Collins, S. Purkayastha


Maternal and child outcomes for pregnant women with pre-existing multiple long-term conditions: protocol for an observational study in the UK


Authors: S. Lee, H. Hope, D. O'Reilly, L. Kent, G. Santorelli, A. Subramanian, N. Moss, A. Azcoaga-Lorenzo, A. Fagbamigbe, C. Nelson-Piercy, C. Yau, C. McCowan, J. Kennedy, K. Phillips, M. Singh, M. Mhereeg, N. Cockburn, P. Brocklehurst, R. Plachcinski, R. Riley, S. Thangaratinam, S. Brophy, S. Sudasinghe, U. Agrawal, Z. Vowles, K. Abel, K. Nirantharakumar, M. Black, K. Eastwood


Variation in laboratory testing for patients with long-term conditions: a longitudinal cohort study in UK primary care


Authors: T. Jones, R. Patel, M. Elwenspoek, J. Watson, E. Mann, K. Alsop, P. Whiting


Characterising the burden of chronic kidney disease among people with type 2 diabetes in England: a cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink


Authors: S. Cook, N. Schmedt, J. Broughton, P. Kalra, L. Tomlinson, J. Quint


Is Vaccination Against COVID-19 Associated With Inflammatory Bowel Disease Flare? Self-Controlled Case Series Analysis Using the UK CPRD


Authors: T. Card, G. Nakafero, M. Grainge, C. Mallen, J. Van-Tam, H. Williams, A. Abhishek


Twenty-year trajectories of cardio-metabolic factors among people with type 2 diabetes by dementia status in England: a retrospective cohort study


Authors: H. Lai, K. Chang, M. Sharabiani, J. Valabhji, E. Gregg, L. Middleton, A. Majeed, J. Pearson-Stuttard, C. Millett, A. Bottle, E. Vamos


Socioeconomic gradient in mortality of working age and older adults with multiple long-term conditions in England and Ontario, Canada


Authors: A. Alarilla, L. Mondor, H. Knight, J. Hughes, A. Koné, W. Wodchis, M. Stafford


Persistent inequalities in consultation incidence and prevalence of low back pain and osteoarthritis in England between 2004 and 2019


Authors: D. Yu, K. Jordan, R. Wilkie, J. Bailey, J. Fitzpatrick, N. Ali, P. Niblett, G. Peat


Combined and progestagen-only hormonal contraceptives and breast cancer risk: A UK nested case-control study and meta-analysis


Authors: D. Fitzpatrick, K. Pirie, G. Reeves, J. Green, V. Beral


Migraine and risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: A population-based cohort study


Authors: H. Crowe, A. Wesselink, E. Hatch, L. Wise, S. Jick


Determining cardiovascular risk in patients with unattributed chest pain in UK primary care: an electronic health record study


Authors: K. Jordan, T. Rathod-Mistry, D. van der Windt, J. Bailey, Y. Chen, L. Clarson, S. Denaxas, R. Hayward, H. Hemingway, T. Kyriacou, M. Mamas


"Take up to eight tablets per day": Incorporating free-text medication instructions into a transparent and reproducible process for preparing drug exposure data for pharmacoepidemiology


Authors: M. Jani, B. Yimer, D. Selby, M. Lunt, G. Nenadic, W. Dixon


Incidence of pneumococcal disease from 2003 to 2019 in children ≤17 years in England


Authors: S. Mohanty, B. Podmore, Cuñado Moral, I. Matthews, E. Sarpong, A. Lacetera, N. Qizilbash


Association between body mass index, weight loss and the chance of pregnancy in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and overweight or obesity: a retrospective cohort study in the UK


Authors: C. Haas, A. Varbo, P. Laursen, V. Schnecke, A. Balen


Referral to the NHS Diabetes Prevention Programme and conversion from nondiabetic hyperglycaemia to type 2 diabetes mellitus in England: A matched cohort analysis


Authors: R. Ravindrarajah, M. Sutton, D. Reeves, S. Cotterill, E. McManus, R. Meacock, W. Whittaker, C. Soiland-Reyes, S. Heller, P. Bower, E. Kontopantelis


Underlying cancer risk among patients with fatigue and other vague symptoms: a population-based cohort study in primary care


Authors: B. White, C. Renzi, M. Barclay, G. Lyratzopoulos


The association between atopic eczema and lymphopenia: results from a UK cohort study with replication in US survey data


Authors: L. Hollestein, M. Ye, A. Ky-Leigh, H. Forbes, K. Mansfield, K. Abuabara, L. Smeeth, S. Langan


BLOod Test Trend for cancEr Detection (BLOTTED): protocol for an observational and prediction model development study using English primary care electronic health record data


Authors: P. Virdee, C. Bankhead, C. Koshiaris, C. Drakesmith, J. Oke, D. Withrow, S. Swain, K. Collins, L. Chammas, A. Tamm, T. Zhu, E. Morris, T. Holt, J. Birks, R. Perera, F. Hobbs, B. Nicholson


Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on incidence of tics in children and young people: a population-based cohort study


Authors: R. Jack, R. Joseph, C. Coupland, C. Hall, C. Hollis


Osteoporosis-related characteristics in care home population of England: a retrospective cohort study


Authors: V. Gerasimaviciute, R. Mathur, K. Mansfield, M. McDermott, D. Neasham, J. O'Kelly


Prediction of short-term atrial fibrillation risk using primary care electronic health records


Authors: R. Nadarajah, J. Wu, D. Hogg, K. Raveendra, Y. Nakao, K. Nakao, R. Arbel, M. Haim, D. Zahger, J. Parry, C. Bates, C. Cowan, C. Gale


Identifying subtypes of chronic kidney disease with machine learning: development, internal validation and prognostic validation using linked electronic health records in 350,067 individuals


Authors: A. Dashtban, M. Mizani, L. Pasea, S. Denaxas, R. Corbett, J. Mamza, H. Gao, T. Morris, H. Hemingway, A. Banerjee


Analgesic utilization in people with knee osteoarthritis: A population-based study using primary care data


Authors: A. Taqi, S. Gran, R. Knaggs


Characterising complex health needs and the use of preventive therapies in the older population: a population-based cohort analysis of UK primary care and hospital linked data


Authors: L. Elhussein, A. Jödicke, Y. He, A. Delmestri, D. Robinson, V . Y. Strauss, D. Prieto-Alhambra


Ethnic differences in hypertension management, medication use and blood pressure control in UK primary care, 2006-2019: a retrospective cohort study


Authors: S. Eastwood, A. Hughes, L. Tomlinson, R. Mathur, L. Smeeth, K. Bhaskaran, N. Chaturvedi


Acceptability and feasibility of a planned preconception weight loss intervention in women with long-acting reversible contraception: the Plan-it mixed-methods study


Authors: S. Channon, E. Coulman, R. Cannings-John, J. Henley, M. Lau, F. Lugg-Widger, H. Strange, F. Davies, J. Sanders, C. Scherf, Z. Couzens, L. Morantz


Trends in antipsychotic prescribing to children and adolescents in England: cohort study using 2000-19 primary care data


Authors: M. Radojčić, M. Pierce, H. Hope, M. Senior, V. Taxiarchi, L. Trefan, E. Swift, K. Abel


Prescribing of Low-dose Rivaroxaban in Patients with Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands


Authors: N. Hunt, R. Pajouheshnia, A. Salih, S. van Doorn, P. Souverein, M. Bazelier, O. Klungel, H. Gardarsdottir


A retrospective study of risk factors, causative micro-organisms and healthcare resources consumption associated with prosthetic joint infections (PJI) using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) Aurum database


Authors: S. Perni, B. Bojan, P. Prokopovich


Is vaccination against COVID-19 associated with psoriasis or eczema flare? Self-controlled case series analysis using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (Aurum)


Authors: L. Adams, G. Nakafero, M. Grainge, T. Card, C. Mallen, J. Van-Tam, H. Williams, A. Abhishek


Completeness, agreement, and representativeness of ethnicity recording in the United Kingdom's Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and linked Hospital Episode Statistics (HES)


Authors: S. Shiekh, M. Harley, R. Ghosh, M. Ashworth, P. Myles, H. Booth, E. Axson