Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 April 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 226 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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Author [ Title(Asc)] Type Year
Filters: Author is Douglas, I.  [Clear All Filters]
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K. H. Thomas, Davies, N. M., Taylor, A. E., Taylor, G. M. J., Gunnell, D., Martin, R. M., and Douglas, I., Risk of neuropsychiatric and cardiovascular adverse events following treatment with varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink: a case-crossover study, Addiction, 2020.
H. Forbes, Douglas, I., Finn, A., Breuer, J., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., Packer, S., Langan, S. M., Mansfield, K. E., Marlow, R., Whitaker, H., and Warren-Gash, C., Risk of herpes zoster after exposure to varicella to explore the exogenous boosting hypothesis: self controlled case series study using UK electronic healthcare data, Bmj, vol. 368, p. l6987, 2020.
R. Brauer, Ruigomez, A., Klungel, O., Reynolds, R., M. Tepie, F., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I., The risk of acute liver injury among users of antibiotic medications: a comparison of case-only studies, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 25 Suppl 1, pp. 39-46, 2016.
K. Bhaskaran, Forbes, H. J., Douglas, I., Leon, D. A., and Smeeth, L., Representativeness and optimal use of body mass index (BMI) in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), BMJ Open, vol. 3, p. e003389, 2013.
K. Wing, Williamson, E., Carpenter, J. R., Wise, L., Schneeweiss, S., Smeeth, L., Quint, J. K., and Douglas, I., Real-world effects of medications for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: protocol for a UK population-based non-interventional cohort study with validation against randomised trial results, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e019475, 2018.
K. Wing, Williamson, E., Carpenter, J. R., Wise, L., Schneeweiss, S., Smeeth, L., Quint, J. K., and Douglas, I., Real world effects of COPD medications: a cohort study with validation against RCT results, Eur Respir J, 2020.
A. Skow, Douglas, I., and Smeeth, L., The association between Parkinson's disease and anti-epilepsy drug carbamazepine: a case-control study using the UK General Practice Research Database, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 76, pp. 816-22, 2013.
R. Brauer, Smeeth, L., Anaya-Izquierdo, K., Timmis, A., Denaxas, S. C., Farrington, C. P., Whitaker, H., Hemingway, H., and Douglas, I., Antipsychotic drugs and risks of myocardial infarction: a self-controlled case series study, Eur Heart J, vol. 36, pp. 984-92, 2015.
N. S. Nagra, Robinson, D. E., Douglas, I., Delmestri, A., Dakin, S. G., Snelling, S. J. B., Carr, A. J., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Antibiotic treatment and flares of rheumatoid arthritis: a self-controlled case series study analysis using CPRD GOLD, Sci Rep, vol. 9, p. 8941, 2019.
K. Bhaskaran, Douglas, I., Evans, S., Van Staa, T., and Smeeth, L., Angiotensin receptor blockers and risk of cancer: cohort study among people receiving antihypertensive drugs in UK General Practice Research Database, Bmj, vol. 344, p. e2697, 2012.
D. Nitsch, Douglas, I., Smeeth, L., and Fletcher, A., Age-related macular degeneration and complement activation-related diseases: a population-based case-control study, Ophthalmology, vol. 115, pp. 1904-10, 2008.
[Page last reviewed 6 April 2021]