Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,900 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 January 2022) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 6MB, 247 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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S. M. Grandi, Filion, K. B., Hutcheon, J. A., Rosella, L. C., and Platt, R. W., Accounting for Repeat Pregnancies in Risk Prediction Models, Epidemiology, 2021.
F. S. Al-Hamed, Kouniaris, S., Tamimi, I., Lordkipanidzé, M., Madathil, S. A., Kezouh, A., Karp, I., Nicolau, B., and Tamimi, F., Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and risk of bleeding and acute ischemic events in non-hypertensive Alzheimer's patients, Alzheimers Dement (N Y), vol. 7, p. e12184, 2021.
M. Sabate, Vidal, X., Ballarin, E., Rottenkolber, M., Schmiedl, S., Grave, B., Huerta, C., Martin-Merino, E., Montero, D., Leon-Munoz, L. M., Gasse, C., Moore, N., Droz, C., Lassalle, R., Aakjaer, M., Andersen, M., De Bruin, M. L., Souverein, P., Klungel, O. H., Gardarsdottir, H., and Ibanez, L., Adherence to Direct Oral Anticoagulants in Patients With Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation: A Cross-National Comparison in Six European Countries (2008-2015), Front Pharmacol, vol. 12, p. 682890, 2021.
T. J. L. Humphrey, James, G., Wittbrodt, E. T., Zarzuela, D., and Hiemstra, T. F., Adverse clinical outcomes associated with RAAS inhibitor discontinuation: analysis of over 400 000 patients from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), Clin Kidney J, vol. 14, pp. 2203-2212, 2021.
P. Bidulka, Vestergaard, S. V., Hlupeni, A., Kjaersgaard, A., Wong, A. Y. S., Langan, S. M., Schmidt, S. A. J., Lyon, S., Christiansen, C. F., and Nitsch, D., Adverse outcomes after partner bereavement in people with reduced kidney function: Parallel cohort studies in England and Denmark, PLoS One, vol. 16, p. e0257255, 2021.
L. L. N. Husemoen, Mørch, L. S., Christensen, P. K., Hartvig, N. V., and Feher, M. D., All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality Among Insulin-Naïve People With Type 2 Diabetes Treated With Insulin Detemir or Glargine: A Cohort Study in the UK, Diabetes Ther, 2021.
A. Jaggi, Nazir, J., Fatoye, F., Quelen, C., Tu, X., Ali, M., Siddiqui, E., Covernton, P. J. O., Landeira, M., and Choudhury, N., Anticholinergic Burden and Associated Healthcare Resource Utilization in Older Adults with Overactive Bladder, Drugs Aging, 2021.
S. L. Cadogan, Powell, E., Wing, K., Wong, A. Y., Smeeth, L., and Warren-Gash, C., Anticoagulant prescribing for atrial fibrillation and risk of incident dementia, Heart, 2021.
E. Rezel-Potts, Douiri, A., Chowienczyk, P. J., and Gulliford, M. C., Antihypertensive Medications and COVID-19 Diagnosis and Mortality: Population-based Case-Control Analysis in the United Kingdom, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2021.
E. Rezel-Potts, L'Esperance, V., and Gullifiord, M., Antimicrobial stewardship during the COVID-19 epidemic: population-based cohort study and interrupted time series analysis in the United Kingdom, Br J Gen Pract, 2021.
L. M. Woods, Rachet, B., Morris, M., Bhaskaran, K., and Coleman, M. P., Are socio-economic inequalities in breast cancer survival explained by peri-diagnostic factors?, BMC Cancer, vol. 21, p. 485, 2021.
S. S. Zghebi, Mamas, M. A., Ashcroft, D. M., Rutter, M. K., VanMarwijk, H., Salisbury, C., Mallen, C. D., Chew-Graham, C. A., Qureshi, N., Weng, S. F., Holt, T., Buchan, I., Peek, N., Giles, S., Reeves, D., and Kontopantelis, E., Assessing the severity of cardiovascular disease in 213 088 patients with coronary heart disease: a retrospective cohort study, Open Heart, vol. 8, 2021.
R. Muzambi, Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., Brayne, C., Chaturvedi, N., and Warren-Gash, C., Assessment of common infections and incident dementia using UK primary and secondary care data: a historical cohort study, Lancet Healthy Longev, vol. 2, pp. e426-e435, 2021.
R. Garfinkle, Dell'Aniello, S., Bhatnagar, S., Morin, N., Ghitulescu, G., Faria, J., Vasilevsky, C. A., Brassard, P., and Boutros, M., Assessment of long-term bowel dysfunction after restorative proctectomy for neoplastic disease: A population-based cohort study, Surgery, 2021.
M. Usman, Khunti, K., Davies, M. J., and Gillies, C. L., Association and relative importance of multiple risk factor control on cardiovascular disease, end-stage renal disease and mortality in people with type 2 diabetes: A population-based retrospective cohort study, Prim Care Diabetes, vol. 15, pp. 218-226, 2021.
J. Blackwell, Alexakis, C., Saxena, S., Creese, H., Bottle, A., Petersen, I., Hotopf, M., and Pollok, R. C. G., Association between antidepressant medication use and steroid dependency in patients with ulcerative colitis: a population-based study, BMJ Open Gastroenterol, vol. 8, 2021.
T. C. Chen, Knaggs, R. D., and Chen, L. C., Association between opioid-related deaths and persistent opioid prescribing in primary care in England: a nested case-control study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2021.
T. C. Chen, Knaggs, R. D., and Chen, L. C., Association between opioid-related deaths and prescribed opioid dose and psychotropic medicines in England: a case-crossover study, Br J Anaesth, 2021.
S. S. Johnston, Jamous, N., Mistry, S., Jain, S., Gangoli, G., Danker, W., Ammann, E., and Hampton, K., Association of In-Hospital Surgical Bleeding Events with Prolonged Hospital Length of Stay, Days Spent in Critical Care, Complications, and Mortality: A Retrospective Cohort Study Among Patients Undergoing Neoplasm-Directed Surgeries in English Hospitals, Clinicoecon Outcomes Res, vol. 13, pp. 19-29, 2021.
Z. Yang, Edwards, D., Burgess, S., Brayne, C., and Mant, J., Association of major blood lipids with post-stroke dementia: a community-based cohort study, Eur J Neurol, 2021.
F. Hamilton, Arnold, D., and Payne, R., Association of prior lymphopenia with mortality in pneumonia: a cohort study in UK primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 71, pp. e148-e156, 2021.
K. M. Abel, Carr, M. J., Ashcroft, D. M., Chalder, T., Chew-Graham, C. A., Hope, H., Kapur, N., McManus, S., Steeg, S., Webb, R. T., and Pierce, M., Association of SARS-CoV-2 Infection With Psychological Distress, Psychotropic Prescribing, Fatigue, and Sleep Problems Among UK Primary Care Patients, JAMA Netw Open, vol. 4, p. e2134803, 2021.
A. J. McKay, Gunn, L. H., Vamos, E. P., Valabhji, J., Molina, G., Molokhia, M., and Majeed, A., Associations between attainment of incentivised primary care diabetes indicators and mortality in an English cohort, Diabetes Res Clin Pract, vol. 174, p. 108746, 2021.
L. H. Gunn, McKay, A. J., Molokhia, M., Valabhji, J., Molina, G., Majeed, A., and Vamos, E. P., Associations between attainment of incentivised primary care indicators and emergency hospital admissions among type 2 diabetes patients: a population-based historical cohort study, J R Soc Med, p. 1410768211005109, 2021.
A. J. McKay, Gunn, L. H., Sathish, T., Vamos, E., Nugawela, M., Majeed, A., Molina, G., and Sivaprasad, S., Associations between attainment of incentivised primary care indicators and incident diabetic retinopathy in England: a population-based historical cohort study, BMC Med, vol. 19, p. 93, 2021.
H. Carreira, Williams, R., Funston, G., Stanway, S., and Bhaskaran, K., Associations between breast cancer survivorship and adverse mental health outcomes: A matched population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom, PLoS Med, vol. 18, p. e1003504, 2021.
M. Kerkhof, Tran, T. N., Allehebi, R., Canonica, G. W., Heaney, L. G., Hew, M., L. de Llano, P., Wechsler, M. E., Bulathsinhala, L., Carter, V. A., Chaudhry, I., Eleangovan, N., Murray, R. B., Price, C. A., and Price, D. B., Asthma phenotyping in primary care: applying the International Severe Asthma Registry eosinophil phenotype algorithm across all asthma severities, J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, 2021.
R. J. Silverwood, Mansfield, K. E., Mulick, A., Wong, A. Y. S., Schmidt, S. A. J., Roberts, A., Smeeth, L., Abuabara, K., and Langan, S. M., Atopic eczema in adulthood and mortality: UK population-based cohort study, 1998-2016, J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2021.
J. Matthewman, Mansfield, K. E., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Mulick, A. R., Smeeth, L., Lowe, K. E., Silverwood, R. J., and Langan, S. M., Atopic-eczema-associated fracture risk and oral corticosteroids: a population-based cohort study, J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, 2021.
S. C. Chung, Sofat, R., Acosta-Mena, D., Taylor, J. A., Lambiase, P. D., Casas, J. P., and Providencia, R., Atrial fibrillation epidemiology, disparity and healthcare contacts: a population-wide study of 5.6 million individuals, Lancet Reg Health Eur, vol. 7, p. 100157, 2021.
E. Ford, Sheppard, J., Oliver, S., Rooney, P., Banerjee, S., and Cassell, J. A., Automated detection of patients with dementia whose symptoms have been identified in primary care but have no formal diagnosis: a retrospective case-control study using electronic primary care records, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e039248, 2021.
R. Flynn, Hedenmalm, K., Murray-Thomas, T., Pacurariu, A., Arlett, P., Shepherd, H., Myles, P., and Kurz, X., Ability of primary care health databases to assess medicinal products discussed by the European Union Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee, Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2020.
H. R. Whittaker, Bloom, C., Morgan, A., Jarvis, D., Kiddle, S. J., and Quint, J. K., Accelerated FEV(1) decline and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in a primary care population of COPD patients, Eur Respir J, 2020.
G. Simoneau, Moodie, E. E. M., Azoulay, L., and Platt, R. W., Adaptive Treatment Strategies with Survival Outcomes: An Application to the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes using a Large Observational Database, Am J Epidemiol, 2020.
K. Kostikas, Rhee, C. K., Hurst, J. R., Agostoni, P., Cao, H., Fogel, R., Jones, R., Kocks, J. W. H., Mezzi, K., S. Ming, W. Yau, Ryan, R., and Price, D. B., Adequacy of Therapy for People with Both COPD and Heart Failure in the UK: Historical Cohort Study, Pragmat Obs Res, vol. 11, pp. 55-66, 2020.
K. Richardson, Loke, Y. K., Fox, C., Maidment, I., Howard, R., Steel, N., Arthur, A., Boyd, P. J., Aldus, C., Ballard, C., and Savva, G. M., Adverse effects of Z-drugs for sleep disturbance in people living with dementia: a population-based cohort study, BMC Med, vol. 18, p. 351, 2020.
H. Kither, Heazell, A., Bruce, I. N., Tower, C., and Crocker, I., Adverse pregnancy outcomes and subsequent development of connective tissue disease in the UK: an epidemiological study, Bjog, 2020.
A. K. Wright, Welsh, P., Gill, J. M. R., Kontopantelis, E., Emsley, R., Buchan, I., Ashcroft, D. M., Rutter, M. K., and Sattar, N., Age-, sex- and ethnicity-related differences in body weight, blood pressure, HbA(1c) and lipid levels at the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes relative to people without diabetes, Diabetologia, 2020.
H. C. Gorton, Webb, R. T., Parisi, R., Carr, M. J., DelPozo-Banos, M., Moriarty, K. J., Pickrell, W. O., John, A., and Ashcroft, D. M., Alcohol-Specific Mortality in People With Epilepsy: Cohort Studies in Two Independent Population-Based Datasets, Front Neurol, vol. 11, p. 623139, 2020.
L. Shallcross, Rockenschaub, P., Blackburn, R., Nazareth, I., Freemantle, N., and Hayward, A., Antibiotic prescribing for lower UTI in elderly patients in primary care and risk of bloodstream infection: A cohort study using electronic health records in England, PLoS Med, vol. 17, p. e1003336, 2020.
R. Cushen and Francis, N. A., Antibiotic use and serious complications following acute otitis media and acute sinusitis: a retrospective cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 70, pp. e255-e263, 2020.
S. Charlier, Vavanikunnel, J., Becker, C., Jick, S. S., Meier, C., and Meier, C. R., Antidiabetic treatment, level of glycemic control, and risk of fracture in diabetes type 2: A nested case-control study, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2020.
A. B. Leuppi-Taegtmeyer, Reinau, D., Yilmaz, S., Ruegg, S., Krahenbuhl, S., Jick, S. S., Leuppi, J. D., and Meier, C. R., Antiseizure drugs and risk of developing smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or lung cancer: A population-based case-control study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2020.
S. Ramagopalan, Leahy, T. P., Stamp, E., and Sammon, C., Approaches for the identification of chronic kidney disease in CPRD-HES-linked studies, J Comp Eff Res, 2020.
F. Khosrow-Khavar, Filion, K. B., Bouganim, N., Suissa, S., and Azoulay, L., Aromatase Inhibitors and the Risk of Cardiovascular Outcomes in Women With Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Circulation, vol. 141, pp. 549-559, 2020.
F. Hamilton, Arnold, D., Henley, W., and Payne, R. A., Aspirin reduces cardiovascular events in patients with pneumonia: a prior event rate ratio analysis in a large primary care database, Eur Respir J, 2020.
A. Pate, Van Staa, T., and Emsley, R., An assessment of the potential miscalibration of cardiovascular disease risk predictions caused by a secular trend in cardiovascular disease in England, BMC Med Res Methodol, vol. 20, p. 289, 2020.
G. Requena, Ma, L., Sturmer, T., Layton, J. B., and DiBello, J., Association Between an Acute, Drug-Induced Decrease in High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels and Risk of Cardiovascular Events, Clin Drug Investig, 2020.
R. Hiramatsu, Iwagami, M., and Nitsch, D., Association between chronic kidney disease and incident diagnosis of dementia in England: a cohort study in Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e033811, 2020.
J. Ruzangi, Iwagami, M., Smeeth, L., Mangtani, P., and Nitsch, D., The association between chronic kidney disease and tuberculosis; a comparative cohort study in England, BMC Nephrol, vol. 21, p. 420, 2020.
[Page last reviewed 4 January 2022]