Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,400 peer-reviewed publications.

The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 January 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


(PDF, 3MB, 195 pages)


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A. M. Gallagher, Dedman, D., Padmanabhan, S., Leufkens, H. G. M., and de Vries, F., The accuracy of date of death recording in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink GOLD database in England compared with the Office for National Statistics death registrations, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
C. Becker, Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., ACE inhibitor use and risk of cataract: a case-control analysis, Br J Ophthalmol, 2019.
J. Watson, Salisbury, C., Whiting, P., Banks, J., Pyne, Y., and Hamilton, W., Added value and cascade effects of inflammatory marker tests in UK primary care: a cohort study from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 69, pp. e470-e478, 2019.
K. D. Johnson, Lu, X., and Zhang, D., Adherence to hepatitis A and hepatitis B multi-dose vaccination schedules among adults in the United Kingdom: a retrospective cohort study, BMC Public Health, vol. 19, p. 404, 2019.
R. L. Tannen, Barnhart, K. T., and Rubin, J. C., Advantages of large medical record database for outcomes research: Insights into post-menopausal hormone therapy, Learn Health Syst, vol. 3, p. e10193, 2019.
M. Rafiq, Hayward, A., Warren-Gash, C., Denaxas, S., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Lyratzopoulos, G., and Thomas, S., Allergic disease, corticosteroid use and risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma: A UK Nationwide case-control study, J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2019.
A. J. Klil-Drori, Santella, C., Tascilar, K., Yin, H., Aprikian, A., and Azoulay, L., Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer and the Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Drug Saf, 2019.
M. Nowakowska, Van Staa, T., Molter, A., Ashcroft, D. M., Tsang, J. Y., White, A., Welfare, W., and Palin, V., Antibiotic choice in UK general practice: rates and drivers of potentially inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, J Antimicrob Chemother, 2019.
O. van Hecke, Fuller, A., Bankhead, C., Jenkins-Jones, S., Francis, N., Moore, M., Butler, C., and Wang, K., Antibiotic exposure and 'response failure' for subsequent respiratory tract infections: an observational cohort study of UK preschool children in primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 69, pp. e638-e646, 2019.
M. Gharbi, Drysdale, J. H., Lishman, H., Goudie, R., Molokhia, M., Johnson, A. P., Holmes, A. H., and Aylin, P., Antibiotic management of urinary tract infection in elderly patients in primary care and its association with bloodstream infections and all cause mortality: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 364, p. l525, 2019.
P. Rockenschaub, Hayward, A., and Shallcross, L., Antibiotic prescribing before and after the diagnosis of comorbidity: a cohort study using primary care electronic health records, Clin Infect Dis, 2019.
V. Palin, Molter, A., Belmonte, M., Ashcroft, D. M., White, A., Welfare, W., and Van Staa, T., Antibiotic prescribing for common infections in UK general practice: variability and drivers, J Antimicrob Chemother, 2019.
H. Ahmed, Farewell, D., Jones, H. M., Francis, N. A., Paranjothy, S., and Butler, C. C., Antibiotic prophylaxis and clinical outcomes among older adults with recurrent urinary tract infection: cohort study, Age Ageing, vol. 48, pp. 228-234, 2019.
N. S. Nagra, Robinson, D. E., Douglas, I., Delmestri, A., Dakin, S. G., Snelling, S. J. B., Carr, A. J., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Antibiotic treatment and flares of rheumatoid arthritis: a self-controlled case series study analysis using CPRD GOLD, Sci Rep, vol. 9, p. 8941, 2019.
C. Hopkins, Williamson, E., Morris, S., Clarke, C. S., Thomas, M., Evans, H., Little, P., Lund, V. J., Blackshaw, H., Schilder, A., Philpott, C., Carpenter, J., and Denaxas, S., Antibiotic usage in chronic rhinosinusitis: analysis of national primary care electronic health records, Rhinology, 2019.
A. A. Sultan, Mallen, C., Muller, S., Hider, S., Scott, I., Helliwell, T., and Hall, L. J., Antibiotic use and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based case-control study, BMC Med, vol. 17, p. 154, 2019.
F. S. Troelsen and Jick, S., Antibiotic Use in Childhood and Adolescence and Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Case-Control Study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2019.
R. Hoile, Tabet, N., Smith, H., Bremner, S., Cassell, J., and Ford, E., Are symptoms of insomnia in primary care associated with subsequent onset of dementia? A matched retrospective case-control study, Aging Ment Health, pp. 1-6, 2019.
J. L. Walker, Zhao, H., Dabrera, G., Andrews, N., Thomas, S. L., Tsang, C., Ellis, J., Donati, M., and Pebody, R. G., Assessment of Effectiveness of Seasonal Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy in Preventing Influenza Infection in Infants in England, 2013-2014 and 2014-2015, J Infect Dis, 2019.
P. Kasteridis, Ride, J., Gutacker, N., Aylott, L., Dare, C., Doran, T., Gilbody, S., Goddard, M., Gravelle, H., Kendrick, T., Mason, A., Rice, N., Siddiqi, N., Williams, R., and Jacobs, R., Association Between Antipsychotic Polypharmacy and Outcomes for People With Serious Mental Illness in England, Psychiatr Serv, p. appips201800504, 2019.
S. H. Landis, Pimenta, J. M., Yang, S., Compton, C., Barnes, N., and Brusselle, G., Association between blood eosinophils and acute exacerbation of COPD risk in patients with COPD in primary care, Respiratory Medicine, vol. 1, 2019.
J. Vavanikunnel, Charlier, S., Becker, C., Schneider, C., Jick, S. S., Meier, C. R., and Meier, C., Association between glycemic control and risk of fracture in diabetic patients: A nested case-control study, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2019.
G. Nakafero, Grainge, M. J., Myles, P. R., Mallen, C. D., Zhang, W., Doherty, M., Nguyen-Van-Tam, J. S., and Abhishek, A., Association between inactivated influenza vaccine and primary care consultations for autoimmune rheumatic disease flares: a self-controlled case series study using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Ann Rheum Dis, 2019.
Y. M. F. Andersen, Egeberg, A., Ban, L., Gran, S., Williams, H. C., Francis, N. A., Knop, F. K., Gislason, G. H., Skov, L., and Thyssen, J. P., Association Between Topical Corticosteroid Use and Type 2 Diabetes in Two European Population-Based Adult Cohorts, Diabetes Care, vol. 42, pp. 1095-1103, 2019.
R. Williams, Kothny, W., Serban, C., Lopez-Leon, S., de Vries, F., and Schlienger, R., Association between vildagliptin and risk of angioedema, foot ulcers, skin lesions, hepatic toxicity, and serious infections in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A European multidatabase, noninterventional, postauthorization safety study, Endocrinol Diabetes Metab, vol. 2, p. e00084, 2019.
F. Montastruc, Nie, R., Loo, S., Rej, S., Dell'Aniello, S., Micallef, J., Suissa, S., and Renoux, C., Association of Aripiprazole With the Risk for Psychiatric Hospitalization, Self-harm, or Suicide, JAMA Psychiatry, 2019.
S. Abtahi, Burden, A. M., Geusens, P., van den Bergh, J. P., Van Staa, T., and de Vries, F., The Association of Oral Bisphosphonate Use With Mortality Risk Following a Major Osteoporotic Fracture in the United Kingdom: Population-Based Cohort Study, J Am Med Dir Assoc, 2019.
A. Root, Brown, J. P., Forbes, H. J., Bhaskaran, K., Hayes, J., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I. J., Association of Relative Age in the School Year With Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Depression, JAMA Pediatr, 2019.
K. E. Lowe, Mansfield, K. E., Delmestri, A., Smeeth, L., Roberts, A., Abuabara, K., Prieto-Alhambra, D., and Langan, S. M., Atopic eczema and fracture risk in adults: A population-based cohort study, J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2019.
Y. Schonmann, Mansfield, K. E., Hayes, J. F., Abuabara, K., Roberts, A., Smeeth, L., and Langan, S. M., Atopic eczema in adulthood and risk of depression and anxiety: a population-based cohort study, J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, 2019.
T. M. Anssar, Leitzmann, M. F., Linker, R. A., Meier, C., Becker, C., Jick, S., Sahm, K., Platten, M., Hau, P., and Seliger, C., Autoimmune diseases and immunosuppressive therapy in relation to the risk of glioma, Cancer Med, 2019.
B. A. Dickerman, Garcia-Albeniz, X., Logan, R. W., Denaxas, S., and Hernan, M. A., Avoidable flaws in observational analyses: an application to statins and cancer, Nat Med, 2019.
I. Tamimi, Nicolau, B., Eimar, H., S. Madathil, A., Kezouh, A., Karp, I., and Tamimi, F., Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and the risk of osteoporotic fractures: nested case-control study, Osteoporos Int, vol. 29, pp. 849-857, 2018.
T. Khan, Alvand, A., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Culliford, D. J., Judge, A., Jackson, W. F., Scammell, B. E., Arden, N. K., and Price, A. J., ACL and meniscal injuries increase the risk of primary total knee replacement for osteoarthritis: a matched case-control study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), Br J Sports Med, 2018.
K. E. Mansfield, Douglas, I. J., Nitsch, D., Thomas, S. L., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L. A., Acute kidney injury and infections in patients taking antihypertensive drugs: a self-controlled case series analysis, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 187-202, 2018.
A. J. Hire, Ashcroft, D. M., Springate, D. A., and Steinke, D. T., ADHD in the United Kingdom: Regional and Socioeconomic Variations in Incidence Rates Amongst Children and Adolescents (2004-2013), J Atten Disord, vol. 22, pp. 134-142, 2018.
B. Hayhoe, Kim, D., Aylin, P. P., Majeed, F. A., Cowie, M. R., and Bottle, A., Adherence to guidelines in management of symptoms suggestive of heart failure in primary care, Heart, 2018.
M. Bloechliger, Reinau, D., Spoendlin, J., Chang, S. C., Kuhlbusch, K., Heaney, L. G., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Adverse events profile of oral corticosteroids among asthma patients in the UK: cohort study with a nested case-control analysis, Respir Res, vol. 19, p. 75, 2018.
S. Bou-Antoun, Costelloe, C., Honeyford, K., Mazidi, M., Hayhoe, B. W. J., Holmes, A., Johnson, A. P., and Aylin, P., Age-related decline in antibiotic prescribing for uncomplicated respiratory tract infections in primary care in England following the introduction of a national financial incentive (the Quality Premium) for health commissioners to reduce use of antibiotic, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol. 73, pp. 2883-2892, 2018.
B. M. Hicks, Filion, K. B., Yin, H., Sakr, L., Udell, J. A., and Azoulay, L., Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and risk of lung cancer: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 363, p. k4209, 2018.
J. Busby, McMenamin, U., Spence, A., Johnston, B. T., Hughes, C., and Cardwell, C. R., Angiotensin receptor blocker use and gastro-oesophageal cancer survival: a population-based cohort study, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 47, pp. 279-288, 2018.
K. Richardson, Fox, C., Maidment, I., Steel, N., Loke, Y. K., Arthur, A., Myint, P. K., Grossi, C. M., Mattishent, K., Bennett, K., Campbell, N. L., Boustani, M., Robinson, L., Brayne, C., Matthews, F. E., and Savva, G. M., Anticholinergic drugs and risk of dementia: case-control study, Bmj, vol. 361, p. k1315, 2018.
R. Gafoor, Booth, H. P., and Gulliford, M. C., Antidepressant utilisation and incidence of weight gain during 10 years' follow-up: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 361, p. k1951, 2018.
S. W. Turner, Murray, C., Thomas, M., Burden, A., and Price, D. B., Applying UK real-world primary care data to predict asthma attacks in 3776 well-characterised children: a retrospective cohort study, NPJ Prim Care Respir Med, vol. 28, p. 28, 2018.
S. Padmanabhan, Carty, L., Cameron, E., Ghosh, R. E., Williams, R., and Strongman, H., Approach to record linkage of primary care data from Clinical Practice Research Datalink to other health-related patient data: overview and implications, Eur J Epidemiol, 2018.
I. M. Carey, Anderson, H. R., Atkinson, R. W., Beevers, S. D., Cook, D. G., Strachan, D. P., Dajnak, D., Gulliver, J., and Kelly, F. J., Are noise and air pollution related to the incidence of dementia? A cohort study in London, England, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e022404, 2018.
F. Khosrow-Khavar, Yin, H., Barkun, A., Bouganim, N., and Azoulay, L., Aromatase inhibitors and the risk of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women with breast cancer, Ann Oncol, vol. 29, pp. 744-748, 2018.
J. D. Chalmers, Poole, C., Webster, S., Tebboth, A., Dickinson, S., and Gayle, A., Assessing the healthcare resource use associated with inappropriate prescribing of inhaled corticosteroids for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in GOLD groups A or B: an observational study using the Clinical Practice Research Data, Respir Res, vol. 19, p. 63, 2018.
V. Balinskaite, Bou-Antoun, S., Johnson, A. P., Holmes, A., and Aylin, P., An assessment of potential unintended consequences following a national antimicrobial stewardship programme in England: an interrupted time series analysis, Clin Infect Dis, 2018.
M. Kerkhof, Tran, T. N., van den Berge, M., Brusselle, G. G., Gopalan, G., Jones, R. C. M., Kocks, J. W. H., Menzies-Gow, A., Nuevo, J., Pavord, I. D., Rastogi, S., and Price, D. B., Association between blood eosinophil count and risk of readmission for patients with asthma: Historical cohort study, PLoS One, vol. 13, p. e0201143, 2018.
[Page last reviewed 6 January 2020]