Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 March 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 220 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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J. Coulombe, Moodie, E. E. M., Shortreed, S. M., and Renoux, C., Can the Risk of Severe Depression-Related Outcomes be Reduced by Tailoring the Antidepressant Therapy to Patient Characteristics?, Am J Epidemiol, 2020.
E. Ford, Rooney, P., Hurley, P., Oliver, S., Bremner, S., and Cassell, J., Can the Use of Bayesian Analysis Methods Correct for Incompleteness in Electronic Health Records Diagnosis Data? Development of a Novel Method Using Simulated and Real-Life Clinical Data, Front Public Health, vol. 8, p. 54, 2020.
L. T. Mounce, Hamilton, W., and Bailey, S. E., Cancer incidence following a high-normal platelet count: cohort study using electronic healthcare records from English primary care, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
F. Khosrow-Khavar, Bouganim, N., Filion, K. B., Suissa, S., and Azoulay, L., Cardiotoxicity of Sequential Aromatase Inhibitors Use in Women with Breast Cancer, Am J Epidemiol, 2020.
B. Coles, Zaccardi, F., Ling, S., Davies, M. J., Samani, N. J., and Khunti, K., Cardiovascular events and mortality in people with and without type 2 diabetes: An observational study in a contemporary multi-ethnic population, J Diabetes Investig, 2020.
S. Chowienczyk, Price, S., and Hamilton, W., Changes in the presenting symptoms of lung cancer from 2000-2017: a serial cross-sectional study of observational records in UK primary care, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
R. B. Weinstein, Ryan, P. B., Berlin, J. A., Schuemie, M. J., Swerdel, J., and Fife, D., Channeling Bias in the Analysis of Risk of Myocardial Infarction, Stroke, Gastrointestinal Bleeding, and Acute Renal Failure with the Use of Paracetamol Compared with Ibuprofen, Drug Saf, 2020.
H. R. Whittaker, Pimenta, J. M., Jarvis, D., Kiddle, S. J., and Quint, J. K., Characteristics Associated with Accelerated Lung Function Decline in a Primary Care Population with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 15, pp. 3079-3091, 2020.
Y. Zhu, Edwards, D., Mant, J., Payne, R. A., and Kiddle, S., Characteristics, service use and mortality of clusters of multimorbid patients in England: a population-based study, BMC Med, vol. 18, p. 78, 2020.
K. Kostikas, Price, D., Gutzwiller, F. S., Jones, B., Loefroth, E., Clemens, A., Fogel, R., Jones, R., and Cao, H., Clinical Impact and Healthcare Resource Utilization Associated with Early versus Late COPD Diagnosis in Patients from UK CPRD Database, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 15, pp. 1729-1738, 2020.
R. Partington, Muller, S., Mallen, C. D., A. Sultan, A., and Helliwell, T., Comorbidities in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica prior to and following diagnosis: A case control and cohort study, Semin Arthritis Rheum, vol. 50, pp. 663-672, 2020.
R. F. Gulluoglu, Souverein, P. C., van den Ham, H. A., de Boer, A., and Komen, J., Comparative effectiveness and safety of direct oral anticoagulants versus warfarin in UK patients with atrial fibrillation and type 2 diabetes: A retrospective cohort study, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
F. Zaccardi, Jacquot, E., Cortese, V., Tyrer, F., Seidu, S., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Comparative effectiveness of gliclazide modified release vs sitagliptin as second-line treatment after metformin monotherapy in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2020.
S. Wilkinson, Williamson, E., Pokrajac, A., Fogarty, D., Stirnadel-Farrant, H., Smeeth, L., Douglas, I. J., and Tomlinson, L. A., Comparative effects of sulfonylureas, DPP4is and SGLT2 inhibitors added to metformin monotherapy: a propensity-score matched cohort study in UK primary care, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2020.
S. Borghs, Byram, L., Chan, J., Dedeken, P., Logan, J., Kiri, V., Noack-Rink, M., Patsalos, P. N., and Thieffry, S., Comparing healthcare cost associated with the use of enzyme-inducing and non-enzyme active antiepileptic drugs in elderly patients with epilepsy in the UK: a long-term retrospective, matched cohort study, BMC Neurol, vol. 20, p. 7, 2020.
T. Tran and Suissa, S., Comparing New-User Cohort Designs: The Example of Proton Pump Inhibitor Effectiveness in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis, Am J Epidemiol, 2020.
M. C. Gulliford, Sun, X., Anjuman, T., Yelland, E., and Murray-Thomas, T., Comparison of antibiotic prescribing records in two UK primary care electronic health record systems: cohort study using CPRD GOLD and CPRD Aurum databases, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e038767, 2020.
V. M. Walker, Davies, N. M., Martin, R. M., and Kehoe, P. G., Comparison of antihypertensive drug classes for dementia prevention, Epidemiology, 2020.
U. Gungabissoon, Kirichek, O., C. Baou, E., and Galwey, N., Comparison of long-term use of prolonged-release ropinirole and immediate-release dopamine agonists in an observational study in patients with Parkinson's disease, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
P. Bidulka, Iwagami, M., Mansfield, K. E., Kalogirou, F., Wong, A. Y. S., Douglas, I. J., Smeeth, L., Summers, C., and Tomlinson, L. A., Comparisons of Staphylococcus aureus infection and other outcomes between users of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers: lessons for COVID-19 from a nationwide cohort study, Wellcome Open Res, vol. 5, p. 77, 2020.
S. Abtahi, Driessen, J. H. M., Burden, A. M., Souverein, P. C., van den Bergh, J. P., van Staa, T. P., Boonen, A., and de Vries, F., Concomitant use of oral glucocorticoids and proton pump inhibitors and risk of osteoporotic fractures among patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based cohort study, Ann Rheum Dis, 2020.
A. D. Morgan, Sinnott, S. J., Smeeth, L., Minassian, C., and Quint, J., Concordance in the recording of stroke across UK primary and secondary care datasets: a population-based cohort study, BJGP Open, 2020.
Y. Li, Sperrin, M., Ashcroft, D. M., and van Staa, T. P., Consistency of variety of machine learning and statistical models in predicting clinical risks of individual patients: longitudinal cohort study using cardiovascular disease as exemplar, Bmj, vol. 371, p. m3919, 2020.
D. Yu, Appleyard, T., Cottrell, E., and Peat, G., Co-prescription of gabapentinoids and opioids among adults with and without osteoarthritis in the United Kingdom between 1995 and 2017, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2020.
J. Leal, Murphy, J., Garriga, C., Delmestri, A., Rangan, A., Price, A., Carr, A., Prieto-Alhambra, D., and Judge, A., Costs of joint replacement in osteoarthritis: a study using the National Joint Registry and Clinical Practice Research Datalink datasets, Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken), 2020.
S. E. Holden, Morice, A., Birring, S. S., Jenkins-Jones, S., Langerman, H., Weaver, J., and Currie, C. J., Cough presentation in primary care and the identification of chronic cough: a need for diagnostic clarity?, Curr Med Res Opin, vol. 36, pp. 139-150, 2020.
E. Ford, Starlinger, J., Rooney, P., Oliver, S., Banerjee, S., van Marwijk, H., and Cassell, J., Could dementia be detected from UK primary care patients' records by simple automated methods earlier than by the treating physician? A retrospective case-control study, Wellcome Open Res, vol. 5, p. 120, 2020.
R. Persson, Vasilakis-Scaramozza, C., Hagberg, K. W., Sponholtz, T., Williams, T., Myles, P., and Jick, S. S., CPRD Aurum database: Assessment of data quality and completeness of three important comorbidities, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
S. Y. Loo, Azoulay, L., Nie, R., Dell'Aniello, S., Yu, O. H. Y., and Renoux, C., Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular safety of testosterone replacement therapy among aging men with low testosterone levels: a cohort study., Am J Med, 2019.
A. K. Wright, Kontopantelis, E., Emsley, R., Buchan, I. E., Mamas, M. A., Sattar, N., Ashcroft, D. M., and Rutter, M. K., Cardiovascular Risk and Risk Factor Management in Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study Assessing Sex Disparities, Circulation, 2019.
A. Gilsenan, Fortuny, J., Cainzos-Achirica, M., Cantero, O. F., Flynn, R. W. V., Garcia-Rodriguez, L., Harding, A., Kollhorst, B., Karlsson, P., Linner, L., MacDonald, T. M., Odsbu, I., Plana, E., Ruigomez, A., Schink, T., Ziemiecki, R., and Andrews, E. B., Cardiovascular Safety of Prucalopride in Patients with Chronic Constipation: A Multinational Population-Based Cohort Study, Drug Saf, 2019.
M. A. C. Tanke, Feyman, Y., Bernal-Delgado, E., Deeny, S. R., Imanaka, Y., Jeurissen, P., Lange, L., Pimperl, A., Sasaki, N., Schull, M., Wammes, J. J. G., Wodchis, W. P., and Meyer, G. S., A challenge to all. A primer on inter-country differences of high-need, high-cost patients, PLoS One, vol. 14, p. e0217353, 2019.
A. V. Gayle, Axson, E. L., Bloom, C. I., Navaratnam, V., and Quint, J. K., Changing causes of death for patients with chronic respiratory disease in England, 2005-2015, Thorax, 2019.
S. V. Ramagopalan, Carroll, R., Ulvestad, M., Mehmud, F., and Alikhan, R., The changing face of venous thromboembolism management in England, Future Cardiol, 2019.
L. Kalilani, Friesen, D., Boudiaf, N., and Asgharnejad, M., The characteristics and treatment patterns of patients with Parkinson's disease in the United States and United Kingdom: A retrospective cohort study, PLoS One, vol. 14, p. e0225723, 2019.
S. Ramtoola, Nyeland, M. E., Jacobsen, J., Ploug, U. J., Kragh, N., and Zimmermann, E., Characteristics of newly diagnosed adults with type 1 diabetes in the UK and evolution of glycaemic control, body mass index and Charlson comorbidity index over the first 5 years after diagnosis, Prim Care Diabetes, 2019.
den C. Heijer, Hoebe, C., Driessen, J. H., Wolffs, P., van den Broek, I., Hoenderboom, B., Williams, R., de Vries, F., and Dukers-Muijrers, N., Chlamydia trachomatis and the Risk of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, Ectopic Pregnancy, and Female Infertility: A Retrospective Cohort Study Among Primary Care Patients, Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2019.
S. Menon, Nightingale, P., and Trudgill, N., Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and the Risk of Esophagitis, Barrett Esophagus, and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma: A Primary Care Case-Control Study, J Clin Gastroenterol, 2019.
V. Kuan, Denaxas, S., A Izquierdo, G. -, Direk, K., Bhatti, O., Husain, S., Sutaria, S., Hingorani, M., Nitsch, D., Parisinos, C. A., Lumbers, T., Mathur, R., Sofat, R., Casas, J. P., Wong, I. C. K., Hemingway, H., and Hingorani, A. D., A chronological map of 308 physical and mental health conditions from 4 million individuals in the English National Health Service, The Lancet Digital Health, 2019.
R. Persson and Jick, S., Clinical implications of the association between fluoroquinolones and tendon rupture: the magnitude of the effect with and without corticosteroids, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2019.
L. Fiaschi, Nelson-Piercy, C., Deb, S., King, R., and Tata, L. J., Clinical management of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy and hyperemesis gravidarum across primary and secondary care: a population based study, Bjog, 2019.
F. Nissen, Douglas, I. J., Mullerova, H., Pearce, N., Bloom, C. I., Smeeth, L., and Quint, J. K., Clinical profile of predefined asthma phenotypes in a large cohort of UK primary care patients (Clinical Practice Research Datalink), J Asthma Allergy, vol. 12, pp. 7-19, 2019.
D. Metcalfe, Masters, J., Delmestri, A., Judge, A., Perry, D., Zogg, C., Gabbe, B., and Costa, M., Coding algorithms for defining Charlson and Elixhauser co-morbidities in Read-coded databases, BMC Med Res Methodol, vol. 19, p. 115, 2019.
A. Dregan, Matcham, F., Harber-Aschan, L., Rayner, L., Brailean, A., Davis, K., Hatch, S., Pariante, C., Armstrong, D., Stewart, R., and Hotopf, M., Common mental disorders within chronic inflammatory disorders: a primary care database prospective investigation, Ann Rheum Dis, 2019.
A. Schultze, Graham, S., Nordstrom, B. L., Mehmud, F., and Ramagopalan, S. V., Commonly used definitions in real-world studies may underestimate the prevalence of renal disease among nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients, J Comp Eff Res, 2019.
M. Nowakowska, Zghebi, S. S., Ashcroft, D. M., Buchan, I., Chew-Graham, C., Holt, T., Mallen, C., van Marwijk, H., Peek, N., Perera-Salazar, R., Reeves, D., Rutter, M. K., Weng, S. F., Qureshi, N., Mamas, M. A., and Kontopantelis, E., The comorbidity burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus: patterns, clusters and predictions from a large English primary care cohort, BMC Med, vol. 17, p. 145, 2019.
[Page last reviewed 4 March 2021]