Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,900 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 January 2022) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 6MB, 247 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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G. Funston, Mounce, L. T., Price, S., Rous, B., Crosbie, E. J., Hamilton, W., and Walter, F. M., CA125 test result, test-to-diagnosis interval, and stage in ovarian cancer at diagnosis: a retrospective cohort study using electronic health records, Br J Gen Pract, 2021.
K. Ngaosuwan, Johnston, D. G., Godsland, I. F., Cox, J., Majeed, A., Quint, J. K., Oliver, N., and Robinson, S., Cardiovascular disease in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency and the role of comorbidities, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2021.
B. Coles, Zaccardi, F., Hvid, C., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Cardiovascular events and mortality in people with type 2 diabetes and multimorbidity: A real-world study of patients followed for up to 19 years, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 23, pp. 218-227, 2021.
K. Khunti, Hertz, C. L., Husemoen, L. L. N., Mocevic, E., Nordsborg, R. B., Piltoft, J. S., and Bain, S. C., Cardiovascular risk factors early in the course of treatment in people with type 2 diabetes without established cardiovascular disease: A population-based observational retrospective cohort study, Diabet Med, p. e14697, 2021.
V. Hoffman, Hallas, J., Linder, M., Margulis, A. V., Suehs, B. T., Arana, A., Phiri, K., Enger, C., Horter, L., Odsbu, I., Olesen, M., Perez-Gutthann, S., Xu, Y., Kristiansen, N. S., Appenteng, K., de Vogel, S., and Seeger, J. D., Cardiovascular Risk in Users of Mirabegron Compared with Users of Antimuscarinic Treatments for Overactive Bladder: Findings from a Non-Interventional, Multinational, Cohort Study, Drug Saf, vol. 44, pp. 899-915, 2021.
J. Webb, Mount, J., von Arx, L. B., Rachman, J., Spanopoulos, D., Wood, R., Tritton, T., Massey, O., and Idris, I., Cardiovascular risk profiles: A cross-sectional study evaluating the generalisability of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist cardiovascular outcome trials Rewind, Leader and Sustain-6 to the real-world type 2 diabetes population in the UK, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2021.
D. Lewer, Brothers, T. D., Van Hest, N., Hickman, M., Holland, A., Padmanathan, P., and Zaninotto, P., Causes of death among people who used illicit opioids in England, 2001-18: a matched cohort study, Lancet Public Health, 2021.
H. R. Whittaker, Kiddle, S. J., and Quint, J. K., Challenges and Pitfalls of Using Repeat Spirometry Recordings in Routine Primary Care Data to Measure FEV(1) Decline in a COPD Population, Pragmat Obs Res, vol. 12, pp. 119-130, 2021.
S. S. R. Crossfield, Marzo-Ortega, H., Kingsbury, S. R., Pujades-Rodriguez, M., and Conaghan, P. G., Changes in ankylosing spondylitis incidence, prevalence and time to diagnosis over two decades, RMD Open, vol. 7, 2021.
B. L. Neuen, Weldegiorgis, M., Herrington, W. G., Ohkuma, T., Smith, M., and Woodward, M., Changes in GFR and Albuminuria in Routine Clinical Practice and the Risk of Kidney Disease Progression, Am J Kidney Dis, 2021.
S. S. R. Crossfield, Buch, M. H., Baxter, P., Kingsbury, S. R., Pujades-Rodriguez, M., and Conaghan, P. G., Changes in the pharmacological management of rheumatoid arthritis over two decades, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2021.
X. Li, Ostropolets, A., Makadia, R., Shoaibi, A., Rao, A., Sena, A. G., Martinez-Hernandez, E., Verhamme, K., Rijnbeek, P., Ryan, P. B., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Characterising the background incidence rates of adverse events of special interest for covid-19 vaccines in eight countries: multinational network cohort study, BMJ, 2021.
C. L. Morgan, Jenkins-Jones, S., Knaggs, R., Currie, C., Conway, P., Poole, C. D., and Berni, E., Characterization and Associated Costs of Constipation Relating to Exposure to Strong Opioids in England: An Observational Study, Clin Ther, 2021.
A. Seesaghur, Petruski-Ivleva, N., Banks, V. L., Wang, J. R., Abbasi, A., Neasham, D., and Ramasamy, K., Clinical features and diagnosis of multiple myeloma: a population-based cohort study in primary care, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e052759, 2021.
C. Koshiaris, Van den Bruel, A., Nicholson, B. D., Lay-Flurrie, S., Hobbs, F. R., and Oke, J. L., Clinical prediction tools to identify patients at highest risk of myeloma in primary care: a retrospective open cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 71, pp. e347-e355, 2021.
C. Rebordosa, Plana, E., Rubino, A., Aguado, J., Lei, A., Daoud, S., Saigi-Morgui, N., Perez-Gutthann, S., and Rivero-Ferrer, E., A Cohort Study to Evaluate the Risk of Hospitalisation for Congestive Heart Failure Associated with the Use of Aclidinium and Other Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Medications in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 16, pp. 1461-1475, 2021.
B. I. Jones, Freedman, A., Thomas, M. J., Villalba-Mendez, C., Sathia, L., Flanagan, D., Francis, S., and Currie, C. J., Comorbid diseases and conditions in people with HIV in the UK, Curr Med Res Opin, pp. 1-9, 2021.
L. Bullock, Bedson, J., Chen, Y., Chew-Graham, C. A., and Campbell, P., Comparative differences in musculoskeletal pain consultation and analgesic prescription for people with dementia: a UK-wide matched cohort study, Pain, 2021.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Comparative Effectiveness of Initial LAMA versus LABA in COPD: Real-World Cohort Study, Copd, vol. 18, pp. 1-8, 2021.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Comparing initial LABA-ICS inhalers in COPD: Real-world effectiveness and safety, Respir Med, vol. 189, p. 106645, 2021.
C. R. Dormuth, Winquist, B., Fisher, A., Wu, F., Reynier, P., Suissa, S., Dahl, M., Ma, Z., Lu, X., Zhang, J., Raymond, C. B., Filion, K. B., Platt, R. W., Moriello, C., and Paterson, J. M., Comparison of Pregnancy Outcomes of Patients Treated With Ondansetron vs Alternative Antiemetic Medications in a Multinational, Population-Based Cohort, JAMA Netw Open, vol. 4, p. e215329, 2021.
C. S. Arhi, Dudley, R., Moussa, O., Ardissino, M., Scholtz, S., and Purkayastha, S., The Complex Association Between Bariatric Surgery and Depression: a National Nested-Control Study, Obes Surg, 2021.
A. M. Trafford, Parisi, R., Rutter, M. K., Kontopantelis, E., Griffiths, C. E. M., and Ashcroft, D. M., Concordance and timing in recording cancer events in primary care, hospital and mortality records for patients with and without psoriasis: A population-based cohort study, PLoS One, vol. 16, p. e0254661, 2021.
B. Wiering, Lyratzopoulos, G., Hamilton, W., Campbell, J., and Abel, G., Concordance with urgent referral guidelines in patients presenting with any of six 'alarm' features of possible cancer: a retrospective cohort study using linked primary care records, BMJ Qual Saf, 2021.
Y. Li, Sperrin, M., Ashcroft, D. M., and van Staa, T. P., Consistency of ranking was evaluated as new measure for prediction model stability: longitudinal cohort study, J Clin Epidemiol, vol. 138, pp. 168-177, 2021.
E. Kontopantelis, Panagioti, M., Farragher, T., Munford, L. A., Parisi, R., Planner, C., Spooner, S., Tse, A., Ashcroft, D. M., and Esmail, A., Consultation patterns and frequent attenders in UK primary care from 2000 to 2019: a retrospective cohort analysis of consultation events across 845 general practices, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e054666, 2021.
T. Denee, Kerr, C., Ming, T., Wood, R., Tritton, T., Middleton-Dalby, C., Massey, O., and Desai, M., Current treatments used in clinical practice for major depressive disorder and treatment resistant depression in England: A retrospective database study, J Psychiatr Res, vol. 139, pp. 172-178, 2021.
J. Coulombe, Moodie, E. E. M., Shortreed, S. M., and Renoux, C., Can the Risk of Severe Depression-Related Outcomes be Reduced by Tailoring the Antidepressant Therapy to Patient Characteristics?, Am J Epidemiol, 2020.
E. Ford, Rooney, P., Hurley, P., Oliver, S., Bremner, S., and Cassell, J., Can the Use of Bayesian Analysis Methods Correct for Incompleteness in Electronic Health Records Diagnosis Data? Development of a Novel Method Using Simulated and Real-Life Clinical Data, Front Public Health, vol. 8, p. 54, 2020.
L. T. Mounce, Hamilton, W., and Bailey, S. E., Cancer incidence following a high-normal platelet count: cohort study using electronic healthcare records from English primary care, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
F. Khosrow-Khavar, Bouganim, N., Filion, K. B., Suissa, S., and Azoulay, L., Cardiotoxicity of Sequential Aromatase Inhibitors Use in Women with Breast Cancer, Am J Epidemiol, 2020.
B. Coles, Zaccardi, F., Ling, S., Davies, M. J., Samani, N. J., and Khunti, K., Cardiovascular events and mortality in people with and without type 2 diabetes: An observational study in a contemporary multi-ethnic population, J Diabetes Investig, 2020.
S. Chowienczyk, Price, S., and Hamilton, W., Changes in the presenting symptoms of lung cancer from 2000-2017: a serial cross-sectional study of observational records in UK primary care, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
R. B. Weinstein, Ryan, P. B., Berlin, J. A., Schuemie, M. J., Swerdel, J., and Fife, D., Channeling Bias in the Analysis of Risk of Myocardial Infarction, Stroke, Gastrointestinal Bleeding, and Acute Renal Failure with the Use of Paracetamol Compared with Ibuprofen, Drug Saf, 2020.
H. R. Whittaker, Pimenta, J. M., Jarvis, D., Kiddle, S. J., and Quint, J. K., Characteristics Associated with Accelerated Lung Function Decline in a Primary Care Population with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 15, pp. 3079-3091, 2020.
Y. Zhu, Edwards, D., Mant, J., Payne, R. A., and Kiddle, S., Characteristics, service use and mortality of clusters of multimorbid patients in England: a population-based study, BMC Med, vol. 18, p. 78, 2020.
K. Kostikas, Price, D., Gutzwiller, F. S., Jones, B., Loefroth, E., Clemens, A., Fogel, R., Jones, R., and Cao, H., Clinical Impact and Healthcare Resource Utilization Associated with Early versus Late COPD Diagnosis in Patients from UK CPRD Database, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 15, pp. 1729-1738, 2020.
R. Partington, Muller, S., Mallen, C. D., A. Sultan, A., and Helliwell, T., Comorbidities in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica prior to and following diagnosis: A case control and cohort study, Semin Arthritis Rheum, vol. 50, pp. 663-672, 2020.
R. F. Gulluoglu, Souverein, P. C., van den Ham, H. A., de Boer, A., and Komen, J., Comparative effectiveness and safety of direct oral anticoagulants versus warfarin in UK patients with atrial fibrillation and type 2 diabetes: A retrospective cohort study, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
F. Zaccardi, Jacquot, E., Cortese, V., Tyrer, F., Seidu, S., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Comparative effectiveness of gliclazide modified release vs sitagliptin as second-line treatment after metformin monotherapy in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2020.
S. Wilkinson, Williamson, E., Pokrajac, A., Fogarty, D., Stirnadel-Farrant, H., Smeeth, L., Douglas, I. J., and Tomlinson, L. A., Comparative effects of sulfonylureas, DPP4is and SGLT2 inhibitors added to metformin monotherapy: a propensity-score matched cohort study in UK primary care, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2020.
S. Borghs, Byram, L., Chan, J., Dedeken, P., Logan, J., Kiri, V., Noack-Rink, M., Patsalos, P. N., and Thieffry, S., Comparing healthcare cost associated with the use of enzyme-inducing and non-enzyme active antiepileptic drugs in elderly patients with epilepsy in the UK: a long-term retrospective, matched cohort study, BMC Neurol, vol. 20, p. 7, 2020.
T. Tran and Suissa, S., Comparing New-User Cohort Designs: The Example of Proton Pump Inhibitor Effectiveness in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis, Am J Epidemiol, 2020.
M. C. Gulliford, Sun, X., Anjuman, T., Yelland, E., and Murray-Thomas, T., Comparison of antibiotic prescribing records in two UK primary care electronic health record systems: cohort study using CPRD GOLD and CPRD Aurum databases, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e038767, 2020.
V. M. Walker, Davies, N. M., Martin, R. M., and Kehoe, P. G., Comparison of antihypertensive drug classes for dementia prevention, Epidemiology, 2020.
U. Gungabissoon, Kirichek, O., C. Baou, E., and Galwey, N., Comparison of long-term use of prolonged-release ropinirole and immediate-release dopamine agonists in an observational study in patients with Parkinson's disease, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
P. Bidulka, Iwagami, M., Mansfield, K. E., Kalogirou, F., Wong, A. Y. S., Douglas, I. J., Smeeth, L., Summers, C., and Tomlinson, L. A., Comparisons of Staphylococcus aureus infection and other outcomes between users of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers: lessons for COVID-19 from a nationwide cohort study, Wellcome Open Res, vol. 5, p. 77, 2020.
S. Abtahi, Driessen, J. H. M., Burden, A. M., Souverein, P. C., van den Bergh, J. P., van Staa, T. P., Boonen, A., and de Vries, F., Concomitant use of oral glucocorticoids and proton pump inhibitors and risk of osteoporotic fractures among patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based cohort study, Ann Rheum Dis, 2020.
A. D. Morgan, Sinnott, S. J., Smeeth, L., Minassian, C., and Quint, J., Concordance in the recording of stroke across UK primary and secondary care datasets: a population-based cohort study, BJGP Open, 2020.
Y. Li, Sperrin, M., Ashcroft, D. M., and van Staa, T. P., Consistency of variety of machine learning and statistical models in predicting clinical risks of individual patients: longitudinal cohort study using cardiovascular disease as exemplar, Bmj, vol. 371, p. m3919, 2020.
[Page last reviewed 4 January 2022]