Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 7 September 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 209 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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E. Ford, Rooney, P., Hurley, P., Oliver, S., Bremner, S., and Cassell, J., Can the Use of Bayesian Analysis Methods Correct for Incompleteness in Electronic Health Records Diagnosis Data? Development of a Novel Method Using Simulated and Real-Life Clinical Data, Front Public Health, vol. 8, p. 54, 2020.
L. T. Mounce, Hamilton, W., and Bailey, S. E., Cancer incidence following a high-normal platelet count: cohort study using electronic healthcare records from English primary care, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
F. Khosrow-Khavar, Bouganim, N., Filion, K. B., Suissa, S., and Azoulay, L., Cardiotoxicity of Sequential Aromatase Inhibitors Use in Women with Breast Cancer, Am J Epidemiol, 2020.
S. Chowienczyk, Price, S., and Hamilton, W., Changes in the presenting symptoms of lung cancer from 2000-2017: a serial cross-sectional study of observational records in UK primary care, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
R. B. Weinstein, Ryan, P. B., Berlin, J. A., Schuemie, M. J., Swerdel, J., and Fife, D., Channeling Bias in the Analysis of Risk of Myocardial Infarction, Stroke, Gastrointestinal Bleeding, and Acute Renal Failure with the Use of Paracetamol Compared with Ibuprofen, Drug Saf, 2020.
Y. Zhu, Edwards, D., Mant, J., Payne, R. A., and Kiddle, S., Characteristics, service use and mortality of clusters of multimorbid patients in England: a population-based study, BMC Med, vol. 18, p. 78, 2020.
K. Kostikas, Price, D., Gutzwiller, F. S., Jones, B., Loefroth, E., Clemens, A., Fogel, R., Jones, R., and Cao, H., Clinical Impact and Healthcare Resource Utilization Associated with Early versus Late COPD Diagnosis in Patients from UK CPRD Database, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 15, pp. 1729-1738, 2020.
R. Partington, Muller, S., Mallen, C. D., A. Sultan, A., and Helliwell, T., Comorbidities in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica prior to and following diagnosis: A case control and cohort study, Semin Arthritis Rheum, vol. 50, pp. 663-672, 2020.
F. Zaccardi, Jacquot, E., Cortese, V., Tyrer, F., Seidu, S., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Comparative effectiveness of gliclazide modified release vs sitagliptin as second-line treatment after metformin monotherapy in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2020.
S. Wilkinson, Williamson, E., Pokrajac, A., Fogarty, D., Stirnadel-Farrant, H., Smeeth, L., Douglas, I. J., and Tomlinson, L. A., Comparative effects of sulfonylureas, DPP4is and SGLT2 inhibitors added to metformin monotherapy: a propensity-score matched cohort study in UK primary care, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2020.
S. Borghs, Byram, L., Chan, J., Dedeken, P., Logan, J., Kiri, V., Noack-Rink, M., Patsalos, P. N., and Thieffry, S., Comparing healthcare cost associated with the use of enzyme-inducing and non-enzyme active antiepileptic drugs in elderly patients with epilepsy in the UK: a long-term retrospective, matched cohort study, BMC Neurol, vol. 20, p. 7, 2020.
M. C. Gulliford, Sun, X., Anjuman, T., Yelland, E., and Murray-Thomas, T., Comparison of antibiotic prescribing records in two UK primary care electronic health record systems: cohort study using CPRD GOLD and CPRD Aurum databases, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e038767, 2020.
V. M. Walker, Davies, N. M., Martin, R. M., and Kehoe, P. G., Comparison of antihypertensive drug classes for dementia prevention, Epidemiology, 2020.
U. Gungabissoon, Kirichek, O., C. Baou, E., and Galwey, N., Comparison of long-term use of prolonged-release ropinirole and immediate-release dopamine agonists in an observational study in patients with Parkinson's disease, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
P. Bidulka, Iwagami, M., Mansfield, K. E., Kalogirou, F., Wong, A. Y. S., Douglas, I. J., Smeeth, L., Summers, C., and Tomlinson, L. A., Comparisons of Staphylococcus aureus infection and other outcomes between users of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers: lessons for COVID-19 from a nationwide cohort study, Wellcome Open Res, vol. 5, p. 77, 2020.
E. Ford, Starlinger, J., Rooney, P., Oliver, S., Banerjee, S., van Marwijk, H., and Cassell, J., Could dementia be detected from UK primary care patients' records by simple automated methods earlier than by the treating physician? A retrospective case-control study, Wellcome Open Res, vol. 5, p. 120, 2020.
S. Y. Loo, Azoulay, L., Nie, R., Dell'Aniello, S., Yu, O. H. Y., and Renoux, C., Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular safety of testosterone replacement therapy among aging men with low testosterone levels: a cohort study., Am J Med, 2019.
A. K. Wright, Kontopantelis, E., Emsley, R., Buchan, I. E., Mamas, M. A., Sattar, N., Ashcroft, D. M., and Rutter, M. K., Cardiovascular Risk and Risk Factor Management in Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study Assessing Sex Disparities, Circulation, 2019.
A. Gilsenan, Fortuny, J., Cainzos-Achirica, M., Cantero, O. F., Flynn, R. W. V., Garcia-Rodriguez, L., Harding, A., Kollhorst, B., Karlsson, P., Linner, L., MacDonald, T. M., Odsbu, I., Plana, E., Ruigomez, A., Schink, T., Ziemiecki, R., and Andrews, E. B., Cardiovascular Safety of Prucalopride in Patients with Chronic Constipation: A Multinational Population-Based Cohort Study, Drug Saf, 2019.
M. A. C. Tanke, Feyman, Y., Bernal-Delgado, E., Deeny, S. R., Imanaka, Y., Jeurissen, P., Lange, L., Pimperl, A., Sasaki, N., Schull, M., Wammes, J. J. G., Wodchis, W. P., and Meyer, G. S., A challenge to all. A primer on inter-country differences of high-need, high-cost patients, PLoS One, vol. 14, p. e0217353, 2019.
A. V. Gayle, Axson, E. L., Bloom, C. I., Navaratnam, V., and Quint, J. K., Changing causes of death for patients with chronic respiratory disease in England, 2005-2015, Thorax, 2019.
S. V. Ramagopalan, Carroll, R., Ulvestad, M., Mehmud, F., and Alikhan, R., The changing face of venous thromboembolism management in England, Future Cardiol, 2019.
L. Kalilani, Friesen, D., Boudiaf, N., and Asgharnejad, M., The characteristics and treatment patterns of patients with Parkinson's disease in the United States and United Kingdom: A retrospective cohort study, PLoS One, vol. 14, p. e0225723, 2019.
S. Ramtoola, Nyeland, M. E., Jacobsen, J., Ploug, U. J., Kragh, N., and Zimmermann, E., Characteristics of newly diagnosed adults with type 1 diabetes in the UK and evolution of glycaemic control, body mass index and Charlson comorbidity index over the first 5 years after diagnosis, Prim Care Diabetes, 2019.
den C. Heijer, Hoebe, C., Driessen, J. H., Wolffs, P., van den Broek, I., Hoenderboom, B., Williams, R., de Vries, F., and Dukers-Muijrers, N., Chlamydia trachomatis and the Risk of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, Ectopic Pregnancy, and Female Infertility: A Retrospective Cohort Study Among Primary Care Patients, Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2019.
S. Menon, Nightingale, P., and Trudgill, N., Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and the Risk of Esophagitis, Barrett Esophagus, and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma: A Primary Care Case-Control Study, J Clin Gastroenterol, 2019.
V. Kuan, Denaxas, S., A Izquierdo, G. -, Direk, K., Bhatti, O., Husain, S., Sutaria, S., Hingorani, M., Nitsch, D., Parisinos, C. A., Lumbers, T., Mathur, R., Sofat, R., Casas, J. P., Wong, I. C. K., Hemingway, H., and Hingorani, A. D., A chronological map of 308 physical and mental health conditions from 4 million individuals in the English National Health Service, The Lancet Digital Health, 2019.
R. Persson and Jick, S., Clinical implications of the association between fluoroquinolones and tendon rupture: the magnitude of the effect with and without corticosteroids, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2019.
L. Fiaschi, Nelson-Piercy, C., Deb, S., King, R., and Tata, L. J., Clinical management of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy and hyperemesis gravidarum across primary and secondary care: a population based study, Bjog, 2019.
F. Nissen, Douglas, I. J., Mullerova, H., Pearce, N., Bloom, C. I., Smeeth, L., and Quint, J. K., Clinical profile of predefined asthma phenotypes in a large cohort of UK primary care patients (Clinical Practice Research Datalink), J Asthma Allergy, vol. 12, pp. 7-19, 2019.
D. Metcalfe, Masters, J., Delmestri, A., Judge, A., Perry, D., Zogg, C., Gabbe, B., and Costa, M., Coding algorithms for defining Charlson and Elixhauser co-morbidities in Read-coded databases, BMC Med Res Methodol, vol. 19, p. 115, 2019.
A. Dregan, Matcham, F., Harber-Aschan, L., Rayner, L., Brailean, A., Davis, K., Hatch, S., Pariante, C., Armstrong, D., Stewart, R., and Hotopf, M., Common mental disorders within chronic inflammatory disorders: a primary care database prospective investigation, Ann Rheum Dis, 2019.
A. Schultze, Graham, S., Nordstrom, B. L., Mehmud, F., and Ramagopalan, S. V., Commonly used definitions in real-world studies may underestimate the prevalence of renal disease among nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients, J Comp Eff Res, 2019.
M. Nowakowska, Zghebi, S. S., Ashcroft, D. M., Buchan, I., Chew-Graham, C., Holt, T., Mallen, C., van Marwijk, H., Peek, N., Perera-Salazar, R., Reeves, D., Rutter, M. K., Weng, S. F., Qureshi, N., Mamas, M. A., and Kontopantelis, E., The comorbidity burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus: patterns, clusters and predictions from a large English primary care cohort, BMC Med, vol. 17, p. 145, 2019.
I. J. Chou, Kuo, C. F., Tanasescu, R., Tench, C. R., Tiley, C. G., Constantinescu, C. S., and Whitehouse, W. P., Comorbidity in multiple sclerosis: its temporal relationships with disease onset and dose effect on mortality, Eur J Neurol, 2019.
A. Douros, Dell'Aniello, S., Yu, O. H. Y., and Suissa, S., Comparative cardiovascular and hypoglycemic safety of glimepiride in type 2 diabetes: A population-based cohort study, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2019.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Comparative effectiveness and safety of LABA-LAMA versus LABA-ICS treatment of COPD in real world clinical practice, Chest, 2019.
S. J. Sinnott, Smeeth, L., Williamson, E., Perel, P., Nitsch, D., Tomlinson, L. A., and Douglas, I. J., The comparative effectiveness of fourth-line drugs in resistant hypertension: An application in electronic health record data, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Comparative effects of LAMA-LABA-ICS versus LAMA-LABA for COPD: Cohort study in real world clinical practice: LAMA-LABA-ICS versus LAMA-LABA in COPD, Chest, 2019.
D. B. Price, Carter, V., Martin, J., Gardener, E. A., Skinner, D., Yang, S., Hoffman, M., Willis, J. C., and Cooper, A. J., Comparative Safety Profile of the Fixed-Dose Combination Corticosteroid and Long-acting beta2-Agonist Fluticasone Propionate/Formoterol Fumarate: A 36-Month Longitudinal Cohort Study in UK Primary Care, Drugs, 2019.
K. Mansfield, Crellin, E., Denholm, R., Quint, J. K., Smeeth, L., Cook, S., and Herrett, E., Completeness and validity of alcohol recording in general practice within the UK: a cross-sectional study, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e031537, 2019.
M. Pufulete, Harris, J., Sterne, J. A. C., Johnson, T. W., Lasserson, D., Mumford, A., Doble, B., Wordsworth, S., Benedetto, U., Rogers, C. A., Loke, Y., Pithara, C., Redwood, S., and Reeves, B. C., Comprehensive ascertainment of bleeding in patients prescribed different combinations of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and triple therapy (TT) in the UK: study protocol for three population-based cohort studies emulating 'target trials' (the ADAPTT Stu, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e029388, 2019.
M. E. Saine, Carbonari, D. M., Newcomb, C. W., Gallagher, A. M., Blak, B. T., Roy, J. A., Wood, J., Cardillo, S., Hennessy, S., Strom, B. L., and , Concordance of hospitalizations between Clinical Practice Research Datalink and linked Hospital Episode Statistics among patients treated with oral antidiabetic therapies, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
C. I. Bloom, Douglas, I., Olney, J., D'Ancona, G., Smeeth, L., and Quint, J. K., Cost saving of switching to equivalent inhalers and its effect on health outcomes, Thorax, 2019.
S. V. Ramagopalan, Samnaliev, M., Weir, S., Sammon, C. J., Carroll, R., and Alikhan, R., Costs of gastrointestinal bleeding events in atrial fibrillation: a UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink study, Future Cardiol, 2019.
O. A. Oshagbemi, Franssen, F. M. E., Wouters, E. F. M., van der Zee, A. H. Maitlan, Driessen, J. H. M., de Boer, A., and de Vries, F., C-reactive protein as a biomarker of response to inhaled corticosteroids among patients with COPD, Pulm Pharmacol Ther, p. 101870, 2019.
M. Touya, Lamy, F. X., Tanasescu, A., Saragoussi, D., Francois, C., Wade, A. G., Llorca, P. M., Lancon, C., and Falissard, B., Creation and validation of a linear index to measure the health state of patients with depression in automated healthcare databases, J Mark Access Health Policy, vol. 7, p. 1674115, 2019.
[Page last reviewed 7 September 2020]