Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 April 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 226 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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S. Abtahi, Driessen, J. H. M., Burden, A. M., Souverein, P. C., van den Bergh, J. P., van Staa, T. P., Boonen, A., and de Vries, F., Concomitant use of oral glucocorticoids and proton pump inhibitors and risk of osteoporotic fractures among patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based cohort study, Ann Rheum Dis, 2020.
K. Abuabara, Azfar, R. S., Shin, D. B., Neimann, A. L., Troxel, A. B., and Gelfand, J. M., Cause-specific mortality in patients with severe psoriasis: a population-based cohort study in the U.K, Br J Dermatol, vol. 163, pp. 586-92, 2010.
R. Ackers, Besag, F. M., Wade, A., Murray, M. L., and Wong, I. C., Changing trends in antiepileptic drug prescribing in girls of child-bearing potential, Arch Dis Child, vol. 94, pp. 443-7, 2009.
R. Alsaggaf, St George, D. M. M., Zhan, M., Pfeiffer, R. M., Wang, Y., Wagner, K. R., Greene, M. H., Amr, S., and Gadalla, S. M., Cancer Risk in Myotonic Dystrophy Type I: Evidence of a Role for Disease Severity, JNCI Cancer Spectr, vol. 2, p. pky052, 2018.
F. Andersohn, Schade, R., Suissa, S., and Garbe, E., Cyclooxygenase-2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the risk of ischemic stroke: a nested case-control study, Stroke, vol. 37, pp. 1725-30, 2006.
E. Ankus, Price, S. J., Ukoumunne, O. C., Hamilton, W., and Bailey, S. E. R., Cancer incidence in patients with a high normal platelet count: a cohort study using primary care data, Fam Pract, vol. 35, pp. 671-675, 2018.
O. Archangelidi, Pujades-Rodriguez, M., Timmis, A., Jouven, X., Denaxas, S., and Hemingway, H., Clinically recorded heart rate and incidence of 12 coronary, cardiac, cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial diseases in 233,970 men and women: A linked electronic health record study, Eur J Prev Cardiol, vol. 25, pp. 1485-1495, 2018.
C. S. Arhi, Bottle, A., Burns, E. M., Clarke, J. M., Aylin, P., Ziprin, P., and Darzi, A., Comparison of cancer diagnosis recording between the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Cancer Registry and Hospital Episodes Statistics, Cancer Epidemiol, vol. 57, pp. 148-157, 2018.
C. S. Arhi, Burns, E. M., Bouras, G., Aylin, P., Ziprin, P., and Darzi, A., Complications after discharge and delays in adjuvant chemotherapy following colonic resection: a cohort study of linked primary and secondary care data, Colorectal Dis, 2018.
C. S. Arhi, Dudley, R., Moussa, O., Ardissino, M., Scholtz, S., and Purkayastha, S., The Complex Association Between Bariatric Surgery and Depression: a National Nested-Control Study, Obes Surg, 2021.
L. Azoulay, Schneider-Lindner, V., Dell'Aniello, S., Schiffrin, A., and Suissa, S., Combination therapy with sulfonylureas and metformin and the prevention of death in type 2 diabetes: a nested case-control study, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 19, pp. 335-42, 2010.
L. Azoulay, Dell'Aniello, S., Huiart, L., Fort, G. G. du, and Suissa, S., Concurrent use of tamoxifen with CYP2D6 inhibitors and the risk of breast cancer recurrence, Breast Cancer Res Treat, vol. 126, pp. 695-703, 2011.
L. Azoulay, Dell'Aniello, S., Simon, T., Renoux, C., and Suissa, S., The concurrent use of antithrombotic therapies and the risk of bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation, Thromb Haemost, vol. 109, pp. 431-9, 2013.
S. E. Bailey, Ukoumunne, O. C., Shephard, E. A., and Hamilton, W., Clinical relevance of thrombocytosis in primary care: a prospective cohort study of cancer incidence using English electronic medical records and cancer registry data, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 67, pp. e405-e413, 2017.
A. Bakhai, Rigney, U., Hollis, S., and Emmas, C., Co-administration of statins with cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors in a UK primary care population, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 21, pp. 485-93, 2012.
C. A. Bannister, Holden, S. E., Jenkins-Jones, S., Morgan, C. L., Halcox, J. P., Schernthaner, G., Mukherjee, J., and Currie, C. J., Can people with type 2 diabetes live longer than those without? A comparison of mortality in people initiated with metformin or sulphonylurea monotherapy and matched, non-diabetic controls, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 16, pp. 1165-73, 2014.
C. Becker, Schneider, C., Aballea, S., Bailey, C., Bourne, R., Jick, S., and Meier, C., Cataract in patients with diabetes mellitus-incidence rates in the UK and risk factors, Eye (Lond), vol. 32, pp. 1028-1035, 2018.
C. Becker, Brobert, G. P., Johansson, S., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Cancer risk in association with Parkinson disease: a population-based study, Parkinsonism Relat Disord, vol. 16, pp. 186-90, 2010.
C. Becker, Meier, C. R., Jick, S. S., and Bodmer, M., Case-control analysis on metformin and cancer of the esophagus, Cancer Causes Control, vol. 24, pp. 1763-70, 2013.
A. Berger, Sadosky, A., Dukes, E., Edelsberg, J., and Oster, G., Clinical characteristics and patterns of healthcare utilization in patients with painful neuropathic disorders in UK general practice: a retrospective cohort study, BMC Neurol, vol. 12, p. 8, 2012.
E. Berni, Butler, C. C., Jenkins-Jones, S., de Voogd, H., Ouwens, M., Morgan, C. L., and Currie, C. J., Comparative estimated effectiveness of antibiotic classes as initial and secondary treatments of respiratory tract infections: longitudinal analysis of routine data from UK primary care 1991-2012, Curr Med Res Opin, vol. 32, pp. 1023-32, 2016.
M. O. Bernier, Mikaeloff, Y., Hudson, M., and Suissa, S., Combined oral contraceptive use and the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus, Arthritis Rheum, vol. 61, pp. 476-81, 2009.
N. Bhattarai, Charlton, J., Rudisill, C., and Gulliford, M. C., Coding, recording and incidence of different forms of coronary heart disease in primary care, PLoS One, vol. 7, p. e29776, 2012.
P. Bidulka, Iwagami, M., Mansfield, K. E., Kalogirou, F., Wong, A. Y. S., Douglas, I. J., Smeeth, L., Summers, C., and Tomlinson, L. A., Comparisons of Staphylococcus aureus infection and other outcomes between users of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers: lessons for COVID-19 from a nationwide cohort study, Wellcome Open Res, vol. 5, p. 77, 2020.
C. Black, Kaye, J. A., and Jick, H., Clinical risk factors for venous thromboembolus in users of the combined oral contraceptive pill, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 53, pp. 637-40, 2002.
C. Black, Kaye, J. A., and Jick, H., Cesarean delivery in the United Kingdom: time trends in the general practice research database, Obstet Gynecol, vol. 106, pp. 151-5, 2005.
C. I. Bloom, Douglas, I., Olney, J., D'Ancona, G., Smeeth, L., and Quint, J. K., Cost saving of switching to equivalent inhalers and its effect on health outcomes, Thorax, 2019.
R. Boggon, van Staa, T. P., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., Ray, K. K., Begg, A., Emmas, C., and Fox, K. A., Clopidogrel discontinuation after acute coronary syndromes: frequency, predictors and associations with death and myocardial infarction–a hospital registry-primary care linked cohort (MINAP-GPRD), Eur Heart J, vol. 32, pp. 2376-86, 2011.
R. Boggon, Eaton, S., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., Gabriel, H., Minhas, I., and van Staa, T. P., Current prescribing of statins and persistence to statins following ACS in the UK: a MINAP/GPRD study, Br J Cardiol, vol. 19, p. 24, 2012.
R. Boggon, van Staa, T. P., Chapman, M., Gallagher, A. M., Hammad, T. A., and Richards, M. A., Cancer recording and mortality in the General Practice Research Database and linked cancer registries, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 22, pp. 168-75, 2013.
H. P. Booth, Khan, O., Fildes, A., Prevost, A. T., Reddy, M., Charlton, J., and Gulliford, M. C., Changing Epidemiology of Bariatric Surgery in the UK: Cohort Study Using Primary Care Electronic Health Records, Obes Surg, vol. 26, pp. 1900-5, 2016.
S. Borghs, Byram, L., Chan, J., Dedeken, P., Logan, J., Kiri, V., Noack-Rink, M., Patsalos, P. N., and Thieffry, S., Comparing healthcare cost associated with the use of enzyme-inducing and non-enzyme active antiepileptic drugs in elderly patients with epilepsy in the UK: a long-term retrospective, matched cohort study, BMC Neurol, vol. 20, p. 7, 2020.
S. L. Brilleman and Salisbury, C., Comparing measures of multimorbidity to predict outcomes in primary care: a cross sectional study, Fam Pract, vol. 30, pp. 172-8, 2013.
M. J. Brodie, Chung, S., Wade, A., Quelen, C., Guiraud-Diawara, A., Francois, C., Verpillat, P., Shen, V., and Isojarvi, J., Clobazam and clonazepam use in epilepsy: Results from a UK database incident user cohort study, Epilepsy Res, vol. 123, pp. 68-74, 2016.
A. Brown, Kirichek, O., Balkwill, A., Reeves, G., Beral, V., Sudlow, C., Gallacher, J., and Green, J., Comparison of dementia recorded in routinely collected hospital admission data in England with dementia recorded in primary care, Emerg Themes Epidemiol, vol. 13, p. 11, 2016.
J. M. Burnham, Shults, J., Weinstein, R., Lewis, J. D., and Leonard, M. B., Childhood onset arthritis is associated with an increased risk of fracture: a population based study using the General Practice Research Database, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 65, pp. 1074-9, 2006.
J. Busby, Murray, L., Mills, K., Zhang, S. D., Liberante, F., and Cardwell, C. R., A combined connectivity mapping and pharmacoepidemiology approach to identify existing medications with breast cancer causing or preventing properties, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 27, pp. 78-86, 2018.
A. But, De Bruin, M. L., Bazelier, M. T., Hjellvik, V., Andersen, M., Auvinen, A., Starup-Linde, J., Schmidt, M. K., Furu, K., de Vries, F., Karlstad, O., Ekstrom, N., and Haukka, J., Cancer risk among insulin users: comparing analogues with human insulin in the CARING five-country cohort study, Diabetologia, vol. 60, pp. 1691-1703, 2017.
C. Canavan, West, J., and Card, T., Calculating Total Health Service Utilisation and Costs from Routinely Collected Electronic Health Records Using the Example of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome Before and After Their First Gastroenterology Appointment, Pharmacoeconomics, vol. 34, pp. 181-94, 2016.
M. J. Carr, Ashcroft, D. M., Kontopantelis, E., While, D., Awenat, Y., Cooper, J., Chew-Graham, C., Kapur, N., and Webb, R. T., Clinical management following self-harm in a UK-wide primary care cohort, J Affect Disord, vol. 197, pp. 182-8, 2016.
J. Castellsague, Kuiper, J. G., Pottegard, A., I. Berglind, A., Dedman, D., Gutierrez, L., Calingaert, B., van Herk-Sukel, M. P., Hallas, J., Sundstrom, A., Gallagher, A. M., Kaye, J. A., Pardo, C., Rothman, K. J., and Perez-Gutthann, S., A cohort study on the risk of lymphoma and skin cancer in users of topical tacrolimus, pimecrolimus, and corticosteroids (Joint European Longitudinal Lymphoma and Skin Cancer Evaluation - JOELLE study), Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 299-310, 2018.
K. C. Chang, Soljak, M., Lee, J. T., Woringer, M., Johnston, D., Khunti, K., Majeed, A., and Millett, C., Coverage of a national cardiovascular risk assessment and management programme (NHS Health Check): Retrospective database study, Prev Med, vol. 78, pp. 1-8, 2015.
R. Charlton, Snowball, J., Sammon, C., and de Vries, C., The Clinical Practice Research Datalink for drug safety in pregnancy research: an overview, Therapie, vol. 69, pp. 83-9, 2014.
R. Charlton, Snowball, J., Bloomfield, K., and de Vries, C., Colorectal cancer incidence on the General Practice Research Database, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 21, pp. 775-783, 2012.
R. A. Charlton, Weil, J. G., Cunnington, M. C., Ray, S., and de Vries, C. S., Comparing the General Practice Research Database and the UK Epilepsy and Pregnancy Register as tools for postmarketing teratogen surveillance: anticonvulsants and the risk of major congenital malformations, Drug Saf, vol. 34, pp. 157-71, 2011.
R. A. Charlton, Snowball, J. M., Bloomfield, K., and de Vries, C. S., Colorectal cancer risk reduction following macrogol exposure: a cohort and nested case control study in the UK, PLoS One, vol. 8, p. e83203, 2013.
J. Chollet, Saragoussi, D., Clay, E., and Francois, C., A clinical research practice datalink analysis of antidepressant treatment patterns and health care costs in generalized anxiety disorder, Value Health, vol. 16, pp. 1133-9, 2013.
I. J. Chou, Kuo, C. F., Tanasescu, R., Tench, C. R., Tiley, C. G., Constantinescu, C. S., and Whitehouse, W. P., Comorbidity in multiple sclerosis: its temporal relationships with disease onset and dose effect on mortality, Eur J Neurol, 2019.
S. Chowienczyk, Price, S., and Hamilton, W., Changes in the presenting symptoms of lung cancer from 2000-2017: a serial cross-sectional study of observational records in UK primary care, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
B. Coles, Zaccardi, F., Ling, S., Davies, M. J., Samani, N. J., and Khunti, K., Cardiovascular events and mortality in people with and without type 2 diabetes: An observational study in a contemporary multi-ethnic population, J Diabetes Investig, 2020.
[Page last reviewed 6 April 2021]