Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 7 September 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 209 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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T. Galvain, Chitnis, A., Paparouni, K., Tong, C., Holy, C. E., and Giannoudis, P. V., The economic burden of infections following intramedullary nailing for a tibial shaft fracture in England, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e035404, 2020.
O. Moussa, Ardissino, M., Heaton, T., Tang, A., Khan, O., Ziprin, P., Darzi, A., Collins, P., and Purkayastha, S., Effect of bariatric surgery on long-term cardiovascular outcomes: a nationwide nested cohort study, Eur Heart J, 2020.
G. H. B. Greenhall, Mansfield, K. E., Nitsch, D., Iwagami, M., Leyrat, C., Johnston, R., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L. A., The effect of initiation of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors on haemoglobin: A national cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2020.
M. Carney, Quiroga, M., Mounce, L., Shephard, E., Hamilton, W., and Price, S., Effect of pre-existing conditions on bladder cancer stage at diagnosis: a cohort study using electronic primary care records in the UK, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
T. P. van Staa, Palin, V., Li, Y., Welfare, W., Felton, T. W., Dark, P., and Ashcroft, D. M., The effectiveness of frequent antibiotic use in reducing the risk of infection-related hospital admissions: results from two large population-based cohorts, BMC Med, vol. 18, p. 40, 2020.
G. Nakafero, Grainge, M. J., Myles, P. R., Mallen, C. D., Zhang, W., Doherty, M., Nguyen-Van-Tam, J. S., and Abhishek, A., Effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccine in autoimmune rheumatic diseases treated with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2020.
T. Tran, Assayag, D., Ernst, P., and Suissa, S., Effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a population-based cohort study, Chest, 2020.
S. S. Zghebi, Steinke, D. T., Rutter, M. K., and Ashcroft, D. M., Eleven-year multimorbidity burden among 637 255 people with and without type 2 diabetes: a population-based study using primary care and linked hospitalisation data, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e033866, 2020.
Y. Ye, Jiang, B., Manne, S., Moses, P. L., Almansa, C., Bennett, D., Dolin, P., and Ford, A. C., Epidemiology and outcomes of gastroparesis, as documented in general practice records, in the United Kingdom, Gut, 2020.
A. Banerjee, Pasea, L., Harris, S., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Torralbo, A., Shallcross, L., Noursadeghi, M., Pillay, D., Sebire, N., Holmes, C., Pagel, C., Wong, W. K., Langenberg, C., Williams, B., Denaxas, S., and Hemingway, H., Estimating excess 1-year mortality associated with the COVID-19 pandemic according to underlying conditions and age: a population-based cohort study, Lancet, vol. 395, pp. 1715-1725, 2020.
M. D. Danese, Pemberton-Ross, P., Catterick, D., and Villa, G., Estimation of the increased risk associated with recurrent events or polyvascular atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in the United Kingdom, Eur J Prev Cardiol, p. 2047487319899212, 2020.
R. Mathur, Palla, L., Farmer, R. E., Chaturvedi, N., and Smeeth, L., Ethnic differences in the severity and clinical management of type 2 diabetes at time of diagnosis: A cohort study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Diabetes Res Clin Pract, vol. 160, p. 108006, 2020.
R. Mathur, Farmer, R. E., Eastwood, S. V., Chaturvedi, N., Douglas, I., and Smeeth, L., Ethnic disparities in initiation and intensification of diabetes treatment in adults with type 2 diabetes in the UK, 1990-2017: A cohort study, PLoS Med, vol. 17, p. e1003106, 2020.
E. M. Heintjes, Bezemer, I. D., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Smits, E., Booth, H. P., Dedman, D., He, Y., Hoti, F., Vehkala, M., de Vogel, S., Robinson, N. J., Appenteng, K., and van Beest, F. J. A. Penn, Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Additional Risk Minimization Measure to Reduce the Risk of Prescribing Mirabegron to Patients with Severe Uncontrolled Hypertension in Four European Countries, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 12, pp. 423-433, 2020.
R. Palladino, Marrie, R. A., Majeed, A., and Chataway, J., Evaluating the Risk of Macrovascular Events and Mortality Among People With Multiple Sclerosis in England, JAMA Neurol, 2020.
Y. Li, Sperrin, M., Martin, G. P., Ashcroft, D. M., and van Staa, T. P., Examining the impact of data quality and completeness of electronic health records on predictions of patients' risks of cardiovascular disease, Int J Med Inform, vol. 133, p. 104033, 2020.
O. M. Moussa, Ardissino, M., Kulatilake, P., Faraj, A., Muttoni, E., Darzi, A., Ziprin, P., Scholtz, S., and Purkayastha, S., Effect of body mass index on depression in a UK cohort of 363 037 obese patients: A longitudinal analysis of transition, Clin Obes, p. e12305, 2019.
G. S. Matharu, Mouchti, S., Twigg, S., Delmestri, A., Murray, D. W., Judge, A., and Pandit, H. G., The effect of smoking on outcomes following primary total hip and knee arthroplasty: a population-based cohort study of 117,024 patients, Acta Orthop, pp. 1-9, 2019.
M. J. Cook, Sorial, A. K., Lunt, M., Board, T. N., and O'Neill, T. W., Effect of timing and duration of statin exposure on risk of hip or knee revision arthroplasty: a population-based cohort study, J Rheumatol, 2019.
M. C. Gulliford, Prevost, A. T., Charlton, J., Juszczyk, D., Soames, J., McDermott, L., Sultana, K., Wright, M., Fox, R., Hay, A. D., Little, P., Moore, M. V., Yardley, L., and Ashworth, M., Effectiveness and safety of electronically delivered prescribing feedback and decision support on antibiotic use for respiratory illness in primary care: REDUCE cluster randomised trial, Bmj, vol. 364, p. l236, 2019.
K. Marinier, Macouillard, P., de Champvallins, M., Deltour, N., Poulter, N., and Mancia, G., Effectiveness of two-drug therapy versus monotherapy as initial regimen in hypertension: A propensity score-matched cohort study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
K. Mattishent, Richardson, K., Dhatariya, K., Savva, G. M., Fox, C., and Loke, Y. K., The effects of hypoglycemia and dementia on cardiovascular events, falls and fractures and all-cause mortality in older people - a retrospective cohort study, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2019.
M. C. Gulliford, Juszczyk, D., Prevost, A. T., Soames, J., McDermott, L., Sultana, K., Wright, M., Fox, R., Hay, A. D., Little, P., Moore, M., Yardley, L., Ashworth, M., and Charlton, J., Electronically delivered interventions to reduce antibiotic prescribing for respiratory infections in primary care: cluster RCT using electronic health records and cohort study, Health Technol Assess, vol. 23, pp. 1-70, 2019.
E. Herrett, Gadd, S., Jackson, R., Bhaskaran, K., Williamson, E., Van Staa, T., Sofat, R., Timmis, A., and Smeeth, L., Eligibility and subsequent burden of cardiovascular disease of four strategies for blood pressure-lowering treatment: a retrospective cohort study, Lancet, 2019.
H. Whittaker, Connell, O., Campbell, J., Elbehairy, A. F., Hopkinson, N. S., and Quint, J. K., Eligibility for Lung Volume Reduction Surgery in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients identified in a UK primary care setting, Chest, 2019.
R. Ferguson, Culliford, D., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Pinedo-Villanueva, R., Delmestri, A., Arden, N., and Bowen, C., Encounters for foot and ankle pain in UK primary care: a population-based cohort study of CPRD data, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 69, pp. e422-e429, 2019.
L. Horne, Ashfaq, A., MacLachlan, S., Sinsakul, M., Qin, L., LoCasale, R., and Wetmore, J. B., Epidemiology and health outcomes associated with hyperkalemia in a primary care setting in England, BMC Nephrol, vol. 20, p. 85, 2019.
S. Wood, Marchant, A., Allsopp, M., Wilkinson, K., Bethel, J., Jones, H., and John, A., Epidemiology of eating disorders in primary care in children and young people: a Clinical Practice Research Datalink study in England, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e026691, 2019.
I. J. Chou, Kuo, C. F., Tanasescu, R., Tench, C. R., Tiley, C. G., Constantinescu, C. S., and Whitehouse, W. P., Epilepsy and associated mortality in patients with multiple sclerosis, Eur J Neurol, vol. 26, pp. 342-e23, 2019.
J. Scott, Jones, T., Redaniel, M. T., May, M. T., Ben-Shlomo, Y., and Caskey, F., Estimating the risk of acute kidney injury associated with use of diuretics and renin angiotensin aldosterone system inhibitors: A population based cohort study using the clinical practice research datalink, BMC Nephrol, vol. 20, p. 481, 2019.
M. Eberg, Platt, R. W., Reynier, P., and Filion, K. B., Estimation of high-dimensional propensity scores with multiple exposure levels, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
S. I. Shiekh, Forbes, H., Mathur, R., Smeeth, L., Pearce, N., and Warren-Gash, C., Ethnicity and risk of diagnosed dementia after stroke: a cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, J Epidemiol Community Health, 2019.
K. Hedenmalm, Blake, K., Donegan, K., Macia, M. A., Gil, M., Williams, J., Montero, D., Candore, G., Morales, D., Kurz, X., and Arlett, P., A European multicentre drug utilisation study of the impact of regulatory measures on prescribing of codeine for pain in children, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
C. Marley, Y. Hahi, E., Ferreira, G., Woods, L., and A. Villaescusa, R., Evaluation of a risk score to predict future Clostridium difficile disease using UK primary care and hospital data in Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Hum Vaccin Immunother, pp. 1-7, 2019.
C. F. Vogelmeier, Kostikas, K., Fang, J., Tian, H., Jones, B., Morgan, C. L., Fogel, R., Gutzwiller, F. S., and Cao, H., Evaluation of exacerbations and blood eosinophils in UK and US COPD populations, Respir Res, vol. 20, p. 178, 2019.
L. A. Scott, Jones, B. I., Berni, T. R., Berni, E. R., De Vries, J., and Currie, C. J., Evaluation of the epidemiology of peanut allergy in the United Kingdom, Expert Rev Clin Immunol, vol. 15, pp. 1333-1339, 2019.
L. A. Scott, Berni, T. R., Berni, E. R., De Vries, J., and Currie, C. J., Evaluation of the healthcare resource use and the related financial costs of managing peanut allergy in the United Kingdom, Expert Rev Clin Immunol, vol. 15, pp. 889-896, 2019.
S. Bellass, Taylor, J., Han, L., Prady, S. L., Shiers, D., Jacobs, R., Holt, R. I. G., Radford, J., Gilbody, S., Hewitt, C., Doran, T., Alderson, S. L., and Siddiqi, N., Exploring Severe Mental Illness and Diabetes: Protocol for a Longitudinal, Observational, and Qualitative Mixed Methods Study, JMIR Res Protoc, vol. 8, p. 13407, 2019.
R. M. Joseph, van Staa, T. P., Lunt, M., Abrahamowicz, M., and Dixon, W. G., Exposure measurement error when assessing current glucocorticoid use using UK primary care electronic prescription data, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 28, pp. 179-186, 2019.
M. H. Secrest, Platt, R. W., Dormuth, C. R., Chateau, D., Targownik, L., Nie, R., Doyle, C. M., Dell'Aniello, S., and Filion, K. B., Extreme restriction design as a method for reducing confounding by indication in pharmacoepidemiologic research, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
C. Koshiaris, Van den Bruel, A., Oke, J. L., Nicholson, B. D., Shephard, E., Braddick, M., and Hamilton, W., Early detection of multiple myeloma in primary care using blood tests: a case-control study in primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 68, pp. e586-e593, 2018.
H. A. Abenhaim, Tulandi, T., Wilchesky, M., Platt, R., Spence, A. R., Czuzoj-Shulman, N., and Suissa, S., Effect of Cesarean Delivery on Long-term Risk of Small Bowel Obstruction, Obstet Gynecol, vol. 131, pp. 354-359, 2018.
J. L. Walker, Andrews, N. J., Amirthalingam, G., Forbes, H., Langan, S. M., and Thomas, S. L., Effectiveness of herpes zoster vaccination in an older United Kingdom population, Vaccine, vol. 36, pp. 2371-2377, 2018.
N. M. Davies, Taylor, G. M. J., Taylor, A. E., Jones, T., Martin, R. M., Munafo, M. R., Windmeijer, F., and Thomas, K. H., The effects of prescribing varenicline on two-year health outcomes: an observational cohort study using electronic medical records, Addiction, vol. 113, pp. 1105-1116, 2018.
J. Gho, Schmidt, A. F., Pasea, L., Koudstaal, S., Pujades-Rodriguez, M., Denaxas, S., Shah, A. D., Patel, R. S., Gale, C. P., Hoes, A. W., Cleland, J. G., Hemingway, H., and Asselbergs, F. W., An electronic health records cohort study on heart failure following myocardial infarction in England: incidence and predictors, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e018331, 2018.
K. J. Roberts, Bannister, C. A., and Schrem, H., Enzyme replacement improves survival among patients with pancreatic cancer: Results of a population based study, Pancreatology, 2018.
A. Cassell, Edwards, D., Harshfield, A., Rhodes, K., Brimicombe, J., Payne, R., and Griffin, S., The epidemiology of multimorbidity in primary care: a retrospective cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 68, pp. e245-e251, 2018.
M. Liang, Ye, T., and Fu, H., Estimating individualized optimal combination therapies through outcome weighted deep learning algorithms, Stat Med, vol. 37, pp. 3869-3886, 2018.
L. R. Vaz, Jones, M. J., Szatkowski, L., Tata, L. J., Petrou, S., and Coleman, T., Estimating the health-care costs of children born to pregnant smokers in England: cohort study using primary and secondary health-care data, Addiction, vol. 113, pp. 1305-1316, 2018.
H. Caspard, Steffey, A., Mallory, R. M., and Ambrose, C. S., Evaluation of the safety of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in children and adolescents with asthma and high-risk conditions: a population-based prospective cohort study conducted in England with the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e023118, 2018.
[Page last reviewed 7 September 2020]