Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 April 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 226 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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L. K. Fraser, Murtagh, F. E. M., Sheldon, T., Gilbody, S., and Hewitt, C., Health of mothers of children with a life-limiting condition: a protocol for comparative cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e034024, 2020.
A. Gayle, Schoof, N., Alves, M., Clarke, D., Raabe, C., Das, P., Del Galdo, F., and Maher, T. M., Healthcare Resource Utilization Among Patients in England with Systemic Sclerosis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease: A Retrospective Database Analysis, Adv Ther, 2020.
D. Lewer, Padmanathan, P., M. Arfeen, Q. Ul, Denaxas, S., Forbes, H., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., and Hickman, M., Healthcare use by people who use illicit opioids (HUPIO): development of a cohort based on electronic primary care records in England, Wellcome Open Res, vol. 5, p. 282, 2020.
C. L. Morgan, Varga, S., Tsong, W., Jenkins-Jones, S., and Holden, S., Healthcare utilization and associated costs following initiation of perampanel in patients with epilepsy, Epilepsy Behav, vol. 110, p. 107137, 2020.
S. Hawley, Shaw, N. J., Delmestri, A., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Cooper, C., Pinedo-Villanueva, R., and Javaid, M. K., Higher prevalence of non-skeletal comorbidity related to X-linked hypophosphataemia: a UK parallel cohort study using CPRD, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2020.
S. Alageel and Gulliford, M. C., Health checks and cardiovascular risk factor values over six years' follow-up: Matched cohort study using electronic health records in England, PLoS Med, vol. 16, p. e1002863, 2019.
J. Voorham, Xu, X., Price, D. B., Golam, S., Davis, J., J. Ling, Z. Jie, Kerkhof, M., Ow, M., and Tran, T. N., Healthcare resource utilization and costs associated with incremental systemic corticosteroid exposure in asthma, Allergy, vol. 74, pp. 273-283, 2019.
L. Harris, Graham, S., MacLachlan, S., Exuzides, A., and Jacob, S., Healthcare resource utilization by patients with treatment-refractory myasthenia gravis in England, J Med Econ, pp. 1-7, 2019.
G. Ferreira, Stuurman, A. L., Horsmans, Y., Cattaert, T., Verstraeten, T., Feng, Y., Rosillon, D., and Guignard, A., Hepatitis B virus infection and the risk of liver disease progression in type 2 diabetic patients with potential nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a retrospective, observational, cohort study in the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2019.
D. Curran, Hunjan, M., A. Ghachi, E., El-Hahi, Y., Bianco, V., and Ferreira, G., Herpes zoster related healthcare burden and costs in immunocompromised (IC) and IC-free populations in England: an observational retrospective database analysis, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e023502, 2019.
K. Richardson, Mattishent, K., Loke, Y. K., Steel, N., Fox, C., Grossi, C. M., Bennett, K., Maidment, I., Boustani, M., Matthews, F. E., Myint, P. K., Campbell, N. L., Brayne, C., Robinson, L., and Savva, G. M., History of Benzodiazepine Prescriptions and Risk of Dementia: Possible Bias Due to Prevalent Users and Covariate Measurement Timing in a Nested Case-Control Study, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 188, pp. 1228-1236, 2019.
R. E. Ghosh, Crellin, E., Beatty, S., Donegan, K., Myles, P., and Williams, R., How Clinical Practice Research Datalink data are used to support pharmacovigilance, Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, 2019.
V. W. Zhong, Juhaeri, J., Cole, S. R., Shay, C. M., Gordon-Larsen, P., Kontopantelis, E., and Mayer-Davis, E. J., HbA1C variability and hypoglycemia hospitalization in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: A nested case-control study, J Diabetes Complications, vol. 32, pp. 203-209, 2018.
M. Kerkhof, Tran, T. N., Soriano, J. B., Golam, S., Gibson, D., Hillyer, E. V., and Price, D. B., Healthcare resource use and costs of severe, uncontrolled eosinophilic asthma in the UK general population, Thorax, vol. 73, pp. 116-124, 2018.
H. Otete, Fleming, M. K., West, J., and Orton, E., Healthcare Utilisation, Morbidities and Alcohol Use Monitoring Prior to Alcoholic Psychosis Diagnosis, Alcohol Alcohol, 2018.
S. Vanni, Zattoni, M., Moda, F., Giaccone, G., Tagliavini, F., Haik, S., Deslys, J. P., Zanusso, G., Ironside, J. W., Carmona, M., Ferrer, I., Kovacs, G. G., and Legname, G., Hemoglobin mRNA Changes in the Frontal Cortex of Patients with Neurodegenerative Diseases, Front Neurosci, vol. 12, p. 8, 2018.
R. Kumar, Hepatitis B virus infection and diabetes mellitus: An adverse relationship A letter in response to Incidence and prevalence of hepatitis B in patients with diabetes mellitus in the UK: A population-based cohort study using the UK Clinical Practice Researc, J Viral Hepat, vol. 25, p. 1401, 2018.
M. M. Crane, Webb, D. J., Watson, E., Cunliffe, T., and English, J., Hand eczema and steroid-refractory chronic hand eczema in general practice: prevalence and initial treatment, Br J Dermatol, vol. 176, pp. 955-964, 2017.
S. Borghs, Thieffry, S., Noack-Rink, M., Dedeken, P., Hong, L. S., Byram, L., Logan, J., Chan, J., and Kiri, V., Health care cost associated with the use of enzyme-inducing and non-enzyme-active antiepileptic drugs in the UK: a long-term retrospective matched cohort study, BMC Neurol, vol. 17, p. 59, 2017.
S. M. Collin, Bakken, I. J., Nazareth, I., Crawley, E., and White, P. D., Health care resource use by patients before and after a diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS/ME): a clinical practice research datalink study, BMC Fam Pract, vol. 18, p. 60, 2017.
S. E. Holden, Morgan, C. L., Qiao, Q., Jenkins-Jones, S., Berni, E. R., and Currie, C. J., Healthcare resource utilization and related financial costs associated with glucose lowering with either exenatide or basal insulin: A retrospective cohort study, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 19, pp. 1097-1105, 2017.
E. Hansson, Forbes, H. J., Langan, S. M., Smeeth, L., and Bhaskaran, K., Herpes zoster risk after 21 specific cancers: population-based case-control study, Br J Cancer, vol. 116, pp. 1643-1651, 2017.
N. M. Davies, Thomas, K. H., Taylor, A. E., Taylor, G. M. J., Martin, R. M., Munafo, M. R., and Windmeijer, F., How to compare instrumental variable and conventional regression analyses using negative controls and bias plots, Int J Epidemiol, vol. 46, pp. 2067-2077, 2017.
N. Frey, Hugle, T., Jick, S. S., Meier, C. R., and Spoendlin, J., Hyperlipidaemia and incident osteoarthritis of the hand: a population-based case-control study, Osteoarthritis Cartilage, vol. 25, pp. 1040-1045, 2017.
S. M. Grandi, Vallee-Pouliot, K., Reynier, P., Eberg, M., Platt, R. W., Arel, R., Basso, O., and Filion, K. B., Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy and the Risk of Subsequent Cardiovascular Disease, Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol, vol. 31, pp. 412-421, 2017.
I. M. Carey, Shah, S. M., Hosking, F. J., DeWilde, S., Harris, T., Beighton, C., and Cook, D. G., Health characteristics and consultation patterns of people with intellectual disability: a cross-sectional database study in English general practice, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 66, pp. e264-70, 2016.
W. Hollingworth, Biswas, M., Maishman, R. L., Dayer, M. J., McDonagh, T., Purdy, S., Reeves, B. C., Rogers, C. A., Williams, R., and Pufulete, M., The healthcare costs of heart failure during the last five years of life: A retrospective cohort study, Int J Cardiol, vol. 224, pp. 132-138, 2016.
A. T. Clarke, Johnson, P. C., Hall, G. C., Ford, I., and Mills, P. R., High Dose Atorvastatin Associated with Increased Risk of Significant Hepatotoxicity in Comparison to Simvastatin in UK GPRD Cohort, PLoS One, vol. 11, p. e0151587, 2016.
B. P. Verhaegh, de Vries, F., Masclee, A. A., Keshavarzian, A., de Boer, A., Souverein, P. C., Pierik, M. J., and Jonkers, D. M., High risk of drug-induced microscopic colitis with concomitant use of NSAIDs and proton pump inhibitors, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 43, pp. 1004-13, 2016.
G. Requena, Huerta, C., Gardarsdottir, H., Logie, J., Gonzalez-Gonzalez, R., Abbing-Karahagopian, V., Miret, M., Schneider, C., Souverein, P. C., Webb, D., Afonso, A., Boudiaf, N., Martin, E., Oliva, B., Alvarez, A., de Groot, M. C., Bate, A., Johansson, S., Schlienger, R., Reynolds, R., Klungel, O. H., and de Abajo, F. J., Hip/femur fractures associated with the use of benzodiazepines (anxiolytics, hypnotics and related drugs): a methodological approach to assess consistencies across databases from the PROTECT-EU project, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 25 Suppl 1, pp. 66-78, 2016.
R. J. Black, Joseph, R. M., Brown, B., Movahedi, M., Lunt, M., and Dixon, W. G., Half of U.K. patients with rheumatoid arthritis are prescribed oral glucocorticoid therapy in primary care: a retrospective drug utilisation study, Arthritis Res Ther, vol. 17, p. 375, 2015.
K. T. Palmer, Walker-Bone, K., Harris, E. C., Linaker, C., D'Angelo, S., Sayer, A. A., Gale, C. R., Evandrou, M., Van Staa, T., Cooper, C., and Coggon, D., Health and Employment after Fifty (HEAF): a new prospective cohort study, BMC Public Health, vol. 15, p. 1071, 2015.
P. McEwan, B. Thorsted, L., Wolden, M., Jacobsen, J., and Evans, M., Healthcare resource implications of hypoglycemia-related hospital admissions and inpatient hypoglycemia: retrospective record-linked cohort studies in England, BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, vol. 3, p. e000057, 2015.
J. Yu, Tang, J., Li, Z., Sajjan, S., O'Regan, C., Modi, A., and Sazonov, V., History of cardiovascular events and cardiovascular risk factors among patients initiating strontium ranelate for treatment of osteoporosis, Int J Womens Health, vol. 7, pp. 913-8, 2015.
D. Prieto-Alhambra, Javaid, M. K., Judge, A., Maskell, J., Cooper, C., and Arden, N. K., Hormone replacement therapy and mid-term implant survival following knee or hip arthroplasty for osteoarthritis: a population-based cohort study, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 74, pp. 557-63, 2015.
K. Khunti, Davies, M., Majeed, A., Thorsted, B. L., Wolden, M. L., and Paul, S. K., Hypoglycemia and risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in insulin-treated people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: a cohort study, Diabetes Care, vol. 38, pp. 316-22, 2015.
[Page last reviewed 6 April 2021]