Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,800 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 June 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 229 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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A. Ruigomez, Plana, E., Gilsenan, A., Fortuny, J., Cainzos-Achirica, M., Flynn, R. W. V., MacDonald, T. M., Garcia-Rodriguez, L., Ziemiecki, R., and Andrews, E. B., Identification and Validation of Major Cardiovascular Events in the United Kingdom Data Sources Included in a Multi-database Post-authorization Safety Study of Prucalopride, Drug Saf, 2021.
S. L. Lay-Flurrie, Sheppard, J. P., Stevens, R. J., Mallen, C., Heneghan, C., Hobbs, F. R., Williams, B., Mant, J., and McManus, R. J., Impact of changes to national guidelines on hypertension-related workload: an interrupted time series analysis in English primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 71, pp. e296-e302, 2021.
L. R. Rodgers, Streeter, A. J., Lin, N., Hamilton, W., and Henley, W. E., Impact of influenza vaccination on amoxicillin prescriptions in older adults: A retrospective cohort study using primary care data, PLoS One, vol. 16, p. e0246156, 2021.
L. Han, Doran, T., Holt, R. I. G., Hewitt, C., Jacobs, R., Prady, S. L., Alderson, S. L., Shiers, D., Wang, H. I., Bellass, S., Gilbody, S., Kitchen, C. E. W., Lister, J., Taylor, J., and Siddiqi, N., The impact of severe mental illness on healthcare use and health outcomes for people with type 2 diabetes, Br J Gen Pract, 2021.
K. Ngaosuwan, Johnston, D. G., Godsland, I. F., Cox, J., Majeed, A., Quint, J. K., Oliver, N., and Robinson, S., Increased mortality risk in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2021.
K. E. Mansfield, Mathur, R., Tazare, J., Henderson, A. D., Mulick, A. R., Carreira, H., Matthews, A. A., Bidulka, P., Gayle, A., Forbes, H., Cook, S., Wong, A. Y. S., Strongman, H., Wing, K., Warren-Gash, C., Cadogan, S. L., Smeeth, L., Hayes, J. F., Quint, J. K., McKee, M., and Langan, S. M., Indirect acute effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical and mental health in the UK: a population-based study, Lancet Digit Health, 2021.
B. van Bodegraven, Palin, V., Mistry, C., Sperrin, M., White, A., Welfare, W., Ashcroft, D. M., and van Staa, T. P., Infection-related complications after common infection in association with new antibiotic prescribing in primary care: retrospective cohort study using linked electronic health records, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e041218, 2021.
A. Douros, Santella, C., Dell'Aniello, S., Azoulay, L., Renoux, C., Suissa, S., and Brassard, P., Infectious Disease Burden and the Risk of Alzheimer's Disease: A Population-Based Study, J Alzheimers Dis, 2021.
Y. Schonmann, Mansfield, K. E., Mulick, A., Roberts, A., Smeeth, L., Langan, S. M., and Nitsch, D., Inflammatory Skin Diseases and the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease - Population-Based Case-control and Cohort analyses, Br J Dermatol, 2021.
V. C. Brunetti, Yu, O. H. Y., Platt, R. W., and Filion, K. B., Initiation of four basal insulins and subsequent treatment modification in people treated for type 2 diabetes in the United Kingdom: Changes over the period 2003-2018, Diabet Med, p. e14603, 2021.
D. R. Morales, Lipworth, B. J., Donnan, P. T., and Wang, H., Intolerance to Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors in Asthma and the General Population: A UK Population-Based Cohort Study, J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, 2021.
R. Ma, Cecil, E., Bottle, A., French, R., and Saxena, S., Impact of a pay-for-performance scheme for long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) advice on contraceptive uptake and abortion in British primary care: An interrupted time series study, PLoS Med, vol. 17, p. e1003333, 2020.
C. S. Cabrera, Lee, A. S., Olsson, M., Schnecke, V., Westman, K., Lind, M., Greasley, P. J., and Skrtic, S., Impact of CKD Progression on Cardiovascular Disease Risk in a Contemporary UK Cohort of Individuals With Diabetes, Kidney Int Rep, vol. 5, pp. 1651-1660, 2020.
A. Pate, Emsley, R., and Van Staa, T., Impact of lowering the risk threshold for statin treatment on statin prescribing: a descriptive study in English primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 70, pp. e765-e771, 2020.
A. Pate, Emsley, R., Sperrin, M., Martin, G. P., and Van Staa, T., Impact of sample size on the stability of risk scores from clinical prediction models: a case study in cardiovascular disease, Diagn Progn Res, vol. 4, p. 14, 2020.
A. Pate, Elliott, R. A., Gkountouras, G., Thompson, A., Emsley, R., and Van Staa, T., The impact of statin discontinuation and restarting rates on the optimal time to initiate statins and on the number of cardiovascular events prevented, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
J. Tazare, Smeeth, L., Evans, S. J. W., Williamson, E., and Douglas, I. J., Implementing high-dimensional propensity score principles to improve confounder adjustment in UK electronic health records, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
H. J. Forbes, Bhaskaran, K., Grint, D., Hu, V. H., Langan, S. M., McDonald, H. I., Morton, C., Smeeth, L., Walker, J. L., and Warren-Gash, C., Incidence of acute complications of herpes zoster among immunocompetent adults in England: a matched cohort study using routine health data, Br J Dermatol, 2020.
F. Tyrer, Zaccardi, F., Khunti, K., and Morriss, R., Incidence of Depression and First-Line Antidepressant Therapy in People with Obesity and Depression in Primary Care, Obesity (Silver Spring), vol. 28, pp. 977-984, 2020.
J. M. Ryan, Cameron, M. H., Liverani, S., Smith, K. J., O'Connell, N., Peterson, M. D., Anokye, N., Victor, C., and Boland, F., Incidence of falls among adults with cerebral palsy: a cohort study using primary care data, Dev Med Child Neurol, vol. 62, pp. 477-482, 2020.
C. V. Chalitsios, McKeever, T. M., and Shaw, D. E., Incidence of osteoporosis and fragility fractures in asthma: a UK population-based matched cohort study, Eur Respir J, 2020.
L. Grønbaek, Otete, H., Ban, L., Crooks, C., Card, T., Jepsen, P., and West, J., Incidence, prevalence, and mortality of autoimmune hepatitis in England 1997-2015. A population-based cohort study, Liver Int, 2020.
M. S. M. Persson, Harman, K. E., Vinogradova, Y., Langan, S. M., Hippisley-Cox, J., Thomas, K. S., and Gran, S., Incidence, prevalence, and mortality of bullous pemphigoid in England 1998-2017: a population-based cohort study, Br J Dermatol, 2020.
O. B. Esan, Perera, R., McCarthy, N., Violato, M., and Fanshawe, T. R., Incidence, risk factors, and health service burden of sequelae of campylobacter and non-typhoidal salmonella infections in England, 2000-2015: A retrospective cohort study using linked electronic health records, J Infect, 2020.
R. Persson, Lee, S., Yood, M. U., Wagner, M., Minton, N., Niemcryk, S., Lindholm, A., Evans, A., and Jick, S., Incident cardiovascular disease in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis: A multi-database study, Mult Scler Relat Disord, vol. 37, p. 101423, 2020.
R. Persson, Lee, S., Yood, M. U., Mc, M. R. Wagner, Minton, N., Niemcryk, S., Lindholm, A., Evans, A. M., and Jick, S., Incident depression in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis: a multi-database study, Eur J Neurol, 2020.
C. Zecca, Disanto, G., Sacco, R., MacLachlan, S., Kuhle, J., Ramagopalan, S. V., and Gobbi, C., Increasing cancer risk over calendar year in people with multiple sclerosis: a case-control study, J Neurol, 2020.
J. Rouette, Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., Bouganim, N., Platt, R. W., and Azoulay, L., Incretin-based drugs and risk of lung cancer among individuals with type 2 diabetes, Diabet Med, 2020.
T. Rathod-Mistry, Marshall, M., Campbell, P., Bailey, J., Chew-Graham, C. A., Croft, P., Frisher, M., Hayward, R., Negi, R., Robinson, L., Singh, S., Sumathipala, A., Thein, N., Walters, K., Weich, S., and Jordan, K. P., Indicators of dementia disease progression in primary care: an electronic health record cohort study, Eur J Neurol, 2020.
R. Persson, Lee, S., M. Yood, U., Mc, C. M. Wagner, Minton, N., Niemcryk, S., Lindholm, A., Evans, A. M., and Jick, S. S., Infections in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis: A multi-database study, Mult Scler Relat Disord, vol. 41, p. 101982, 2020.
J. P. A. Houwen, Egberts, A. C. G., de Boer, A., van Maarseveen, E. M., Houwen, R. H. J., and Lalmohamed, A., Influence of allopurinol on thiopurine associated toxicity: A retrospective population-based cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2020.
C. S. Osam, Pierce, M., Hope, H., Ashcroft, D. M., and Abel, K. M., The influence of maternal mental illness on vaccination uptake in children: a UK population-based cohort study, Eur J Epidemiol, 2020.
L. E. Clarson, Bajpai, R., Whittle, R., Belcher, J., A. Sultan, A., Kwok, C. S., Welsh, V., Mamas, M., and Mallen, C. D., Interstitial lung disease is a risk factor for ischaemic heart disease and myocardial infarction, Heart, 2020.
C. Martinez, Wallenhorst, C., Rietbrock, S., and Freedman, B., Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack Risk Following Vitamin K Antagonist Cessation in Newly Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation: A Cohort Study, J Am Heart Assoc, vol. 9, p. e014376, 2020.
H. Carreira, Williams, R., Strongman, H., and Bhaskaran, K., Identification of mental health and quality of life outcomes in primary care databases in the UK: a systematic review, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e029227, 2019.
B. Carter, C. Bennett, V., Bethel, J., Jones, H. M., Wang, T., and Kemp, A., Identifying cerebral palsy from routinely-collected data in England and Wales, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 11, pp. 457-468, 2019.
M. Pikoula, Quint, J. K., Nissen, F., Hemingway, H., Smeeth, L., and Denaxas, S., Identifying clinically important COPD sub-types using data-driven approaches in primary care population based electronic health records, BMC Med Inform Decis Mak, vol. 19, p. 86, 2019.
B. M. Shields, Hattersley, A. T., and Farmer, A. J., Identifying routine clinical predictors of non-adherence to second line therapies in Type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort analysis in a large primary care database, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2019.
E. Ford, Rooney, P., Oliver, S., Hoile, R., Hurley, P., Banerjee, S., van Marwijk, H., and Cassell, J., Identifying undetected dementia in UK primary care patients: a retrospective case-control study comparing machine-learning and standard epidemiological approaches, BMC Med Inform Decis Mak, vol. 19, p. 248, 2019.
P. Tammes, Payne, R. A., Salisbury, C., Chalder, M., Purdy, S., and Morris, R. W., The impact of a named GP scheme on continuity of care and emergency hospital admission: a cohort study among older patients in England, 2012-2016, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e029103, 2019.
V. Allan, Sammon, C. J., McDonald, L., Mehmud, F., Alikhan, R., and Ramagopalan, S. V., Impact of atrial fibrillation awareness campaigns: interrupted time series using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Future Cardiol, 2019.
N. Al-Attar, Johnston, S., Jamous, N., Mistry, S., Ghosh, E., Gangoli, G., Danker, W., Etter, K., and Ammann, E., Impact of bleeding complications on length of stay and critical care utilization in cardiac surgery patients in England, J Cardiothorac Surg, vol. 14, p. 64, 2019.
E. Burn, Edwards, C. J., Murray, D. W., Silman, A., Cooper, C., Arden, N. K., Prieto-Alhambra, D., and Pinedo-Villanueva, R., The impact of bmi and smoking on risk of revision following knee and hip replacement surgery: evidence from routinely collected data, Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2019.
D. Z. I. Cherney, Repetto, E., Wheeler, D. C., Arnold, S. V., MacLachlan, S., Hunt, P. R., Chen, H., Vora, J., and Kosiborod, M., Impact of Cardio-Renal-Metabolic Comorbidities on Cardiovascular Outcomes and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Am J Nephrol, pp. 1-9, 2019.
J. Ride, Kasteridis, P., Gutacker, N., Doran, T., Rice, N., Gravelle, H., Kendrick, T., Mason, A., Goddard, M., Siddiqi, N., Gilbody, S., Williams, R., Aylott, L., Dare, C., and Jacobs, R., Impact of family practice continuity of care on unplanned hospital use for people with serious mental illness, Health Serv Res, 2019.
L. Han, Clegg, A., Doran, T., and Fraser, L., The impact of frailty on healthcare resource use: a longitudinal analysis using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink in England, Age Ageing, 2019.
C. D. Steer, Macleod, J., Tilling, K., Lim, A. G., Marsden, J., Millar, T., Strang, J., Telfer, M., Whitaker, H., Vickerman, P., and Hickman, M., The impact of opiate substitution treatment on mortality risk in drug addicts: a natural experiment study, Health Services and Delivery Research, vol. 7, no. 3, 2019.
J. Blackwell, Saxena, S., Alexakis, C., Bottle, A., Cecil, E., Majeed, A., and Pollok, R. C., The impact of smoking and smoking cessation on disease outcomes in ulcerative colitis: a nationwide population-based study, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 50, pp. 556-567, 2019.
J. T. H. Nielen, Dagnelie, P. C., Boonen, A., Klungel, O., van den Bemt, B., and de Vries, F., Impact of the definition of osteoarthritis and of the timing of its onset on the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and osteoarthritis: Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Diabetes Res Clin Pract, vol. 148, pp. 240-248, 2019.
H. C. Patel, Hayward, C., Patel, K. S., Claggett, B., Vazir, A., and Cowie, M. R., Impact on survival of combination inhalers in patients with COPD at high risk of cardiovascular events, Int J Cardiol, 2019.
[Page last reviewed 4 June 2021]