Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,800 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 June 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 229 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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C. W. le Roux, Hartvig, N. V., Haase, C. L., Nordsborg, R. B., Olsen, A. H., and Satylganova, A., Obesity, cardiovascular risk and healthcare resource utilization in the UK, Eur J Prev Cardiol, p. 2047487320925639, 2020.
M. Katsoulis, Pasea, L., Lai, A. G., Dobson, R. J. B., Denaxas, S., Hemingway, H., and Banerjee, A., Obesity during the COVID-19 pandemic: both cause of high risk and potential effect of lockdown? A population-based electronic health record study, Public Health, vol. 191, pp. 41-47, 2020.
G. Glover, Williams, R., and Oyinlola, J., An observational cohort study of numbers and causes of preventable general hospital admissions in people with and without intellectual disabilities in England, J Intellect Disabil Res, 2020.
C. van Durme, Spaetgens, B., Driessen, J., Nielen, J., Sastry, M., Boonen, A., and de Vries, F., Obstructive sleep apnea and the risk of gout: a population-based case-control study, Arthritis Res Ther, vol. 22, p. 92, 2020.
D. Alarkawi, Ali, M. S., Bliuc, D., Pallares, N., Tebe, C., Elhussein, L., Caskey, F. J., Arden, N. K., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Abrahamsen, B., Diez-Perez, A., Pascual, J., Perez-Saez, M. J., Center, J. R., Judge, A., Cooper, C., Javaid, M. K., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Oral bisphosphonate use and all-cause mortality in patients with moderate-severe (grade 3B-5D) chronic kidney disease: a population-based cohort study, J Bone Miner Res, 2020.
J. J. Lee, Smith, M., Bankhead, C., R. Salazar, P., Kousoulis, A. A., Butler, C. C., and Wang, K., Oseltamivir and influenza-related complications in children: a retrospective cohort in primary care, Eur Respir J, 2020.
J. D. Blakey, Gayle, A., Slater, M. G., Jones, G. H., and Baldwin, M., Observational cohort study to investigate the unmet need and time waiting for referral for specialist opinion in adult asthma in England (UNTWIST asthma), BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e031740, 2019.
G. Glover, Williams, R., Tompkins, G., and Oyinlola, J., An observational study of the use of acute hospital care by people with intellectual disabilities in England, J Intellect Disabil Res, vol. 63, pp. 85-99, 2019.
R. Buhl, Heaney, L. G., Loefroth, E., Larbig, M., Kostikas, K., Conti, V., and Cao, H., One-year follow up of asthmatic patients newly initiated on treatment with medium- or high-dose inhaled corticosteroid-long-acting beta2-agonist in UK primary care settings, Respir Med, vol. 162, p. 105859, 2019.
A. A. Florio, Graubard, B. I., Yang, B., Thistle, J. E., Bradley, M. C., McGlynn, K. A., and Petrick, J. L., Oophorectomy and risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and primary liver cancer in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Eur J Epidemiol, 2019.
C. Renzi, Lyratzopoulos, G., Hamilton, W., and Rachet, B., Opportunities for reducing emergency diagnoses of colon cancer in women and men: A data-linkage study on pre-diagnostic symptomatic presentations and benign diagnoses, Eur J Cancer Care (Engl), vol. 28, p. e13000, 2019.
P. Rockenschaub, Jhass, A., Freemantle, N., Aryee, A., Rafiq, M., Hayward, A., and Shallcross, L., Opportunities to reduce antibiotic prescribing for patients with COPD in primary care: a cohort study using electronic health records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), J Antimicrob Chemother, 2019.
J. Zhang, Haines, C., Watson, A. J. M., Hart, A. R., Platt, M. J., Pardoll, D. M., Cosgrove, S. E., Gebo, K. A., and Sears, C. L., Oral antibiotic use and risk of colorectal cancer in the United Kingdom, 1989-2012: a matched case-control study, Gut, 2019.
C. L. Morgan, Jenkins-Jones, S., Currie, C., and Baxter, G., Outcomes Associated with Treatment of Chronic Pain with Tapentadol Compared with Morphine and Oxycodone: A UK Primary Care Observational Study, Adv Ther, 2019.
D. C. Hesdorffer, Ishihara, L., Webb, D. J., Mynepalli, L., Galwey, N. W., and Hauser, W. A., Occurrence and Recurrence of Attempted Suicide Among People With Epilepsy, JAMA Psychiatry, vol. 73, pp. 80-6, 2016.
S. J. Price, Stapley, S. A., Shephard, E., Barraclough, K., and Hamilton, W. T., Is omission of free text records a possible source of data loss and bias in Clinical Practice Research Datalink studies? A case-control study, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e011664, 2016.
P. Datta-Nemdharry, Thomson, A., and Beynon, J., Opportunities and Challenges in Developing a Cohort of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Using Electronic Primary Care Data, PLoS One, vol. 11, p. e0162236, 2016.
K. Wing, Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., van Staa, T. P., Klungel, O. H., Reynolds, R. F., and Douglas, I., Optimising case detection within UK electronic health records: use of multiple linked databases for detecting liver injury, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e012102, 2016.
M. Movahedi, Costello, R., Lunt, M., Pye, S. R., Sergeant, J. C., and Dixon, W. G., Oral glucocorticoid therapy and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a retrospective cohort study, Eur J Epidemiol, vol. 31, pp. 1045-1055, 2016.
G. Thomas, Khunti, K., Curcin, V., Molokhia, M., Millett, C., Majeed, A., and Paul, S., Obesity paradox in people newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes with and without prior cardiovascular disease, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 16, pp. 317-25, 2014.
R. Das, Langerman, H., D'Oca, K., and Strongman, H., An Observational Cohort Study of Diabetes-Associated Secondary Health Care Utilisation in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Prescribed Dual Combination Therapy With Oral Anti-Hyperglycaemic Agents in the UK, Value Health, vol. 17, p. A360, 2014.
T. P. van Staa, Dyson, L., McCann, G., Padmanabhan, S., Belatri, R., Goldacre, B., Cassell, J., Pirmohamed, M., Torgerson, D., Ronaldson, S., Adamson, J., Taweel, A., Delaney, B., Mahmood, S., Baracaia, S., Round, T., Fox, R., Hunter, T., Gulliford, M., and Smeeth, L., The opportunities and challenges of pragmatic point-of-care randomised trials using routinely collected electronic records: evaluations of two exemplar trials, Health Technol Assess, vol. 18, pp. 1-146, 2014.
R. C. Jones, Price, D., Ryan, D., Sims, E. J., von Ziegenweidt, J., Mascarenhas, L., Burden, A., Halpin, D. M., Winter, R., Hill, S., Kearney, M., Holton, K., Moger, A., Freeman, D., Chisholm, A., and Bateman, E. D., Opportunities to diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in routine care in the UK: a retrospective study of a clinical cohort, Lancet Respir Med, vol. 2, pp. 267-76, 2014.
G. C. Hall, Morant, S. V., Carroll, D., Gabriel, Z. L., and McQuay, H. J., An observational descriptive study of the epidemiology and treatment of neuropathic pain in a UK general population, BMC Fam Pract, vol. 14, p. 28, 2013.
C. D. Poole, Halcox, J. P., Jenkins-Jones, S., Carr, E. S., Schifflers, M. G., Ray, K. K., and Currie, C. J., Omega-3 Fatty acids and mortality outcome in patients with and without type 2 diabetes after myocardial infarction: a retrospective, matched-cohort study, Clin Ther, vol. 35, pp. 40-51, 2013.
C. R. Chapman and Bradshaw, D. H., Only modest long-term opioid dose escalation occurs over time in chronic nonmalignant pain management, J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother, vol. 27, pp. 370-7, 2013.
L. Li, Setoguchi, S., Cabral, H., and Jick, S., Opioid use for noncancer pain and risk of fracture in adults: a nested case-control study using the general practice research database, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 178, pp. 559-69, 2013.
L. Li, Setoguchi, S., Cabral, H., and Jick, S., Opioid use for noncancer pain and risk of myocardial infarction amongst adults, J Intern Med, vol. 273, pp. 511-26, 2013.
L. Li, Setoguchi, S., Cabral, H., and Jick, S., Opioids and risk of type 2 diabetes in adults with non-cancer pain, Pain Physician, vol. 16, pp. 77-88, 2013.
A. Nicholson, Ford, E., Davies, K. A., Smith, H. E., Rait, G., Tate, A. R., Petersen, I., and Cassell, J., Optimising use of electronic health records to describe the presentation of rheumatoid arthritis in primary care: a strategy for developing code lists, PLoS One, vol. 8, p. e54878, 2013.
J. Erviti, Alonso, A., Oliva, B., Gorricho, J., Lopez, A., Timoner, J., Huerta, C., Gil, M., and de Abajo, F., Oral bisphosphonates are associated with increased risk of subtrochanteric and diaphyseal fractures in elderly women: a nested case-control study, BMJ Open, vol. 3, 2013.
J. Erviti, Alonso, A., Gorricho, J., and Lopez, A., Oral bisphosphonates may not decrease hip fracture risk in elderly Spanish women: a nested case-control study, BMJ Open, vol. 3, 2013.
I. J. Douglas, Langham, J., Bhaskaran, K., Brauer, R., and Smeeth, L., Orlistat and the risk of acute liver injury: self controlled case series study in UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Bmj, vol. 346, p. f1936, 2013.
[Page last reviewed 4 June 2021]