Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 May 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 226 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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L. Sun, Pennells, L., Kaptoge, S., Nelson, C. P., Ritchie, S. C., Abraham, G., Arnold, M., Bell, S., Bolton, T., Burgess, S., Dudbridge, F., Guo, Q., Sofianopoulou, E., Stevens, D., Thompson, J. R., Butterworth, A. S., Wood, A., Danesh, J., Samani, N. J., Inouye, M., and Di Angelantonio, E., Polygenic risk scores in cardiovascular risk prediction: A cohort study and modelling analyses, PLoS Med, vol. 18, p. e1003498, 2021.
Z. Xu, Arnold, M., Stevens, D., Kaptoge, S., Pennells, L., Sweeting, M. J., Barrett, J., Angelantonio, E. D., and Wood, A. M., Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Accounting for Future Initiation of Statin Treatment, Am J Epidemiol, 2021.
J. F. Hayes, Osborn, D. P. J., Francis, E., Ambler, G., Tomlinson, L. A., Boman, M., Wong, I. C. K., Geddes, J. R., Dalman, C., and Lewis, G., Prediction of individuals at high risk of chronic kidney disease during treatment with lithium for bipolar disorder, BMC Med, vol. 19, p. 99, 2021.
R. E. Farmer, Beard, I., Raza, S. I., Gollop, N. D., Patel, N., Tebboth, A., McGovern, A. P., Kanumilli, N., and Ternouth, A., Prescribing in Type 2 Diabetes Patients With and Without Cardiovascular Disease History: a Descriptive Analysis in the UK CPRD, Clin Ther, 2021.
T. X. D. Cao, Fraga, L. F. C., Fergusson, E., Michaud, J., Dell'Aniello, S., Yin, H., Rej, S., Azoulay, L., and Renoux, C., Prescribing Trends of Antidepressants and Psychotropic Coprescription for Youths in UK Primary Care, 2000-2018, J Affect Disord, vol. 287, pp. 19-25, 2021.
V. Baskaran, Pearce, F., Harwood, R. H., McKeever, T. M., and Lim, W. S., Primary care consultations after hospitalisation for pneumonia: a large population-based cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 71, pp. e250-e257, 2021.
Y. Zhou, Walter, F. M., Singh, H., Hamilton, W., Abel, G. A., and Lyratzopoulos, G., Prolonged Diagnostic Intervals as Marker of Missed Diagnostic Opportunities in Bladder and Kidney Cancer Patients with Alarm Features: A Longitudinal Linked Data Study, Cancers (Basel), vol. 13, 2021.
J. P. Brown, Tazare, J. R., Williamson, E., Mansfield, K. E., Evans, S. J., Tomlinson, L. A., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., Wing, K., and Douglas, I. J., Proton pump inhibitors and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2021.
A. Gadoud, Kane, E., Oliver, S. E., Johnson, M. J., Macleod, U., and Allgar, V., Palliative care for non-cancer conditions in primary care: a time trend analysis in the UK (2009-2014), BMJ Support Palliat Care, 2020.
M. M. Loiacono, Mahmud, S. M., Chit, A., van Aalst, R., Kwong, J. C., Mitsakakis, N., Skinner, L., Thommes, E., Bricout, H., and Grootendorst, P., Patient and practice level factors associated with seasonal influenza vaccine uptake among at-risk adults in England, 2011 to 2016: An age-stratified retrospective cohort study, Vaccine X, vol. 4, p. 100054, 2020.
C. Siffel, Page, M., Maxwell, T., Thun, B., Kolb, N., Rosenlund, M., von Bredow, D., and Keja, J., Patterns of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Use in Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Europe, J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol, 2020.
R. K. Akyea, Qureshi, N., Kai, J., and Weng, S. F., Performance and clinical utility of supervised machine-learning approaches in detecting familial hypercholesterolaemia in primary care, NPJ Digit Med, vol. 3, p. 142, 2020.
J. R. Winter, Charlton, J., Ashworth, M., Bunce, C., and Gulliford, M. C., Peritonsillar Abscess and Antibiotic Prescribing for Respiratory Infection in Primary Care: A Population-Based Cohort Study and Decision-Analytic Model, Ann Fam Med, vol. 18, pp. 390-396, 2020.
S. Weir, Samnaliev, M., Kuo, T. C., Tierney, T. S., Manca, A., Taylor, R. S., Bruce, J., Eldabe, S., and Cumming, D., Persistent postoperative pain and healthcare costs associated with instrumented and non-instrumented spinal surgery: a case-control study, J Orthop Surg Res, vol. 15, p. 127, 2020.
I. Matthews, Lu, X., Xia, Q., Black, W., and Nozad, B., Pneumococcal vaccine coverage among individuals aged 18 to 64 years old with underlying medical conditions in the UK: a retrospective database analysis, BMC Public Health, vol. 20, p. 1584, 2020.
B. M. Hicks, Busby, J., Mills, K., O'Neil, F. A., McIntosh, S. A., Zhang, S. D., Liberante, F. G., and Cardwell, C. R., Post-diagnostic antipsychotic use and cancer mortality: a population based cohort study, BMC Cancer, vol. 20, p. 804, 2020.
C. A. Gravel, Filion, K. B., Reynier, P. M., and Platt, R. W., Postmyocardial Infarction Statin Exposure and the Risk of Stroke with Weighting for Outcome Misclassification, Epidemiology, vol. 31, pp. 880-888, 2020.
K. Bowman, Jones, L., Masoli, J., Mujica-Mota, R., Strain, D., Butchart, J., Valderas, J. M., Fortinsky, R. H., Melzer, D., and Delgado, J., Predicting incident delirium diagnoses using data from primary-care electronic health records, Age Ageing, vol. 49, pp. 374-381, 2020.
S. J. Kiddle, Whittaker, H. R., Seaman, S. R., and Quint, J. K., Prediction of five-year mortality after COPD diagnosis using primary care records, PLoS One, vol. 15, p. e0236011, 2020.
C. Martinez, Katholing, A., Wallenhorst, C., and Cohen, A. T., Prediction of significant bleeding during vitamin K antagonist treatment for venous thromboembolism in outpatients, Br J Haematol, 2020.
B. Coles, Khunti, K., Booth, S., Zaccardi, F., Davies, M. J., and Gray, L. J., Prediction of type 2 diabetes risk in people with non-diabetic hyperglycaemia: model derivation and validation using UK primary care data, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e037937, 2020.
J. K. Quint, O'Leary, C., Venerus, A., Myland, M., Holmgren, U., Varghese, P., Richter, H., Bizouard, G., and Cabrera, C., Prescribing Pathways to Triple Therapy: A Multi-Country, Retrospective Observational Study of Adult Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Pulm Ther, vol. 6, pp. 333-350, 2020.
J. K. Quint, Venerus, A., O'Leary, C., Myland, M., Holmgren, U., Varghese, P., and Cabrera, C., Prescribing Pathways to Triple Therapy: A Retrospective Observational Study of Adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the UK, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 15, pp. 3261-3271, 2020.
J. Blackwell, Saxena, S., Jayasooriya, N., Bottle, A., Petersen, I., Hotopf, M., Alexakis, C., and Pollok, R. C., Prevalence and duration of gastrointestinal symptoms before diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and predictors of timely specialist review: a population-based study, J Crohns Colitis, 2020.
H. Carreira, Strongman, H., Peppa, M., McDonald, H., dos-Santos-Silva, I., Stanway, S., Smeeth, L., and Bhaskaran, K., Prevalence of COVID-19-related risk factors and risk of severe influenza outcomes in cancer survivors: A matched cohort study using linked English electronic health records data, EClinicalMedicine, 2020.
A. Gopfert, Deeny, S. R., Fisher, R., and Stafford, M., Primary care consultation length by deprivation and multimorbidity in England: an observational study using electronic patient records, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
W. Gao, Gulliford, M., Morgan, M., and Higginson, I. J., Primary care service use by end-of-life cancer patients: a nationwide population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom, BMC Fam Pract, vol. 21, p. 76, 2020.
L. R. Rodgers, Dennis, J. M., Shields, B. M., Mounce, L., Fisher, I., Hattersley, A. T., and Henley, W. E., Prior event rate ratio adjustment produced estimates consistent with randomised trial: a diabetes case study, J Clin Epidemiol, 2020.
B. D. Nicholson, Aveyard, P., Price, S. J., Hobbs, F. R., Koshiaris, C., and Hamilton, W., Prioritising primary care patients with unexpected weight loss for cancer investigation: diagnostic accuracy study, Bmj, vol. 370, p. m2651, 2020.
M. C. Gulliford, Charlton, J., Winter, J. R., Sun, X., Rezel-Potts, E., Bunce, C., Fox, R., Little, P., Hay, A. D., Moore, M. V., and Ashworth, M., Probability of sepsis after infection consultations in primary care in the United Kingdom in 2002-2017: Population-based cohort study and decision analytic model, PLoS Med, vol. 17, p. e1003202, 2020.
Y. Chen, Hayward, R., Chew-Graham, C. A., Hubbard, R., Croft, P., Sims, K., and Jordan, K. P., Prognostic value of first-recorded breathlessness for future chronic respiratory and heart disease a cohort study using a UK national primary care database, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
A. Henderson, Iwagami, M., Bottomley, C., Tomlinson, L., Mansfield, K., and Nitsch, D., Paediatric acute kidney injury hospital admissions in England 1997–2014: burden and risk factors, Clinical Kidney Journal, 2019.
R. Williams, Kothny, W., Serban, C., Lopez-Leon, S., and Schlienger, R., Pancreatic safety of vildagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A European, noninterventional, postauthorization safety study, Endocrinol Diabetes Metab, vol. 2, p. e00052, 2019.
H. J. Forbes, Wong, A. Y. S., Morton, C., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., Richards, M., Schmidt, S. A. J., Langan, S. M., and Warren-Gash, C., Partner Bereavement and Detection of Dementia: A UK-Based Cohort Study Using Routine Health Data, J Alzheimers Dis, 2019.
A. Y. S. Wong, Froslev, T., Forbes, H. J., Kjaersgaard, A., Mulick, A., Mansfield, K., Silverwood, R. J., Sorensen, H. T., Smeeth, L., Schmidt, S. A. J., and Langan, S. M., Partner bereavement and risk of psoriasis and atopic eczema: cohort studies in the United Kingdom and Denmark, Br J Dermatol, 2019.
S. Lay-Flurrie, Mathieu, E., Bankhead, C., Nicholson, B. D., Perera-Salazar, R., Holt, T., Hobbs, F. D. R., and Salisbury, C., Patient consultation rate and clinical and NHS outcomes: a cross-sectional analysis of English primary care data from 2.7 million patients in 238 practices, BMC Health Serv Res, vol. 19, p. 219, 2019.
Y. Chen, Farooq, S., Edwards, J., Chew-Graham, C. A., Shiers, D., Frisher, M., Hayward, R., Sumathipala, A., and Jordan, K. P., Patterns of symptoms before a diagnosis of first episode psychosis: a latent class analysis of UK primary care electronic health records, BMC Med, vol. 17, p. 227, 2019.
J. Morley, Moayyeri, A., Ali, L., Taylor, A., Feudjo-Tepie, M., Hamilton, L., and Bayly, J., Persistence and compliance with osteoporosis therapies among postmenopausal women in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Osteoporos Int, 2019.
J. S. Floyd, Bloch, K. M., Brody, J. A., Maroteau, C., Siddiqui, M. K., Gregory, R., Carr, D. F., Molokhia, M., Liu, X., Bis, J. C., Ahmed, A., Liu, X., Hallberg, P., Yue, Q. Y., Magnusson, P. K. E., Brisson, D., Wiggins, K. L., Morrison, A. C., Khoury, E., McKeigue, P., Stricker, B. H., Lapeyre-Mestre, M., Heckbert, S. R., Gallagher, A. M., Chinoy, H., Gibbs, R. A., Bondon-Guitton, E., Tracy, R., Boerwinkle, E., Gaudet, D., Conforti, A., Van Staa, T., Sitlani, C. M., Rice, K. M., van der Zee, A. H. Maitlan, Wadelius, M., Morris, A. P., Pirmohamed, M., Palmer, C. A. N., Psaty, B. M., and Alfirevic, A., Pharmacogenomics of statin-related myopathy: Meta-analysis of rare variants from whole-exome sequencing, PLoS One, vol. 14, p. e0218115, 2019.
X. Sun, Douiri, A., and Gulliford, M., Pneumonia incidence trends in UK primary care from 2002 to 2017: population-based cohort study, Epidemiol Infect, vol. 147, p. e263, 2019.
R. Denholm, Morris, R., and Payne, R., Polypharmacy patterns in the last year of life in patients with dementia, Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 2019.
N. R. Hill, Ayoubkhani, D., McEwan, P., Sugrue, D. M., Farooqui, U., Lister, S., Lumley, M., Bakhai, A., Cohen, A. T., O'Neill, M., Clifton, D., and Gordon, J., Predicting atrial fibrillation in primary care using machine learning, PLoS One, vol. 14, p. e0224582, 2019.
C. I. Bloom, Ricciardi, F., Smeeth, L., Stone, P., and Quint, J. K., Predicting COPD 1-year mortality using prognostic predictors routinely measured in primary care, BMC Med, vol. 17, p. 73, 2019.
J. Watson, Salisbury, C., Banks, J., Whiting, P., and Hamilton, W., Predictive value of inflammatory markers for cancer diagnosis in primary care: a prospective cohort study using electronic health records, Br J Cancer, 2019.
L. J. Leon, McCarthy, F. P., Direk, K., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Prieto-Merino, D., Casas, J. P., and Chappell, L., Preeclampsia and Cardiovascular Disease in a Large UK Pregnancy Cohort of Linked Electronic Health Records: A CALIBER Study, Circulation, vol. 140, pp. 1050-1060, 2019.
S. Venkatesan, Jorgensen, M. E., Manning, H. J., Andersson, C., Mozid, A. M., Coburn, M., Moonesinghe, S. R., Foex, P., Mythen, M., Grocott, M. P. W., Hardman, J. G., Myles, P. R., and Sanders, R. D., Preoperative chronic beta-blocker prescription in elderly patients as a risk factor for postoperative mortality stratified by preoperative blood pressure: a cohort study, Br J Anaesth, 2019.
T. Newlove-Delgado, Hamilton, W., Ford, T. J., Stein, K., and Ukoumunne, O. C., Prescribing for young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in UK primary care: analysis of data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Atten Defic Hyperact Disord, 2019.
J. Macleod, Steer, C., Tilling, K., Cornish, R., Marsden, J., Millar, T., Strang, J., and Hickman, M., Prescription of benzodiazepines, z-drugs, and gabapentinoids and mortality risk in people receiving opioid agonist treatment: Observational study based on the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink and Office for National Statistics death records, PLoS Med, vol. 16, p. e1002965, 2019.
M. J. Carr, Ashcroft, D. M., White, P. D., Kapur, N., and Webb, R. T., Prevalence of comorbid mental and physical illnesses and risks for self-harm and premature death among primary care patients diagnosed with fatigue syndromes, Psychol Med, pp. 1-8, 2019.
D. Lautsch, Wang, T., Yang, L., and Rajpathak, S. N., Prevalence of Established Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the UK, Diabetes Ther, 2019.
[Page last reviewed 4 May 2021]