Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 March 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 220 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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R. Morriss, Tyrer, F., Zaccardi, F., and Khunti, K., Safety of antidepressants in a primary care cohort of adults with obesity and depression, PLoS One, vol. 16, p. e0245722, 2021.
R. K. Akyea, Vinogradova, Y., Qureshi, N., Patel, R. S., Kontopantelis, E., Ntaios, G., Asselbergs, F. W., Kai, J., and Weng, S. F., Sex, Age, and Socioeconomic Differences in Nonfatal Stroke Incidence and Subsequent Major Adverse Outcomes, Stroke, vol. 52, pp. 396-405, 2021.
V. C. Brunetti, Reynier, P., Azoulay, L., Yu, O. H. Y., Ernst, P., Platt, R. W., and Filion, K. B., SGLT-2 inhibitors and the risk of hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia: A population-based cohort study, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2021.
V. Palin, Welfare, W., Ashcroft, D. M., and van Staa, T. P., Shorter and longer courses of antibiotics for common infections and the association with reductions of infection-related complications including hospital admissions, Clin Infect Dis, 2021.
G. J. Lefeber, Knol, W., Souverein, P. C., Bouvy, M. L., de Boer, A., and Koek, H. L., Statins After Ischemic Stroke in the Oldest: A Cohort Study Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink Database, Stroke, p. Strokeaha120030755, 2021.
K. Phiri, Hallas, J., Linder, M., Margulis, A., Suehs, B., Arana, A., Bahmanyar, S., Hoffman, V., Enger, C., Horter, L., Odsbu, I., Olesen, M., Perez-Gutthann, S., Kristiansen, N. S., Appenteng, K., de Vogel, S., and Seeger, J., A study of cancer occurrence in users of mirabegron and antimuscarinic treatments for overactive bladder, Curr Med Res Opin, p. 1, 2021.
D. J. Grint, McDonald, H. I., Walker, J. L., Amirthalingam, G., Andrews, N., and Thomas, S., Safety of inadvertent administration of live zoster vaccine to immunosuppressed individuals in a UK-based observational cohort analysis, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e034886, 2020.
D. E. Robinson, Ali, M. S., Pallares, N., Tebe, C., Elhussein, L., Abrahamsen, B., Arden, N. K., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Caskey, F. J., Cooper, C., Dedman, D., Delmestri, A., Judge, A., Perez-Saez, M. J., Pascual, J., Nogues, X., Diez-Perez, A., Strauss, V. Y., Javaid, M. K., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Safety of oral bisphosphonates in moderate-to-severe chronic kidney disease: a bi-national cohort analysis, J Bone Miner Res, 2020.
M. Peppa, Thomas, S. L., Minassian, C., Walker, J. L., McDonald, H. I., Andrews, N. J., Kempley, S. T., and Mangtani, P., Seasonal influenza vaccination during pregnancy and the risk of major congenital malformations in live-born infants: A 2010-2016 historical cohort study, Clin Infect Dis, 2020.
E. Rezel-Potts and Gulliford, M. C., Sepsis recording in primary care electronic health records, linked hospital episodes and mortality records: Population-based cohort study in England, PLoS One, vol. 15, p. e0244764, 2020.
M. C. Gulliford, Sun, X., Charlton, J., Winter, J. R., Bunce, C., Boiko, O., Fox, R., Little, P., Moore, M., Hay, A. D., and Ashworth, M., Serious bacterial infections and antibiotic prescribing in primary care: cohort study using electronic health records in the UK, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e036975, 2020.
F. Zaccardi, Ling, S., Lawson, C., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Severe hypoglycaemia and absolute risk of cause-specific mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a UK primary care observational study, Diabetologia, 2020.
P. C. Prieto, Ibrahim, F., Campbell, R., Chinoy, H., Galloway, J., and Gordon, P., Similar risk of cardiovascular events in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy and rheumatoid arthritis in the first 5 years after diagnosis, Clin Rheumatol, 2020.
A. Sarmanova, Doherty, M., Kuo, C., Wei, J., Abhishek, A., Mallen, C., Zeng, C., Wang, Y., Lei, G., and Zhang, W., Statin use and risk of joint replacement due to osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: a propensity-score matched longitudinal cohort study, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2020.
A. K. Sorial, Anjum, S. A., Cook, M. J., Board, T. N., and O'Neill, T. W., Statins, bone biology and revision arthroplasty: review of clinical and experimental evidence, Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis, vol. 12, p. 1759720x20966229, 2020.
J. Blackwell, Saxena, S., Jayasooriya, N., Petersen, I., Hotopf, M., Creese, H., Bottle, A., and Pollok, R. C. G., Stoma formation in Crohn's Disease and the likelihood of antidepressant use: a population-based cohort study, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2020.
P. Bidulka, Fu, E. L., Leyrat, C., Kalogirou, F., McAllister, K. S. L., Kingdon, E. J., Mansfield, K. E., Iwagami, M., Smeeth, L., Clase, C. M., Bhaskaran, K., van Diepen, M., Carrero, J. J., Nitsch, D., and Tomlinson, L. A., Stopping renin-angiotensin system blockers after acute kidney injury and risk of adverse outcomes: parallel population-based cohort studies in English and Swedish routine care, BMC Med, vol. 18, p. 195, 2020.
F. Zaccardi, Husemoen, L. L. Nystrup, Thorsted, B. L., Webb, D. R., Paul, S. K., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Selectivity of beta-blockers, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in people with hypoglycaemia: An observational study, Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, vol. 29, pp. 481-488, 2019.
C. Linde, Qin, L., Bakhai, A., Furuland, H., Evans, M., Ayoubkhani, D., Palaka, E., Bennett, H., and McEwan, P., Serum potassium and clinical outcomes in heart failure patients: results of risk calculations in 21 334 patients in the UK, ESC Heart Fail, 2019.
M. Rafiq, Hayward, A., Warren-Gash, C., Denaxas, S., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Lyratzopoulos, G., and Thomas, S., Socioeconomic deprivation and regional variation in Hodgkin's lymphoma incidence in the UK: a population-based cohort study of 10 million individuals, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e029228, 2019.
M. Weldegiorgis, Smith, M., Herrington, W. G., Bankhead, C., and Woodward, M., Socioeconomic disadvantage and the risk of advanced chronic kidney disease: results from a cohort study with 1.4 million participants, Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 2019.
M. S. Chan, van den Hout, A., Pujades-Rodriguez, M., Jones, M. M., Matthews, F. E., Jagger, C., Raine, R., and Bajekal, M., Socio-economic inequalities in life expectancy of older adults with and without multimorbidity: a record linkage study of 1.1 million people in England, Int J Epidemiol, 2019.
D. Abrahami, Douros, A., Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., and Azoulay, L., Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors and the Risk of Fractures Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes, Diabetes Care, vol. 42, pp. e150-e152, 2019.
G. J. Lefeber, Koek, H. L., Souverein, P. C., Bouvy, M. L., de Boer, A., and Knol, W., Statins After Myocardial Infarction in the Oldest: A Cohort Study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink Database, J Am Geriatr Soc, 2019.
N. Frey, Bodmer, M., Bircher, A., Jick, S. S., Meier, C. R., and Spoendlin, J., Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in Association with Commonly Prescribed Drugs in Outpatient Care Other than Anti-Epileptic Drugs and Antibiotics: A Population-Based Case-Control Study, Drug Saf, vol. 42, pp. 55-66, 2019.
J. Fortuny, Gilsenan, A., Cainzos-Achirica, M., Cantero, O. F., Flynn, R. W. V., Garcia-Rodriguez, L., Kollhorst, B., Karlsson, P., Linner, L., MacDonald, T. M., Plana, E., Ruigomez, A., Schink, T., Ziemiecki, R., and Andrews, E. B., Study Design and Cohort Comparability in a Study of Major Cardiovascular Events in New Users of Prucalopride Versus Polyethylene Glycol 3350, Drug Saf, 2019.
N. A. Stohler, Reinau, D., Jick, S. S., Bodmer, D., and Meier, C. R., A study on the epidemiology of tinnitus in the United Kingdom, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 11, pp. 855-871, 2019.
R. K. Akyea, Kai, J., Qureshi, N., Iyen, B., and Weng, S. F., Sub-optimal cholesterol response to initiation of statins and future risk of cardiovascular disease, Heart, 2019.
A. Banerjee, Allan, V., Denaxas, S., Shah, A., Kotecha, D., Lambiase, P. D., Jacob, J., Lund, L. H., and Hemingway, H., Subtypes of atrial fibrillation with concomitant valvular heart disease derived from electronic health records: phenotypes, population prevalence, trends and prognosis, Europace, 2019.
K. B. Filion, Douros, A., Azoulay, L., Yin, H., Yu, O. H., and Suissa, S., Sulfonylureas as initial treatment for type 2 diabetes and the risk of adverse cardiovascular events: A population-based cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2019.
P. Bryan, Seabroke, S., Wong, J., Donegan, K., Webb, E., Goldsmith, C., Vipond, C., and Feavers, I., Safety of multicomponent meningococcal group B vaccine (4CMenB) in routine infant immunisation in the UK: a prospective surveillance study, Lancet Child Adolesc Health, vol. 2, pp. 395-403, 2018.
S. Muller, Hider, S., Machin, A., Stack, R., Hayward, R. A., Raza, K., and Mallen, C., Searching for a prodrome for rheumatoid arthritis in the primary care record: A case-control study in the clinical practice research datalink, Semin Arthritis Rheum, 2018.
E. A. Shephard and Hamilton, W. T., Selection of men for investigation of possible testicular cancer in primary care: a large case-control study using electronic patient records, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 68, pp. e559-e565, 2018.
J. Busby, Mills, K., Zhang, S. D., Liberante, F. G., and Cardwell, C. R., Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use and breast cancer survival: a population-based cohort study, Breast Cancer Res, vol. 20, p. 4, 2018.
C. Morgan, Webb, R. T., Carr, M. J., Kontopantelis, E., Chew-Graham, C. A., Kapur, N., and Ashcroft, D. M., Self-harm in a primary care cohort of older people: incidence, clinical management, and risk of suicide and other causes of death, Lancet Psychiatry, vol. 5, pp. 905-912, 2018.
H. Furuland, McEwan, P., Evans, M., Linde, C., Ayoubkhani, D., Bakhai, A., Palaka, E., Bennett, H., and Qin, L., Serum potassium as a predictor of adverse clinical outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease: new risk equations using the UK clinical practice research datalink, BMC Nephrol, vol. 19, p. 211, 2018.
R. J. Silverwood, Forbes, H. J., Abuabara, K., Ascott, A., Schmidt, M., Schmidt, S. A. J., Smeeth, L., and Langan, S. M., Severe and predominantly active atopic eczema in adulthood and long term risk of cardiovascular disease: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 361, p. k1786, 2018.
M. Iwagami, Mansfield, K. E., Hayes, J. F., Walters, K., Osborn, D. P., Smeeth, L., Nitsch, D., and Tomlinson, L. A., Severe mental illness and chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study in the United Kingdom, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 421-429, 2018.
J. M. Dennis, Henley, W. E., Weedon, M. N., Lonergan, M., Rodgers, L. R., Jones, A. G., Hamilton, W. T., Sattar, N., Janmohamed, S., Holman, R. R., Pearson, E. R., Shields, B. M., and Hattersley, A. T., Sex and BMI Alter the Benefits and Risks of Sulfonylureas and Thiazolidinediones in Type 2 Diabetes: A Framework for Evaluating Stratification Using Routine Clinical and Individual Trial Data, Diabetes Care, vol. 41, pp. 1844-1853, 2018.
M. A. Cavender, Norhammar, A., Birkeland, K. I., Jorgensen, M. E., Wilding, J. P., Khunti, K., Fu, A. Z., Bodegard, J., Blak, B. T., Wittbrodt, E., Thuresson, M., Fenici, P., Hammar, N., and Kosiborod, M., SGLT-2 Inhibitors and Cardiovascular Risk: An Analysis of CVD-REAL, J Am Coll Cardiol, vol. 71, pp. 2497-2506, 2018.
S. Weir, Samnaliev, M., Kuo, T. C., Tierney, T. S., S. Autiero, W., Taylor, R. S., and Schrag, A., Short- and long-term cost and utilization of health care resources in Parkinson's disease in the UK, Mov Disord, vol. 33, pp. 974-981, 2018.
C. Alexakis, Saxena, S., Chhaya, V., Cecil, E., Majeed, A., and Pollok, R., Smoking Status at Diagnosis and Subsequent Smoking Cessation: Associations With Corticosteroid Use and Intestinal Resection in Crohn's Disease, Am J Gastroenterol, vol. 113, pp. 1689-1700, 2018.
E. Kontopantelis, Stevens, R. J., Helms, P. J., Edwards, D., Doran, T., and Ashcroft, D. M., Spatial distribution of clinical computer systems in primary care in England in 2016 and implications for primary care electronic medical record databases: a cross-sectional population study, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e020738, 2018.
Z. Liu, Alsaggaf, R., McGlynn, K. A., Anderson, L. A., Tsai, H. T., Zhu, B., Zhu, Y., Mbulaiteye, S. M., Gadalla, S. M., and Koshiol, J., Statin use and reduced risk of biliary tract cancers in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Gut, 2018.
A. D. Spence, Busby, J., Hughes, C. M., Johnston, B. T., Coleman, H. G., and Cardwell, C. R., Statin use and survival in patients with gastric cancer in two independent population-based cohorts, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2018.
K. Chidwick, Strongman, H., Matthews, A., Stanway, S., Lyon, A. R., Smeeth, L., and Bhaskaran, K., Statin use in cancer survivors versus the general population: cohort study using primary care data from the UK clinical practice research datalink, BMC Cancer, vol. 18, p. 1018, 2018.
A. Pate, Barrowman, M., Webb, D., Pimenta, J. M., Davis, K. J., Williams, R., Van Staa, T., and Sperrin, M., Study investigating the generalisability of a COPD trial based in primary care (Salford Lung Study) and the presence of a Hawthorne effect, BMJ Open Respir Res, vol. 5, p. e000339, 2018.
O. Yu, Azoulay, L., Yin, H., Filion, K. B., and Suissa, S., Sulfonylureas as Initial Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes and the Risk of Severe Hypoglycemia, Am J Med, vol. 131, pp. 317.e11-317.e22, 2018.
A. Douros, Dell'Aniello, S., Yu, O. H. Y., Filion, K. B., Azoulay, L., and Suissa, S., Sulfonylureas as second line drugs in type 2 diabetes and the risk of cardiovascular and hypoglycaemic events: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 362, p. k2693, 2018.
R. M. Joseph, Soames, J., Wright, M., Sultana, K., van Staa, T. P., and Dixon, W. G., Supplementing electronic health records through sample collection and patient diaries: A study set within a primary care research database, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 27, pp. 239-242, 2018.
[Page last reviewed 4 March 2021]