Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,800 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 July 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 4MB, 236 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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D. Abrahami, McDonald, E. G., Schnitzer, M., and Azoulay, L., Trends in acid suppressant drug prescriptions in primary care in the UK: a population-based cross-sectional study, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e041529, 2020.
K. Alexandropoulou, van Vlymen, J., Reid, F., Poullis, A., and Kang, J. Y., Temporal trends of Barrett's oesophagus and gastro-oesophageal reflux and related oesophageal cancer over a 10-year period in England and Wales and associated proton pump inhibitor and H2RA prescriptions: a GPRD study, Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol, vol. 25, pp. 15-21, 2013.
N. Andrews, Miller, E., Grant, A., Stowe, J., Osborne, V., and Taylor, B., Thimerosal exposure in infants and developmental disorders: a retrospective cohort study in the United kingdom does not support a causal association, Pediatrics, vol. 114, pp. 584-91, 2004.
T. Appleyard, Ashworth, J., Bedson, J., Yu, D., and Peat, G., Trends in gabapentinoid prescribing in patients with osteoarthritis: a United Kingdom national cohort study in primary care, Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2019.
A. J. Apter, Kinman, J. L., Bilker, W. B., Herlim, M., Margolis, D. J., Lautenbach, E., Hennessy, S., and Strom, B. L., Is there cross-reactivity between penicillins and cephalosporins?, Am J Med, vol. 119, pp. 354.e11-9, 2006.
E. L. Axson, Sundaram, V., Bloom, C. I., Bottle, A., Cowie, M. R., and Quint, J. K., Temporal Trends in the Incidence of Heart Failure among Patients with COPD and Its Association with Mortality, Ann Am Thorac Soc, 2020.
H. T. Ayele, Reynier, P., Azoulay, L., Platt, R. W., Cabaussel, J., Benayoun, S., and Filion, K. B., Trends in the pharmacological treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in the UK from 1998 to 2016: a population-based cohort study, World J Urol, 2020.
L. Azoulay, Schneider-Lindner, V., Dell'Aniello, S., Filion, K. B., and Suissa, S., Thiazolidinediones and the risk of incident strokes in patients with type 2 diabetes: a nested case-control study, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 19, pp. 343-50, 2010.
K. Bailey, Ellis, C., and Majeed, A., Trends in the treatment of osteoporosis and types of drug treatments prescribed in general practice in England and Wales, 1994 to 1998, Health Stat Q, pp. 5-13, 2002.
J. Bedson, Chen, Y., Hayward, R. A., Ashworth, J., Walters, K., Dunn, K. M., and Jordan, K. P., Trends in long-term opioid prescribing in primary care patients with musculoskeletal conditions: an observational database study, Pain, vol. 157, pp. 1525-31, 2016.
L. Bensimon, Yin, H., Suissa, S., Pollak, M. N., and Azoulay, L., Type 2 diabetes and the risk of mortality among patients with prostate cancer, Cancer Causes Control, vol. 25, pp. 329-38, 2014.
B. D. Bradbury, Lash, T. L., Kaye, J. A., and Jick, S. S., Tamoxifen and cataracts: a null association, Breast Cancer Res Treat, vol. 87, pp. 189-96, 2004.
B. D. Bradbury, Lash, T. L., Kaye, J. A., and Jick, S. S., Tamoxifen-treated breast carcinoma patients and the risk of acute myocardial infarction and newly-diagnosed angina, Cancer, vol. 103, pp. 1114-21, 2005.
H. K. Bronsveld, Peeters, P., de Groot, M. C. H., de Boer, A., Schmidt, M. K., and De Bruin, M. L., Trends in breast cancer incidence among women with type-2 diabetes in British general practice, Prim Care Diabetes, vol. 11, pp. 373-382, 2017.
E. Burn, Edwards, C. J., Murray, D. W., Silman, A., Cooper, C., Arden, N. K., Pinedo-Villanueva, R., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Trends and determinants of length of stay and hospital reimbursement following knee and hip replacement: evidence from linked primary care and NHS hospital records from 1997 to 2014, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e019146, 2018.
C. L. Burton, Chen, Y., Chesterton, L. S., and van der Windt, D. A., Trends in the prevalence, incidence and surgical management of carpal tunnel syndrome between 1993 and 2013: an observational analysis of UK primary care records, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e020166, 2018.
J. Busby, Schroeder, K., Woltersdorf, W., Sterne, J. A., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Hay, A., and Hollingworth, W., Temporal growth and geographic variation in the use of laboratory tests by NHS general practices: using routine data to identify research priorities, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 63, pp. e256-66, 2013.
C. Group on H. Cancer, Type and timing of menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis of the worldwide epidemiological evidence, Lancet, vol. 394, pp. 1159-1168, 2019.
I. M. Carey, Anderson, H. R., Atkinson, R. W., Beevers, S., Cook, D. G., Dajnak, D., Gulliver, J., and Kelly, F. J., Traffic pollution and the incidence of cardiorespiratory outcomes in an adult cohort in London, Occup Environ Med, vol. 73, pp. 849-856, 2016.
J. A. Cassell, Mercer, C. H., Sutcliffe, L., Petersen, I., Islam, A., Brook, M. G., Ross, J. D., Kinghorn, G. R., Simms, I., Hughes, G., Majeed, A., Stephenson, J. M., Johnson, A. M., and Hayward, A. C., Trends in sexually transmitted infections in general practice 1990-2000: population based study using data from the UK general practice research database, Bmj, vol. 332, pp. 332-4, 2006.
J. Charlton, Ravindrarajah, R., Hamada, S., Jackson, S. H., and Gulliford, M. C., Trajectory of Total Cholesterol in the Last Years of Life Over Age 80 Years: Cohort Study of 99,758 Participants, J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, vol. 73, pp. 1083-1089, 2018.
S. C. Chung, Pujades-Rodriguez, M., Duyx, B., Denaxas, S. C., Pasea, L., Hingorani, A., Timmis, A., Williams, B., and Hemingway, H., Time spent at blood pressure target and the risk of death and cardiovascular diseases, PLoS One, vol. 13, p. e0202359, 2018.
S. M. Collin, Bakken, I. J., Nazareth, I., Crawley, E., and White, P. D., Trends in the incidence of chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia in the UK, 2001-2013: a Clinical Practice Research Datalink study, J R Soc Med, vol. 110, pp. 231-244, 2017.
N. Conrad, Judge, A., Tran, J., Mohseni, H., Hedgecott, D., Crespillo, A. P., Allison, M., Hemingway, H., Cleland, J. G., McMurray, J. J. V., and Rahimi, K., Temporal trends and patterns in heart failure incidence: a population-based study of 4 million individuals, Lancet, vol. 391, pp. 572-580, 2018.
N. Conrad, Judge, A., Canoy, D., Tran, J., Pinho-Gomes, A. C., Millett, E. R. C., Salimi-Khorshidi, G., Cleland, J. G., McMurray, J. J. V., and Rahimi, K., Temporal Trends and Patterns in Mortality After Incident Heart Failure: A Longitudinal Analysis of 86000 Individuals, JAMA Cardiol, 2019.
E. Crellin, Mansfield, K. E., Leyrat, C., Nitsch, D., Douglas, I. J., Root, A., Williamson, E., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L. A., Trimethoprim use for urinary tract infection and risk of adverse outcomes in older patients: cohort study, Bmj, vol. 360, p. k341, 2018.
D. J. Culliford, Maskell, J., Beard, D. J., Murray, D. W., Price, A. J., and Arden, N. K., Temporal trends in hip and knee replacement in the United Kingdom: 1991 to 2006, J Bone Joint Surg Br, vol. 92, pp. 130-5, 2010.
L. Currin, Schmidt, U., Treasure, J., and Jick, H., Time trends in eating disorder incidence, Br J Psychiatry, vol. 186, pp. 132-5, 2005.
H. J. Curtis, Dennis, J. M., Shields, B. M., Walker, A. J., Bacon, S., Hattersley, A. T., Jones, A. G., and Goldacre, B., Time trends and geographical variation in prescribing of drugs for diabetes in England from 1998 to 2017, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 20, pp. 2159-2168, 2018.
L. Cybulski, Ashcroft, D. M., Carr, M. J., Garg, S., Chew-Graham, C. A., Kapur, N., and Webb, R. T., Temporal trends in annual incidence rates for psychiatric disorders and self-harm among children and adolescents in the UK, 2003-2018, BMC Psychiatry, vol. 21, p. 229, 2021.
C. S. de Vries, Bromley, S. E., Thomas, H., and Farmer, R. D., Tibolone and endometrial cancer: a cohort and nested case-control study in the UK, Drug Saf, vol. 28, pp. 241-9, 2005.
D. Dedman, Coton, S. J., Ghosh, R. E., Meeraus, W., Crim, C., Harvey, C., Amelio, J., and Landis, S. H., Treatment Patterns of New Users of Fluticasone Furoate/Vilanterol in Asthma and COPD in UK Primary Care: Retrospective Cohort Study, Pulmonary Therapy, vol. 5, pp. 81-95, 2019.
J. A. Delaney, Daskalopoulou, S. S., and Suissa, S., Traditional versus marginal structural models to estimate the effectiveness of beta-blocker use on mortality after myocardial infarction, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 18, pp. 1-6, 2009.
J. M. Dennis, Henley, W. E., McGovern, A. P., Farmer, A. J., Sattar, N., Holman, R. R., Pearson, E. R., Hattersley, A. T., Shields, B. M., and Jones, A. G., Time trends in prescribing of type 2 diabetes drugs, glycemic response and risk factors: a retrospective analysis of primary care data, 2010-2017, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2019.
U. Desai, Kirson, N. Y., Kim, J., Khunti, K., King, S., Trieschman, E., Hellstern, M., Hunt, P. R., and Mukherjee, J., Time to Treatment Intensification After Monotherapy Failure and Its Association With Subsequent Glycemic Control Among 93,515 Patients With Type 2 Diabetes, Diabetes Care, vol. 41, pp. 2096-2104, 2018.
K. Donegan, Fox, N., Black, N., Livingston, G., Banerjee, S., and Burns, A., Trends in diagnosis and treatment for people with dementia in the UK from 2005 to 2015: a longitudinal retrospective cohort study, Lancet Public Health, vol. 2, pp. e149-e156, 2017.
B. Feakins, Oke, J., McFadden, E., Aronson, J., Lasserson, D., O'Callaghan, C., Taylor, C., Hill, N., Stevens, R., and Perera, R., Trends in kidney function testing in UK primary care since the introduction of the quality and outcomes framework: a retrospective cohort study using CPRD, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e028062, 2019.
K. B. Filion, Joseph, L., Boivin, J. F., Suissa, S., and Brophy, J. M., Trends in the prescription of anti-diabetic medications in the United Kingdom: a population-based analysis, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 18, pp. 973-6, 2009.
K. B. Filion, Joseph, L., Boivin, J. F., Suissa, S., and Brophy, J. M., Thiazolidinediones and the risk of incident congestive heart failure among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 20, pp. 785-96, 2011.
J. P. Fournier, Azoulay, L., Yin, H., Montastruc, J. L., and Suissa, S., Tramadol use and the risk of hospitalization for hypoglycemia in patients with noncancer pain, JAMA Intern Med, vol. 175, pp. 186-93, 2015.
J. P. Fournier, Yin, H., Nessim, S. J., Montastruc, J. L., and Azoulay, L., Tramadol for noncancer pain and the risk of hyponatremia, Am J Med, vol. 128, pp. 418-25.e5, 2015.
N. Frey, Hugle, T., Jick, S. S., Meier, C. R., and Spoendlin, J., Type II diabetes mellitus and incident osteoarthritis of the hand: a population-based case-control analysis, Osteoarthritis Cartilage, vol. 24, pp. 1535-40, 2016.
M. Frischer, Heatlie, H., Norwood, J., Bashford, J., Millson, D., and Chapman, S., Trends in antibiotic prescribing and associated indications in primary care from 1993 to 1997, J Public Health Med, vol. 23, pp. 69-73, 2001.
M. Frisher, Martino, O., Crome, I., and Croft, P., Trends in drug misuse recorded in primary care in the UK from 1998 to 2005, J Public Health (Oxf), vol. 31, pp. 69-73, 2009.
D. C. Gibbons, Aggarwal, B., Fairburn-Beech, J., Hinds, D., Fletcher, M., Bosnic-Anticevich, S., and Price, D., Treatment patterns among non-active users of maintenance asthma medication in the United Kingdom: a retrospective cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, J Asthma, pp. 1-12, 2020.
M. Gompels, Michael, S., Davies, C., Jones, T., Macleod, J., and May, M., Trends in HIV testing in the UK primary care setting: a 15-year retrospective cohort study from 2000 to 2015, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e027744, 2019.
J. Gordon, McEwan, P., Idris, I., Evans, M., and Puelles, J., Treatment choice, medication adherence and glycemic efficacy in people with type 2 diabetes: a UK clinical practice database study, BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, vol. 6, p. e000512, 2018.
S. M. Grandi, Reynier, P., Platt, R. W., Basso, O., and Filion, K. B., The timing of onset of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and the risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease, Int J Cardiol, vol. 270, pp. 273-275, 2018.
M. C. Gulliford, Charlton, J., and Latinovic, R., Trends in antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy in subjects with type II diabetes: clinical effectiveness or clinical discretion?, J Hum Hypertens, vol. 19, pp. 111-7, 2005.
[Page last reviewed 5 July 2021]