Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 March 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 220 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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S. Denaxas, Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Direk, K., Fitzpatrick, N. K., Fatemifar, G., Banerjee, A., Dobson, R. J. B., Howe, L. J., Kuan, V., Lumbers, R. T., Pasea, L., Patel, R. S., Shah, A. D., Hingorani, A. D., Sudlow, C., and Hemingway, H., UK phenomics platform for developing and validating electronic health record phenotypes: CALIBER, J Am Med Inform Assoc, 2019.
A. Pate, Emsley, R., Ashcroft, D. M., Brown, B., and Van Staa, T., The uncertainty with using risk prediction models for individual decision making: an exemplar cohort study examining the prediction of cardiovascular disease in English primary care, BMC Med, vol. 17, p. 134, 2019.
C. Rebordosa, Aguado, J., Plana, E., Thomas, S., Frances, A., Lei, A., Garcia-Gil, E., Nuevo, J., Perez-Gutthann, S., and Castellsague, J., Use of aclidinium did not increase the risk of death in a noninterventional cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), United Kingdom, Respir Med, vol. 152, pp. 37-43, 2019.
Y. Vinogradova, Coupland, C., and Hippisley-Cox, J., Use of hormone replacement therapy and risk of venous thromboembolism: nested case-control studies using the QResearch and CPRD databases, Bmj, vol. 364, p. k4810, 2019.
R. Pradhan, Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., and Azoulay, L., The Use of Long-Acting Insulin Analogs and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer Among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Drug Saf, 2019.
J. Watson, Jones, H. E., Banks, J., Whiting, P., Salisbury, C., and Hamilton, W., Use of multiple inflammatory marker tests in primary care: using Clinical Practice Research Datalink to evaluate accuracy, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 69, pp. e462-e469, 2019.
A. Mitchell, Welsh, T. J., Watson, M. C., Snowball, J., and McGrogan, A., Use of oral anticoagulants in older people with atrial fibrillation in UK general practice: protocol for a cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) database, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e032646, 2019.
A. Tran-Duy, Connell, N. J., Vanmolkot, F. H., Souverein, P. C., de Wit, N. J., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Hoes, A. W., de Vries, F., and de Boer, A., Use of proton pump inhibitors and risk of iron deficiency: a population-based case-control study, J Intern Med, vol. 285, pp. 205-214, 2019.
T. Itani, Martin, R., Rai, D., Jones, T., Taylor, G., Thomas, K., Munafo, M., Davies, N., and Taylor, A., Use of varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy in people with and without general practitioner-recorded dementia: retrospective cohort study of routine electronic medical records, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e027569, 2019.
M. Ozawa, Brennan, P. M., Zienius, K., Kurian, K. M., Hollingworth, W., Weller, D., Grant, R., Hamilton, W., and Ben-Shlomo, Y., The usefulness of symptoms alone or combined for general practitioners in considering the diagnosis of a brain tumour: a case-control study using the clinical practice research database (CPRD) (2000-2014), BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e029686, 2019.
T. Burkard, Moser, M., Rauch, M., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Utilization pattern of hormone therapy in UK general practice between 1996 and 2015: a descriptive study, Menopause, 2019.
L. McDonald, Sammon, C. J., Samnaliev, M., and Ramagopalan, S., Under-recording of hospital bleeding events in UK primary care: a linked Clinical Practice Research Datalink and Hospital Episode Statistics study, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 1155-1168, 2018.
D. Yu, Jordan, K. P., and Peat, G., Underrecording of osteoarthritis in United Kingdom primary care electronic health record data, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 1195-1201, 2018.
F. Ahmadizar, Souverein, P., de Boer, A., and van der Zee, A. H. Maitlan, Undertreatment of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: long-term follow-up on time trends in the occurrence of cardiovascular disease, risk factors and medications use, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 84, pp. 776-785, 2018.
C. F. Kuo, Chou, I. J., See, L. C., Chen, J. S., Yu, K. H., Luo, S. F., Hsieh, A. H., Zhang, W., and Doherty, M., Urate-lowering treatment and risk of total joint replacement in patients with gout, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 57, pp. 2129-2139, 2018.
A. Douros, Abrahami, D., Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., Renoux, C., Hudson, M., and Azoulay, L., Use of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors and New-onset Rheumatoid Arthritis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes, Epidemiology, vol. 29, pp. 904-912, 2018.
A. Keyany, Nielen, J. T. H., Souverein, P. C., de Vries, F., and van den Bemt, B., Use of parenteral glucocorticoids and the risk of new onset type 2 diabetes mellitus: A case-control study, Diabetes Res Clin Pract, vol. 139, pp. 100-106, 2018.
P. Tammes, Sartini, C., Preston, I., Hay, A. D., Lasserson, D., and Morris, R. W., Use of primary care data to predict those most vulnerable to cold weather: a case-crossover analysis, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 68, pp. e146-e156, 2018.
A. Tran-Duy, Connell, N. J., Vanmolkot, F. H., Souverein, P. C., de Wit, N. J., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Hoes, A. W., de Vries, F., and de Boer, A., Use of proton pump inhibitors and risk of iron deficiency: a population-based case-control study, J Intern Med, 2018.
J. G. Kuiper, van Herk-Sukel, M. P. P., Castellsague, J., Pottegard, A., Berglind, I. A., Dedman, D., Gutierrez, L., Calingaert, B., Hallas, J., Sundstrom, A., Gallagher, A. M., Kaye, J. A., Pardo, C., Rothman, K. J., and Perez-Gutthann, S., Use of Topical Tacrolimus and Topical Pimecrolimus in Four European Countries: A Multicentre Database Cohort Study, Drugs Real World Outcomes, 2018.
S. S. Zghebi, Rutter, M. K., Ashcroft, D. M., Salisbury, C., Mallen, C., Chew-Graham, C. A., Reeves, D., van Marwijk, H., Qureshi, N., Weng, S., Peek, N., Planner, C., Nowakowska, M., Mamas, M., and Kontopantelis, E., Using electronic health records to quantify and stratify the severity of type 2 diabetes in primary care in England: rationale and cohort study design, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e020926, 2018.
S. L. Stevens, McManus, R. J., and Stevens, R. J., The utility of long-term blood pressure variability for cardiovascular risk prediction in primary care, J Hypertens, 2018.
F. X. Lamy, Saragoussi, D., Johnson, M. E., Guiraud-Diawara, A., Jorgensen, K. T., Loze, J. Y., and Maguire, A., The use of adjunctive antipsychotics to treat depression in UK primary care, Curr Med Res Opin, vol. 33, pp. 891-898, 2017.
V. Mandilaras, Bouganim, N., Yin, H., Asselah, J., and Azoulay, L., The use of drugs acting on the renin-angiotensin system and the incidence of pancreatic cancer, Br J Cancer, vol. 116, pp. 103-108, 2017.
L. M. Knapen, de Jong, R. G., Driessen, J. H., Keulemans, Y. C., van Erp, N. P., De Bruin, M. L., Leufkens, H. G., Croes, S., and de Vries, F., Use of incretin agents and risk of acute and chronic pancreatitis: A population-based cohort study, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 19, pp. 401-411, 2017.
J. Gorricho, Garjon, J., Alonso, A., Celaya, M. C., Saiz, L. C., Erviti, J., and Lopez, A., Use of oral antidiabetic agents and risk of community-acquired pneumonia: a nested case-control study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 83, pp. 2034-2044, 2017.
C. A. Emdin, Anderson, S. G., Salimi-Khorshidi, G., Woodward, M., MacMahon, S., Dwyer, T., and Rahimi, K., Usual blood pressure, atrial fibrillation and vascular risk: evidence from 4.3 million adults, Int J Epidemiol, vol. 46, pp. 162-172, 2017.
T. A. Durham, K. Lich, H., Viera, A. J., Fine, J. P., Mukherjee, J., Weinberger, M., and Dusetzina, S. B., Utilization of Standard and Target-Specific Oral Anticoagulants Among Adults in the United Kingdom With Incident Atrial Fibrillation, Am J Cardiol, vol. 120, pp. 1820-1829, 2017.
R. Joshi, Venkatesan, S., and Myles, P. R., A UK general practice population cohort study investigating the association between lipid lowering drugs and 30-day mortality following medically attended acute respiratory illness, PeerJ, vol. 4, p. e1902, 2016.
N. A. Francis, Hood, K., Lyons, R., and Butler, C. C., Understanding flucloxacillin prescribing trends and treatment non-response in UK primary care: a Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) study, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol. 71, pp. 2037-46, 2016.
S. Rajaram, Steffey, A., Blak, B., Hickman, M., Christensen, H., and Caspard, H., Uptake of childhood influenza vaccine from 2012-2013 to 2014-2015 in the UK and the implications for high-risk children: a retrospective observational cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e010625, 2016.
C. J. Crooks, Card, T. R., and West, J., The Use of a Bayesian Hierarchy to Develop and Validate a Co-Morbidity Score to Predict Mortality for Linked Primary and Secondary Care Data from the NHS in England, PLoS One, vol. 11, p. e0165507, 2016.
L. Azoulay, Soldera, S., Yin, H., and Bouganim, N., Use of Calcium Channel Blockers and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Population-based Cohort Study, Epidemiology, vol. 27, pp. 594-601, 2016.
C. Seliger, Meier, C. R., Jick, S. S., Uhl, M., Bogdahn, U., Hau, P., and Leitzmann, M. F., Use of cardiac glycosides and risk of glioma, J Neurooncol, vol. 127, pp. 321-8, 2016.
L. M. Knapen, van Dalem, J., Keulemans, Y. C., van Erp, N. P., Bazelier, M. T., De Bruin, M. L., Leufkens, H. G., Croes, S., Neef, C., de Vries, F., and Driessen, J. H., Use of incretin agents and risk of pancreatic cancer: a population-based cohort study, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 18, pp. 258-65, 2016.
C. Seliger, Meier, C. R., Becker, C., Jick, S. S., Bogdahn, U., Hau, P., and Leitzmann, M. F., Use of Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors, Other Analgesics, and Risk of Glioma, PLoS One, vol. 11, p. e0149293, 2016.
K. Tascilar, Azoulay, L., Dell'Aniello, S., Bartels, D. B., and Suissa, S., The Use of Telmisartan and the Incidence of Cancer, Am J Hypertens, vol. 29, pp. 1358-1365, 2016.
J. T. Nielen, de Vries, F., Dagnelie, P. C., van den Bemt, B. J., Emans, P. J., Lalmohamed, A., de Boer, A., and Boonen, A., Use of thiazolidinediones and the risk of elective hip or knee replacement: a population based case-control study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 81, pp. 370-8, 2016.
E. Rapsomaniki, Thuresson, M., Yang, E., Blin, P., Hunt, P., Chung, S. C., Stogiannis, D., Pujades-Rodriguez, M., Timmis, A., Denaxas, S. C., Danchin, N., Stokes, M., Thomas-Delecourt, F., Emmas, C., Hasvold, P., Jennings, E., Johansson, S., Cohen, D. J., Jernberg, T., Moore, N., Janzon, M., and Hemingway, H., Using big data from health records from four countries to evaluate chronic disease outcomes: a study in 114 364 survivors of myocardial infarction, Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes, vol. 2, pp. 172-183, 2016.
M. Asaria, Walker, S., Palmer, S., Gale, C. P., Shah, A. D., Abrams, K. R., Crowther, M., Manca, A., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., and Sculpher, M., Using electronic health records to predict costs and outcomes in stable coronary artery disease, Heart, vol. 102, pp. 755-62, 2016.
[Page last reviewed 4 March 2021]