Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 April 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 226 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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J. K. Quint, Herrett, E., Bhaskaran, K., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., Wedzicha, J. A., and Smeeth, L., Effect of beta blockers on mortality after myocardial infarction in adults with COPD: population based cohort study of UK electronic healthcare records, Bmj, vol. 347, p. f6650, 2013.
G. H. B. Greenhall, Mansfield, K. E., Nitsch, D., Iwagami, M., Leyrat, C., Johnston, R., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L. A., The effect of initiation of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors on haemoglobin: A national cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2020.
J. F. Hayes, Bhaskaran, K., Batterham, R., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I., The effect of sibutramine prescribing in routine clinical practice on cardiovascular outcomes: a cohort study in the United Kingdom, Int J Obes (Lond), vol. 39, pp. 1359-64, 2015.
I. J. Douglas, Bhaskaran, K., Batterham, R. L., and Smeeth, L., The effectiveness of pharmaceutical interventions for obesity: weight loss with orlistat and sibutramine in a United Kingdom population-based cohort, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 79, pp. 1020-7, 2015.
T. P. van Staa, Smeeth, L., Ng, E. S., Goldacre, B., and Gulliford, M., The efficiency of cardiovascular risk assessment: do the right patients get statin treatment?, Heart, vol. 99, pp. 1597-602, 2013.
E. Herrett, Gadd, S., Jackson, R., Bhaskaran, K., Williamson, E., Van Staa, T., Sofat, R., Timmis, A., and Smeeth, L., Eligibility and subsequent burden of cardiovascular disease of four strategies for blood pressure-lowering treatment: a retrospective cohort study, Lancet, 2019.
R. Mathur, Palla, L., Farmer, R. E., Chaturvedi, N., and Smeeth, L., Ethnic differences in the severity and clinical management of type 2 diabetes at time of diagnosis: A cohort study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Diabetes Res Clin Pract, vol. 160, p. 108006, 2020.
R. Mathur, Farmer, R. E., Eastwood, S. V., Chaturvedi, N., Douglas, I., and Smeeth, L., Ethnic disparities in initiation and intensification of diabetes treatment in adults with type 2 diabetes in the UK, 1990-2017: A cohort study, PLoS Med, vol. 17, p. e1003106, 2020.
S. I. Shiekh, Forbes, H., Mathur, R., Smeeth, L., Pearce, N., and Warren-Gash, C., Ethnicity and risk of diagnosed dementia after stroke: a cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, J Epidemiol Community Health, 2019.
T. P. van Staa, Smeeth, L., Persson, I., Parkinson, J., and Leufkens, H. G., Evaluating drug toxicity signals: is a hierarchical classification of evidence useful or a hindrance?, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 17, pp. 475-84, 2008.
A. A. Root, Wong, A. Y., Ghebremichael-Weldeselassie, Y., Smeeth, L., Bhaskaran, K., Evans, S. J., Brauer, R., Wong, I. C., Navaratnam, V., and Douglas, I., Evaluation of the risk of cardiovascular events with clarithromycin using both propensity score and self-controlled study designs, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 82, pp. 512-21, 2016.
C. I. Bloom, Nissen, F., Douglas, I. J., Smeeth, L., Cullinan, P., and Quint, J. K., Exacerbation risk and characterisation of the UK's asthma population from infants to old age, Thorax, vol. 73, pp. 313-320, 2018.
I. J. Douglas and Smeeth, L., Exposure to antipsychotics and risk of stroke: self controlled case series study, Bmj, vol. 337, p. a1227, 2008.
R. Hubbard, Farrington, P., Smith, C., Smeeth, L., and Tattersfield, A., Exposure to tricyclic and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants and the risk of hip fracture, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 158, pp. 77-84, 2003.
M. Pikoula, Quint, J. K., Nissen, F., Hemingway, H., Smeeth, L., and Denaxas, S., Identifying clinically important COPD sub-types using data-driven approaches in primary care population based electronic health records, BMC Med Inform Decis Mak, vol. 19, p. 86, 2019.
A. Jain, van Hoek, A. J., Walker, J. L., Mathur, R., Smeeth, L., and Thomas, S. L., Identifying social factors amongst older individuals in linked electronic health records: An assessment in a population based study, PLoS One, vol. 12, p. e0189038, 2017.
A. Matthews, Herrett, E., Gasparrini, A., Van Staa, T., Goldacre, B., Smeeth, L., and Bhaskaran, K., Impact of statin related media coverage on use of statins: interrupted time series analysis with UK primary care data, Bmj, vol. 353, p. i3283, 2016.
J. Tazare, Smeeth, L., Evans, S. J. W., Williamson, E., and Douglas, I. J., Implementing high-dimensional propensity score principles to improve confounder adjustment in UK electronic health records, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
E. R. Millett, Quint, J. K., De Stavola, B. L., Smeeth, L., and Thomas, S. L., Improved incidence estimates from linked vs. stand-alone electronic health records, J Clin Epidemiol, vol. 75, pp. 66-9, 2016.
H. J. Forbes, Bhaskaran, K., Grint, D., Hu, V. H., Langan, S. M., McDonald, H. I., Morton, C., Smeeth, L., Walker, J. L., and Warren-Gash, C., Incidence of acute complications of herpes zoster among immunocompetent adults in England: a matched cohort study using routine health data, Br J Dermatol, 2020.
N. S. Wexler, Collett, L., Wexler, A. R., Rawlins, M. D., Tabrizi, S. J., Douglas, I., Smeeth, L., and Evans, S. J., Incidence of adult Huntington's disease in the UK: a UK-based primary care study and a systematic review, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e009070, 2016.
E. R. Millett, Quint, J. K., Smeeth, L., Daniel, R. M., and Thomas, S. L., Incidence of community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections and pneumonia among older adults in the United Kingdom: a population-based study, PLoS One, vol. 8, p. e75131, 2013.
L. Smeeth, Cook, C., and Hall, A. J., Incidence of diagnosed polymyalgia rheumatica and temporal arteritis in the United Kingdom, 1990-2001, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 65, pp. 1093-8, 2006.
E. C. Somers, Thomas, S. L., Smeeth, L., Schoonen, W. M., and Hall, A. J., Incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus in the United Kingdom, 1990-1999, Arthritis Rheum, vol. 57, pp. 612-8, 2007.
K. E. Mansfield, Mathur, R., Tazare, J., Henderson, A. D., Mulick, A. R., Carreira, H., Matthews, A. A., Bidulka, P., Gayle, A., Forbes, H., Cook, S., Wong, A. Y. S., Strongman, H., Wing, K., Warren-Gash, C., Cadogan, S. L., Smeeth, L., Hayes, J. F., Quint, J. K., McKee, M., and Langan, S. M., Indirect acute effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical and mental health in the UK: a population-based study, Lancet Digit Health, 2021.
A. Jain, van Hoek, A. J., Walker, J. L., Forbes, H. J., Langan, S. M., Root, A., Smeeth, L., and Thomas, S. L., Inequalities in zoster disease burden: a population-based cohort study to identify social determinants using linked data from the U.K. Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Br J Dermatol, vol. 178, pp. 1324-1330, 2018.
Y. Schonmann, Mansfield, K. E., Mulick, A., Roberts, A., Smeeth, L., Langan, S. M., and Nitsch, D., Inflammatory Skin Diseases and the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease - Population-Based Case-control and Cohort analyses, Br J Dermatol, 2021.
C. Warren-Gash, Hayward, A. C., Hemingway, H., Denaxas, S., Thomas, S. L., Timmis, A. D., Whitaker, H., and Smeeth, L., Influenza infection and risk of acute myocardial infarction in England and Wales: a CALIBER self-controlled case series study, J Infect Dis, vol. 206, pp. 1652-9, 2012.
R. B. Hubbard, Smith, C. J., Smeeth, L., Harrison, T. W., and Tattersfield, A. E., Inhaled corticosteroids and hip fracture: a population-based case-control study, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, vol. 166, pp. 1563-6, 2002.
A. Grosso, Douglas, I., Hingorani, A. D., MacAllister, R., Hubbard, R., and Smeeth, L., Inhaled tiotropium bromide and risk of stroke, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 68, pp. 731-6, 2009.
[Page last reviewed 6 April 2021]