Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 April 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 226 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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M. Nowakowska, Zghebi, S. S., Ashcroft, D. M., Buchan, I., Chew-Graham, C., Holt, T., Mallen, C., van Marwijk, H., Peek, N., Perera-Salazar, R., Reeves, D., Rutter, M. K., Weng, S. F., Qureshi, N., Mamas, M. A., and Kontopantelis, E., The comorbidity burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus: patterns, clusters and predictions from a large English primary care cohort, BMC Med, vol. 17, p. 145, 2019.
I. J. Chou, Kuo, C. F., Tanasescu, R., Tench, C. R., Tiley, C. G., Constantinescu, C. S., and Whitehouse, W. P., Comorbidity in multiple sclerosis: its temporal relationships with disease onset and dose effect on mortality, Eur J Neurol, 2019.
A. Douros, Dell'Aniello, S., Yu, O. H. Y., and Suissa, S., Comparative cardiovascular and hypoglycemic safety of glimepiride in type 2 diabetes: A population-based cohort study, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2019.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Comparative effectiveness and safety of LABA-LAMA versus LABA-ICS treatment of COPD in real world clinical practice, Chest, 2019.
S. J. Sinnott, Smeeth, L., Williamson, E., Perel, P., Nitsch, D., Tomlinson, L. A., and Douglas, I. J., The comparative effectiveness of fourth-line drugs in resistant hypertension: An application in electronic health record data, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Comparative effects of LAMA-LABA-ICS versus LAMA-LABA for COPD: Cohort study in real world clinical practice: LAMA-LABA-ICS versus LAMA-LABA in COPD, Chest, 2019.
D. B. Price, Carter, V., Martin, J., Gardener, E. A., Skinner, D., Yang, S., Hoffman, M., Willis, J. C., and Cooper, A. J., Comparative Safety Profile of the Fixed-Dose Combination Corticosteroid and Long-acting beta2-Agonist Fluticasone Propionate/Formoterol Fumarate: A 36-Month Longitudinal Cohort Study in UK Primary Care, Drugs, 2019.
K. Mansfield, Crellin, E., Denholm, R., Quint, J. K., Smeeth, L., Cook, S., and Herrett, E., Completeness and validity of alcohol recording in general practice within the UK: a cross-sectional study, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e031537, 2019.
M. Pufulete, Harris, J., Sterne, J. A. C., Johnson, T. W., Lasserson, D., Mumford, A., Doble, B., Wordsworth, S., Benedetto, U., Rogers, C. A., Loke, Y., Pithara, C., Redwood, S., and Reeves, B. C., Comprehensive ascertainment of bleeding in patients prescribed different combinations of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and triple therapy (TT) in the UK: study protocol for three population-based cohort studies emulating 'target trials' (the ADAPTT Stu, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e029388, 2019.
M. E. Saine, Carbonari, D. M., Newcomb, C. W., Gallagher, A. M., Blak, B. T., Roy, J. A., Wood, J., Cardillo, S., Hennessy, S., Strom, B. L., and , Concordance of hospitalizations between Clinical Practice Research Datalink and linked Hospital Episode Statistics among patients treated with oral antidiabetic therapies, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
C. I. Bloom, Douglas, I., Olney, J., D'Ancona, G., Smeeth, L., and Quint, J. K., Cost saving of switching to equivalent inhalers and its effect on health outcomes, Thorax, 2019.
N. C. Hazra, Rudisill, C., Jackson, S. H., and Gulliford, M. C., Cost-Effectiveness of Antihypertensive Therapy in Patients Older Than 80 Years: Cohort Study and Markov Model, Value Health, vol. 22, pp. 1362-1369, 2019.
S. V. Ramagopalan, Samnaliev, M., Weir, S., Sammon, C. J., Carroll, R., and Alikhan, R., Costs of gastrointestinal bleeding events in atrial fibrillation: a UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink study, Future Cardiol, 2019.
O. A. Oshagbemi, Franssen, F. M. E., Wouters, E. F. M., van der Zee, A. H. Maitlan, Driessen, J. H. M., de Boer, A., and de Vries, F., C-reactive protein as a biomarker of response to inhaled corticosteroids among patients with COPD, Pulm Pharmacol Ther, p. 101870, 2019.
M. Touya, Lamy, F. X., Tanasescu, A., Saragoussi, D., Francois, C., Wade, A. G., Llorca, P. M., Lancon, C., and Falissard, B., Creation and validation of a linear index to measure the health state of patients with depression in automated healthcare databases, J Mark Access Health Policy, vol. 7, p. 1674115, 2019.
F. A. Pearce, Hubbard, R. B., Grainge, M. J., Watts, R. A., Abhishek, A., and Lanyon, P. C., Can granulomatosis with polyangiitis be diagnosed earlier in primary care? A case-control study, Qjm, vol. 111, pp. 39-45, 2018.
E. Ankus, Price, S. J., Ukoumunne, O. C., Hamilton, W., and Bailey, S. E. R., Cancer incidence in patients with a high normal platelet count: a cohort study using primary care data, Fam Pract, vol. 35, pp. 671-675, 2018.
R. Williams, van Staa, T. P., Gallagher, A. M., Hammad, T., Leufkens, H. G. M., and de Vries, F., Cancer recording in patients with and without type 2 diabetes in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink primary care data and linked hospital admission data: a cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e020827, 2018.
R. Alsaggaf, St George, D. M. M., Zhan, M., Pfeiffer, R. M., Wang, Y., Wagner, K. R., Greene, M. H., Amr, S., and Gadalla, S. M., Cancer Risk in Myotonic Dystrophy Type I: Evidence of a Role for Disease Severity, JNCI Cancer Spectr, vol. 2, p. pky052, 2018.
C. Becker, Schneider, C., Aballea, S., Bailey, C., Bourne, R., Jick, S., and Meier, C., Cataract in patients with diabetes mellitus-incidence rates in the UK and risk factors, Eye (Lond), vol. 32, pp. 1028-1035, 2018.
M. Smith, Herrington, W. G., Weldegiorgis, M., Hobbs, F. R., Bankhead, C., and Woodward, M., Change in Albuminuria and Risk of Renal and Cardiovascular Outcomes: Natural Variation Should Be Taken into Account, Kidney Int Rep, vol. 3, pp. 939-949, 2018.
J. Wilding, Godec, T., Khunti, K., Pocock, S., Fox, R., Smeeth, L., Clauson, P., Fenici, P., Hammar, N., and Medina, J., Changes in HbA1c and weight, and treatment persistence, over the 18 months following initiation of second-line therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes: results from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMC Med, vol. 16, p. 116, 2018.
S. Wilkinson, Douglas, I., Stirnadel-Farrant, H., Fogarty, D., Pokrajac, A., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L., Changing use of antidiabetic drugs in the UK: trends in prescribing 2000-2017, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e022768, 2018.
M. Iwagami, Caplin, B., Smeeth, L., Tomlinson, L. A., and Nitsch, D., Chronic kidney disease and cause-specific hospitalisation: a matched cohort study using primary and secondary care patient data, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 68, pp. e512-e523, 2018.
A. D. Morgan, Rothnie, K. J., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., and Quint, J. K., Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the risk of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a population-based study using UK primary care data, Thorax, vol. 73, pp. 877-879, 2018.
A. I. B. Kurdi, Elliott, R. A., and Chen, L. C., Clinical and economic implications of therapeutic switching of angiotensin receptor blockers to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: a population-based study, J Hypertens, 2018.
O. Archangelidi, Pujades-Rodriguez, M., Timmis, A., Jouven, X., Denaxas, S., and Hemingway, H., Clinically recorded heart rate and incidence of 12 coronary, cardiac, cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial diseases in 233,970 men and women: A linked electronic health record study, Eur J Prev Cardiol, vol. 25, pp. 1485-1495, 2018.
L. Li, Neogi, T., and Jick, S., A cohort study of comorbidity in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 57, pp. 291-299, 2018.
J. Castellsague, Kuiper, J. G., Pottegard, A., I. Berglind, A., Dedman, D., Gutierrez, L., Calingaert, B., van Herk-Sukel, M. P., Hallas, J., Sundstrom, A., Gallagher, A. M., Kaye, J. A., Pardo, C., Rothman, K. J., and Perez-Gutthann, S., A cohort study on the risk of lymphoma and skin cancer in users of topical tacrolimus, pimecrolimus, and corticosteroids (Joint European Longitudinal Lymphoma and Skin Cancer Evaluation - JOELLE study), Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 299-310, 2018.
C. Schneider, Bodmer, M., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Colorectal cancer and markers of anemia, Eur J Cancer Prev, vol. 27, pp. 530-538, 2018.
J. Busby, Murray, L., Mills, K., Zhang, S. D., Liberante, F., and Cardwell, C. R., A combined connectivity mapping and pharmacoepidemiology approach to identify existing medications with breast cancer causing or preventing properties, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 27, pp. 78-86, 2018.
S. Khalid, Calderon-Larranaga, S., Hawley, S., Ali, M. S., Judge, A., Arden, N., Van Staa, T., Cooper, C., Javaid, M. K., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Comparative anti-fracture effectiveness of different oral anti-osteoporosis therapies based on "real-world" data: a meta-analysis of propensity-matched cohort findings from the UK Clinical Practice Research Database and the Catalan SIDIAP Database, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 1417-1431, 2018.
L. Sinyavskaya, Gauthier, S., Renoux, C., Dell'Aniello, S., Suissa, S., and Brassard, P., Comparative effect of statins on the risk of incident Alzheimer disease, Neurology, vol. 90, pp. e179-e187, 2018.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Comparative effectiveness of LABA-ICS versus LAMA as initial treatment in COPD targeted by blood eosinophils: a population-based cohort study, Lancet Respir Med, vol. 6, pp. 855-862, 2018.
S. Y. Loo, Coulombe, J., Dell'Aniello, S., Brophy, J. M., Suissa, S., and Renoux, C., Comparative effectiveness of novel oral anticoagulants in UK patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease: a matched cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e019638, 2018.
J. M. Gamble, Donnan, J. R., Chibrikov, E., Twells, L. K., Midodzi, W. K., and Majumdar, S. R., Comparative Safety of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors Versus Sulfonylureas and Other Glucose-lowering Therapies for Three Acute Outcomes, Sci Rep, vol. 8, p. 15142, 2018.
C. S. Arhi, Bottle, A., Burns, E. M., Clarke, J. M., Aylin, P., Ziprin, P., and Darzi, A., Comparison of cancer diagnosis recording between the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Cancer Registry and Hospital Episodes Statistics, Cancer Epidemiol, vol. 57, pp. 148-157, 2018.
J. L. Hong, Webster-Clark, M., Funk, M. J., Sturmer, T., Dempster, S., Cole, S. R., Herr, I., and LoCasale, R., Comparison of Methods to Generalize Randomized Clinical Trial Results without Individual-Level Data for the Target Population, Am J Epidemiol, 2018.
C. S. Arhi, Burns, E. M., Bouras, G., Aylin, P., Ziprin, P., and Darzi, A., Complications after discharge and delays in adjuvant chemotherapy following colonic resection: a cohort study of linked primary and secondary care data, Colorectal Dis, 2018.
K. M. Rhodes, Turner, R. M., Payne, R. A., and White, I. R., Computationally efficient methods for fitting mixed models to electronic health records data, Stat Med, vol. 37, pp. 4557-4570, 2018.
F. Nissen, Morales, D. R., Mullerova, H., Smeeth, L., Douglas, I. J., and Quint, J. K., Concomitant diagnosis of asthma and COPD: a quantitative study in UK primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 68, pp. e775-e782, 2018.
J. G. Royle, Lanyon, P. C., Grainge, M. J., Abhishek, A., and Pearce, F. A., Correction to: The incidence, prevalence, and survival of systemic sclerosis in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Clin Rheumatol, vol. 37, p. 2601, 2018.
G. Moncrieff, Lied-Lied, A., Nelson, G., Holy, C. E., Weinstein, R., Wei, D., and Rowe, S., Cost and effectiveness of prescribing emollient therapy for atopic eczema in UK primary care in children and adults: a large retrospective analysis of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMC Dermatol, vol. 18, p. 9, 2018.
S. H. Landis, Wurst, K., Le, H. V., Bonar, K., and Punekar, Y. S., Can Assessment of Disease Burden Prior to Changes in Initial COPD Maintenance Treatment Provide Insight into Remaining Unmet Needs? A Retrospective Database Study in UK Primary Care, Copd, vol. 14, pp. 80-85, 2017.
S. F. Weng, Reps, J., Kai, J., Garibaldi, J. M., and Qureshi, N., Can machine-learning improve cardiovascular risk prediction using routine clinical data?, PLoS One, vol. 12, p. e0174944, 2017.
J. A. Kaye, Margulis, A. V., Fortuny, J., McQuay, L. J., Plana, E., Bartsch, J. L., Bui, C. L., Perez-Gutthann, S., and Arana, A., Cancer Incidence after Initiation of Antimuscarinic Medications for Overactive Bladder in the United Kingdom: Evidence for Protopathic Bias, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 37, pp. 673-683, 2017.
A. But, De Bruin, M. L., Bazelier, M. T., Hjellvik, V., Andersen, M., Auvinen, A., Starup-Linde, J., Schmidt, M. K., Furu, K., de Vries, F., Karlstad, O., Ekstrom, N., and Haukka, J., Cancer risk among insulin users: comparing analogues with human insulin in the CARING five-country cohort study, Diabetologia, vol. 60, pp. 1691-1703, 2017.
J. Dollerup, Vestbo, J., Murray-Thomas, T., Kaplan, A., Martin, R. J., Pizzichini, E., Pizzichini, M. M. M., Burden, A., Martin, J., and Price, D. B., Cardiovascular risks in smokers treated with nicotine replacement therapy: a historical cohort study, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 9, pp. 231-243, 2017.
R. Williams, de Vries, F., Kothny, W., Serban, C., Lopez-Leon, S., Chu, C., and Schlienger, R., Cardiovascular safety of vildagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes: A European multi-database, non-interventional post-authorization safety study, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 19, pp. 1473-1478, 2017.
J. P. H. Wilding, Godec, T., Khunti, K., Pocock, S., Fox, R., Smeeth, L., Clauson, P., Fenici, P., Hammar, N., and Medina, J., Changes in HbA1c and weight after initiation of second-line therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes in clinical practice., Diabetologia., vol. 60, p. S301, 2017.
[Page last reviewed 6 April 2021]