Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,800 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 July 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 4MB, 236 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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C. A. Gravel, Filion, K. B., Reynier, P. M., and Platt, R. W., Postmyocardial Infarction Statin Exposure and the Risk of Stroke with Weighting for Outcome Misclassification, Epidemiology, vol. 31, pp. 880-888, 2020.
J. Granerod, Davies, N. W., Ramanuj, P. P., Easton, A., Brown, D. W., and Thomas, S. L., Increased rates of sequelae post-encephalitis in individuals attending primary care practices in the United Kingdom: a population-based retrospective cohort study, J Neurol, vol. 264, pp. 407-415, 2017.
S. M. Grandi, Vallee-Pouliot, K., Reynier, P., Eberg, M., Platt, R. W., Arel, R., Basso, O., and Filion, K. B., Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy and the Risk of Subsequent Cardiovascular Disease, Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol, vol. 31, pp. 412-421, 2017.
S. M. Grandi, Reynier, P., Platt, R. W., Basso, O., and Filion, K. B., The timing of onset of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and the risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease, Int J Cardiol, vol. 270, pp. 273-275, 2018.
S. M. Grandi, Filion, K. B., Hutcheon, J. A., Rosella, L. C., and Platt, R. W., Accounting for Repeat Pregnancies in Risk Prediction Models, Epidemiology, 2021.
H. C. Gorton, Webb, R. T., Parisi, R., Carr, M. J., DelPozo-Banos, M., Moriarty, K. J., Pickrell, W. O., John, A., and Ashcroft, D. M., Alcohol-Specific Mortality in People With Epilepsy: Cohort Studies in Two Independent Population-Based Datasets, Front Neurol, vol. 11, p. 623139, 2020.
H. C. Gorton, Webb, R. T., Pickrell, W. O., Carr, M. J., and Ashcroft, D. M., Risk factors for self-harm in people with epilepsy, J Neurol, vol. 265, pp. 3009-3016, 2018.
H. C. Gorton, Webb, R. T., Carr, M. J., DelPozo-Banos, M., John, A., and Ashcroft, D. M., Risk of Unnatural Mortality in People With Epilepsy, JAMA Neurol, vol. 75, pp. 929-938, 2018.
J. Gorricho, Garjon, J., Alonso, A., Celaya, M. C., Saiz, L. C., Erviti, J., and Lopez, A., Use of oral antidiabetic agents and risk of community-acquired pneumonia: a nested case-control study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 83, pp. 2034-2044, 2017.
M. Gore, Dukes, E., Rowbotham, D., Tai, K. S., and Leslie, D. L., Prevalence of contraindicated medical conditions and use of precluded medications in patients with painful neuropathic disorders prescribed amitriptyline, Pain Pract, vol. 6, pp. 265-72, 2006.
J. P. Gordon, Evans, M., Puelles, J., and McEwan, P. C., Factors Predictive of Weight Gain and Implications for Modeling in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Initiating Metformin and Sulfonylurea Combination Therapy, Diabetes Ther, vol. 6, pp. 495-507, 2015.
J. Gordon, McEwan, P., Evans, M., Puelles, J., and Sinclair, A., Managing glycaemia in older people with type 2 diabetes: A retrospective, primary care-based cohort study, with economic assessment of patient outcomes, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 19, pp. 644-653, 2017.
J. Gordon, McEwan, P., Idris, I., Evans, M., and Puelles, J., Treatment choice, medication adherence and glycemic efficacy in people with type 2 diabetes: a UK clinical practice database study, BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, vol. 6, p. e000512, 2018.
A. Gopfert, Deeny, S. R., Fisher, R., and Stafford, M., Primary care consultation length by deprivation and multimorbidity in England: an observational study using electronic patient records, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
M. E. Goossens, Buntinx, F., Zeegers, M. P., Driessen, J. H., De Bruin, M. L., and de Vries, F., Influence of metformin intake on the risk of bladder cancer in type 2 diabetes patients, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 80, pp. 1464-72, 2015.
M. E. Goossens, Zeegers, M. P., Bazelier, M. T., De Bruin, M. L., Buntinx, F., and de Vries, F., Risk of bladder cancer in patients with diabetes: a retrospective cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 5, p. e007470, 2015.
A. Gonzalez-Perez and Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Breast cancer risk among users of antidepressant medications, Epidemiology, vol. 16, pp. 101-5, 2005.
A. Gonzalez-Perez and Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Prostate cancer risk among men with diabetes mellitus (Spain), Cancer Causes Control, vol. 16, pp. 1055-8, 2005.
A. Gonzalez-Perez and Rodriguez, L. A., Upper gastrointestinal complications among users of paracetamol, Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol, vol. 98, pp. 297-303, 2006.
A. Gonzalez-Perez, Ronquist, G., and Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Breast cancer incidence and use of antihypertensive medication in women, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 13, pp. 581-5, 2004.
M. Gompels, Michael, S., Davies, C., Jones, T., Macleod, J., and May, M., Trends in HIV testing in the UK primary care setting: a 15-year retrospective cohort study from 2000 to 2015, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e027744, 2019.
M. Gokhale, Hattori, T., Evitt, L., Lenney, W., Nordstrom, B., Collins, J., Schultze, A., and Van Dyke, M. K., Burden of asthma exacerbations and health care utilization in pediatric patients with asthma in the US and England, Immun Inflamm Dis, 2020.
K. L. Goh, Bhaskaran, K., Minassian, C., Evans, S. J., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I. J., Angiotensin receptor blockers and risk of dementia: cohort study in UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 79, pp. 337-50, 2015.
G. Glover, Williams, R., Tompkins, G., and Oyinlola, J., An observational study of the use of acute hospital care by people with intellectual disabilities in England, J Intellect Disabil Res, 2018.
G. Glover, Williams, R., Heslop, P., Oyinlola, J., and Grey, J., Mortality in people with intellectual disabilities in England, J Intellect Disabil Res, vol. 61, pp. 62-74, 2017.
G. Glover, Williams, R., Tompkins, G., and Oyinlola, J., An observational study of the use of acute hospital care by people with intellectual disabilities in England, J Intellect Disabil Res, vol. 63, pp. 85-99, 2019.
G. Glover, Williams, R., and Oyinlola, J., An observational cohort study of numbers and causes of preventable general hospital admissions in people with and without intellectual disabilities in England, J Intellect Disabil Res, 2020.
M. Giustozzi, Curcio, A., Weijs, B., Field, T. S., Sudikas, S., Katholing, A., Wallenhorst, C., Weitz, J. I., Martinez, C., and Cohen, A. T., Variation in the Association between Antineoplastic Therapies and Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with Active Cancer, Thromb Haemost, vol. 120, pp. 847-856, 2020.
C. J. Girman, Kou, T. D., Cai, B., Alexander, C. M., O'Neill, E. A., Williams-Herman, D. E., and Katz, L., Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have higher risk for acute pancreatitis compared with those without diabetes, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 12, pp. 766-71, 2010.
C. J. Girman, Kou, T. D., Brodovicz, K., Alexander, C. M., O'Neill, E. A., Engel, S., Williams-Herman, D. E., and Katz, L., Risk of acute renal failure in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Diabet Med, vol. 29, pp. 614-21, 2012.
F. Giorgianni, Ernst, P., Dell'Aniello, S., Suissa, S., and Renoux, C., Beta 2 agonists and the incidence of Parkinson's disease, Am J Epidemiol, 2020.
A. Gilsenan, Fortuny, J., Cainzos-Achirica, M., Cantero, O. F., Flynn, R. W. V., Garcia-Rodriguez, L., Harding, A., Kollhorst, B., Karlsson, P., Linner, L., MacDonald, T. M., Odsbu, I., Plana, E., Ruigomez, A., Schink, T., Ziemiecki, R., and Andrews, E. B., Cardiovascular Safety of Prucalopride in Patients with Chronic Constipation: A Multinational Population-Based Cohort Study, Drug Saf, 2019.
C. Gilbert, Allgar, V., and Doran, T., Workload impact of the Quality and Outcomes Framework for patients with diabetes: an interrupted time series in general practice, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 69, pp. e570-e577, 2019.
E. Gieling, de Vries, F., Williams, R., van Onzenoort, H. A. W., de Boer, A., V. Cate, T., Kramers, C., and Burden, A., Mortality risk in atrial fibrillation: the role of aspirin, vitamin K and non-vitamin K antagonists, Int J Clin Pharm, 2019.
E. M. Gieling, van den Ham, H. A., van Onzenoort, H., Bos, J., Kramers, C., de Boer, A., de Vries, F., and Burden, A. M., Risk of major bleeding and stroke associated with the use of vitamin K antagonists, nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants and aspirin in patients with atrial fibrillation: a cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 83, pp. 1844-1859, 2017.
D. Gibson-Smith, Klop, C., Elders, P. J., Welsing, P. M., van Schoor, N., Leufkens, H. G., Harvey, N. C., van Staa, T. P., and de Vries, F., The risk of major and any (non-hip) fragility fracture after hip fracture in the United Kingdom: 2000-2010, Osteoporos Int, vol. 25, pp. 2555-63, 2014.
R. G. Gibbs, Newson, R., Lawrenson, R., Greenhalgh, R. M., and Davies, A. H., Diagnosis and initial management of stroke and transient ischemic attack across UK health regions from 1992 to 1996: experience of a national primary care database, Stroke, vol. 32, pp. 1085-90, 2001.
R. G. Gibbs, Todd, J. C., Irvine, C., Lawrenson, R., Newson, R., Greenhalgh, R. M., and Davies, A. H., Relationship between the regional and national incidence of transient ischaemic attack and stroke and performance of carotid endarterectomy, Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg, vol. 16, pp. 47-52, 1998.
D. C. Gibbons, Aggarwal, B., Fairburn-Beech, J., Hinds, D., Fletcher, M., Bosnic-Anticevich, S., and Price, D., Treatment patterns among non-active users of maintenance asthma medication in the United Kingdom: a retrospective cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, J Asthma, pp. 1-12, 2020.
R. E. Ghosh, Crellin, E., Beatty, S., Donegan, K., Myles, P., and Williams, R., How Clinical Practice Research Datalink data are used to support pharmacovigilance, Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, 2019.
J. Gho, Schmidt, A. F., Pasea, L., Koudstaal, S., Pujades-Rodriguez, M., Denaxas, S., Shah, A. D., Patel, R. S., Gale, C. P., Hoes, A. W., Cleland, J. G., Hemingway, H., and Asselbergs, F. W., An electronic health records cohort study on heart failure following myocardial infarction in England: incidence and predictors, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e018331, 2018.
M. Gharbi, Drysdale, J. H., Lishman, H., Goudie, R., Molokhia, M., Johnson, A. P., Holmes, A. H., and Aylin, P., Antibiotic management of urinary tract infection in elderly patients in primary care and its association with bloodstream infections and all cause mortality: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 364, p. l525, 2019.
G. Geulayov, Ferrey, A., Casey, D., Wells, C., Fuller, A., Bankhead, C., Gunnell, D., Clements, C., Kapur, N., Ness, J., Waters, K., and Hawton, K., Relative toxicity of benzodiazepines and hypnotics commonly used for self-poisoning: An epidemiological study of fatal toxicity and case fatality, J Psychopharmacol, vol. 32, pp. 654-662, 2018.
K. D. Getz, Anderka, M. T., Werler, M. M., and Jick, S. S., Maternal Pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index and Autism Spectrum Disorder among Offspring: A Population-Based Case-Control Study, Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol, vol. 30, pp. 479-87, 2016.
J. George, Majeed, W., Mackenzie, I. S., MacDonald, T. M., and Wei, L., Association between cardiovascular events and sodium-containing effervescent, dispersible, and soluble drugs: nested case-control study, Bmj, vol. 347, p. f6954, 2013.
J. M. Geoghegan, Clark, D. I., Bainbridge, L. C., Smith, C., and Hubbard, R., Risk factors in carpal tunnel syndrome, J Hand Surg Br, vol. 29, pp. 315-20, 2004.
M. L. Gentil, Cuggia, M., Fiquet, L., Hagenbourger, C., Le Berre, T., Banatre, A., Renault, E., Bouzille, G., and Chapron, A., Factors influencing the development of primary care data collection projects from electronic health records: a systematic review of the literature, BMC Med Inform Decis Mak, vol. 17, p. 139, 2017.
J. M. Gelfand, Berlin, J., Van Voorhees, A., and Margolis, D. J., Lymphoma rates are low but increased in patients with psoriasis: results from a population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom, Arch Dermatol, vol. 139, pp. 1425-9, 2003.
J. M. Gelfand, Weinstein, R., Porter, S. B., Neimann, A. L., Berlin, J. A., and Margolis, D. J., Prevalence and treatment of psoriasis in the United Kingdom: a population-based study, Arch Dermatol, vol. 141, pp. 1537-41, 2005.
J. M. Gelfand, Neimann, A. L., Shin, D. B., Wang, X., Margolis, D. J., and Troxel, A. B., Risk of myocardial infarction in patients with psoriasis, Jama, vol. 296, pp. 1735-41, 2006.
[Page last reviewed 5 July 2021]