Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 7 September 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 209 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2588 results:
Author [ Title(Asc)] Type Year
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 
L. Li, Setoguchi, S., and Jick, S., Validity of non-fatal idiopathic serious ventricular arrhythmia in UK-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 23, pp. 999-1001, 2014.
M. Iwagami, Tomlinson, L. A., Mansfield, K. E., Casula, A., Caskey, F. J., Aitken, G., Fraser, S. D. S., Roderick, P. J., and Nitsch, D., Validity of estimated prevalence of decreased kidney function and renal replacement therapy from primary care electronic health records compared with national survey and registry data in the United Kingdom, Nephrol Dial Transplant, vol. 32, pp. ii142-ii150, 2017.
N. F. Khan, Harrison, S. E., and Rose, P. W., Validity of diagnostic coding within the General Practice Research Database: a systematic review, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 60, pp. e128-36, 2010.
M. E. Saine, Gizaw, M., Carbonari, D. M., Newcomb, C. W., Roy, J. A., Cardillo, S., Esposito, D. B., Bhullar, H., Gallagher, A. M., Strom, B. L., and , Validity of diagnostic codes to identify hospitalizations for infections among patients treated with oral anti-diabetic drugs, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2017.
E. L. Herrett, Thomas, S. L., and Smeeth, L., Validity of diagnoses in the general practice research database, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 61, pp. 438-9, 2011.
A. Dregan, Moller, H., Murray-Thomas, T., and Gulliford, M. C., Validity of cancer diagnosis in a primary care database compared with linked cancer registrations in England. Population-based cohort study, Cancer Epidemiol, vol. 36, pp. 425-9, 2012.
K. J. Rothnie, Chandan, J. S., Goss, H. G., Mullerova, H., and Quint, J. K., Validity and interpretation of spirometric recordings to diagnose COPD in UK primary care, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 12, pp. 1663-1668, 2017.
J. D. Lewis, Brensinger, C., Bilker, W. B., and Strom, B. L., Validity and completeness of the General Practice Research Database for studies of inflammatory bowel disease, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 11, pp. 211-8, 2002.
C. J. Crooks, West, J., and Jepsen, P., A validation study of the CirCom comorbidity score in an English cirrhosis population using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 107-120, 2018.
M. S. M. Persson, Harman, K. E., Vinogradova, Y., Langan, S. M., Hippisley-Cox, J., Thomas, K. S., and Gran, S., Validation study of bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris recording in routinely collected electronic primary healthcare records in England, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e035934, 2020.
K. J. Rothnie, Mullerova, H., Hurst, J. R., Smeeth, L., Davis, K., Thomas, S. L., and Quint, J. K., Validation of the Recording of Acute Exacerbations of COPD in UK Primary Care Electronic Healthcare Records, PLoS One, vol. 11, p. e0151357, 2016.
R. Lawrenson, Todd, J. C., Leydon, G. M., Williams, T. J., and Farmer, R. D., Validation of the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism in general practice database studies, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 49, pp. 591-6, 2000.
E. Fombonne, Heavey, L., Smeeth, L., Rodrigues, L. C., Cook, C., Smith, P. G., Meng, L., and Hall, A. J., Validation of the diagnosis of autism in general practitioner records, BMC Public Health, vol. 4, p. 5, 2004.
K. H. Thomas, Davies, N., Metcalfe, C., Windmeijer, F., Martin, R. M., and Gunnell, D., Validation of suicide and self-harm records in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 76, pp. 145-57, 2013.
N. Frey, Bircher, A., Bodmer, M., Jick, S. S., Meier, C. R., and Spoendlin, J., Validation of Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis diagnoses in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 26, pp. 429-436, 2017.
S. Devine, West, S. L., Andrews, E., Tennis, P., Eaton, S., Thorp, J., and Olshan, A., Validation of neural tube defects in the full featured–general practice research database, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 17, pp. 434-44, 2008.
H. Jick, Jick, S. S., and Derby, L. E., Validation of information recorded on general practitioner based computerised data resource in the United Kingdom, Bmj, vol. 302, pp. 766-8, 1991.
R. J. Ferguson, Prieto-Alhambra, D., Walker, C., Yu, D., Valderas, J. M., Judge, A., Griffiths, J., Jordan, K. P., Peat, G., Glyn-Jones, S., and Silman, A. J., Validation of hip osteoarthritis diagnosis recording in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2018.
J. K. Quint, Mullerova, H., DiSantostefano, R. L., Forbes, H., Eaton, S., Hurst, J. R., Davis, K., and Smeeth, L., Validation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease recording in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD-GOLD), BMJ Open, vol. 4, p. e005540, 2014.
A. V. Margulis, Fortuny, J., Kaye, J. A., Calingaert, B., Reynolds, M., Plana, E., McQuay, L. J., Atsma, W. J., Franks, B., de Vogel, S., Perez-Gutthann, S., and Arana, A., Validation of Cancer Cases Using Primary Care, Cancer Registry, and Hospitalization Data in the United Kingdom, Epidemiology, vol. 29, pp. 308-313, 2018.
K. W. Hagberg and Jick, S. S., Validation of autism spectrum disorder diagnoses recorded in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, 1990-2014, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 9, pp. 475-482, 2017.
F. Nissen, Morales, D. R., Mullerova, H., Smeeth, L., Douglas, I. J., and Quint, J. K., Validation of asthma recording in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e017474, 2017.
E. Herrett, Thomas, S. L., Schoonen, W. M., Smeeth, L., and Hall, A. J., Validation and validity of diagnoses in the General Practice Research Database: a systematic review, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 69, pp. 4-14, 2010.
J. A. Delaney, Moodie, E. E., and Suissa, S., Validating the effects of drug treatment on blood pressure in the General Practice Research Database, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 17, pp. 535-45, 2008.
R. P. Cornish, Henderson, J., Boyd, A. W., Granell, R., Van Staa, T., and Macleod, J., Validating childhood asthma in an epidemiological study using linked electronic patient records, BMJ Open, vol. 4, p. e005345, 2014.
J. E. Amegadzie, Badejo, O., Gamble, J. M., Wright, M., Farrell, J., Jackson, B., Sultana, K., Hashmi, M., and Gao, Z., Validated methods to identify patients with asthma-COPD overlap in healthcare databases: a systematic review protocol, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e024306, 2019.
S. A. Bremner, Carey, I. M., DeWilde, S., Richards, N., Maier, W. C., Hilton, S. R., Strachan, D. P., and Cook, D. G., Vaccinations, infections and antibacterials in the first grass pollen season of life and risk of later hayfever, Clin Exp Allergy, vol. 37, pp. 512-7, 2007.
T. M. McKeever, Lewis, S. A., Smith, C., and Hubbard, R., Vaccination and allergic disease: a birth cohort study, Am J Public Health, vol. 94, pp. 985-9, 2004.
T. Burkard, Moser, M., Rauch, M., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Utilization pattern of hormone therapy in UK general practice between 1996 and 2015: a descriptive study, Menopause, 2019.
T. A. Durham, K. Lich, H., Viera, A. J., Fine, J. P., Mukherjee, J., Weinberger, M., and Dusetzina, S. B., Utilization of Standard and Target-Specific Oral Anticoagulants Among Adults in the United Kingdom With Incident Atrial Fibrillation, Am J Cardiol, vol. 120, pp. 1820-1829, 2017.
A. M. Gallagher, Leighton-Scott, J., and van Staa, T. P., Utilization characteristics and treatment persistence in patients prescribed low-dose buprenorphine patches in primary care in the United Kingdom: a retrospective cohort study, Clin Ther, vol. 31, pp. 1707-15, 2009.
K. E. Wurst, Ephross, S. A., Loehr, J., Clark, D. W., and Guess, H. A., The utility of the general practice research database to examine selected congenital heart defects: a validation study, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 16, pp. 867-77, 2007.
P. J. Helms, S. Daukes, E., Taylor, M. W., Simpson, C. R., and McLay, J. S., Utility of routinely acquired primary care data for paediatric disease epidemiology and pharmacoepidemiology, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 59, pp. 684-90, 2005.
T. P. van Staa, Leufkens, H. G., and Cooper, C., Utility of medical and drug history in fracture risk prediction among men and women, Bone, vol. 31, pp. 508-14, 2002.
S. L. Stevens, McManus, R. J., and Stevens, R. J., The utility of long-term blood pressure variability for cardiovascular risk prediction in primary care, J Hypertens, 2018.
A. Dregan, Toschke, M. A., Wolfe, C. D., Rudd, A., Ashworth, M., and Gulliford, M. C., Utility of electronic patient records in primary care for stroke secondary prevention trials, BMC Public Health, vol. 11, p. 86, 2011.
S. E. Bromley, de Vries, C. S., and Farmer, R. D., Utilisation of hormone replacement therapy in the United Kingdom. A descriptive study using the general practice research database, Bjog, vol. 111, pp. 369-76, 2004.
S. S. Zghebi, Rutter, M. K., Ashcroft, D. M., Salisbury, C., Mallen, C., Chew-Graham, C. A., Reeves, D., van Marwijk, H., Qureshi, N., Weng, S., Peek, N., Planner, C., Nowakowska, M., Mamas, M., and Kontopantelis, E., Using electronic health records to quantify and stratify the severity of type 2 diabetes in primary care in England: rationale and cohort study design, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e020926, 2018.
M. Asaria, Walker, S., Palmer, S., Gale, C. P., Shah, A. D., Abrams, K. R., Crowther, M., Manca, A., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., and Sculpher, M., Using electronic health records to predict costs and outcomes in stable coronary artery disease, Heart, vol. 102, pp. 755-62, 2016.
E. Rapsomaniki, Thuresson, M., Yang, E., Blin, P., Hunt, P., Chung, S. C., Stogiannis, D., Pujades-Rodriguez, M., Timmis, A., Denaxas, S. C., Danchin, N., Stokes, M., Thomas-Delecourt, F., Emmas, C., Hasvold, P., Jennings, E., Johansson, S., Cohen, D. J., Jernberg, T., Moore, N., Janzon, M., and Hemingway, H., Using big data from health records from four countries to evaluate chronic disease outcomes: a study in 114 364 survivors of myocardial infarction, Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes, vol. 2, pp. 172-183, 2016.
C. Huerta, Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Wallander, M. A., and Johansson, S., Users of oral steroids are at a reduced risk of developing irritable bowel syndrome, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 12, pp. 583-8, 2003.
M. Ozawa, Brennan, P. M., Zienius, K., Kurian, K. M., Hollingworth, W., Weller, D., Grant, R., Hamilton, W., and Ben-Shlomo, Y., The usefulness of symptoms alone or combined for general practitioners in considering the diagnosis of a brain tumour: a case-control study using the clinical practice research database (CPRD) (2000-2014), BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e029686, 2019.
C. Martinez, Assimes, T. L., Mines, D., Dell'Aniello, S., and Suissa, S., Use of venlafaxine compared with other antidepressants and the risk of sudden cardiac death or near death: a nested case-control study, Bmj, vol. 340, p. c249, 2010.
T. Itani, Martin, R., Rai, D., Jones, T., Taylor, G., Thomas, K., Munafo, M., Davies, N., and Taylor, A., Use of varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy in people with and without general practitioner-recorded dementia: retrospective cohort study of routine electronic medical records, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e027569, 2019.
J. G. Kuiper, van Herk-Sukel, M. P. P., Castellsague, J., Pottegard, A., Berglind, I. A., Dedman, D., Gutierrez, L., Calingaert, B., Hallas, J., Sundstrom, A., Gallagher, A. M., Kaye, J. A., Pardo, C., Rothman, K. J., and Perez-Gutthann, S., Use of Topical Tacrolimus and Topical Pimecrolimus in Four European Countries: A Multicentre Database Cohort Study, Drugs Real World Outcomes, 2018.
J. T. Nielen, de Vries, F., Dagnelie, P. C., van den Bemt, B. J., Emans, P. J., Lalmohamed, A., de Boer, A., and Boonen, A., Use of thiazolidinediones and the risk of elective hip or knee replacement: a population based case-control study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 81, pp. 370-8, 2016.
C. Meier, Kraenzlin, M. E., Bodmer, M., Jick, S. S., Jick, H., and Meier, C. R., Use of thiazolidinediones and fracture risk, Arch Intern Med, vol. 168, pp. 820-5, 2008.
L. A. Garcia Rodriguez and S. Gutthann, P., Use of the UK General Practice Research Database for pharmacoepidemiology, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 45, pp. 419-25, 1998.
S. Donovan, The Use of the General Practice Research Database (Gprd) to Examine Potential Links between Antidepressant Medication and the Incidence of Suicide, Drug Information Journal, vol. 30, pp. 785-792, 1996.
A. Hansell, Hollowell, J., Nichols, T., McNiece, R., and Strachan, D., Use of the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) for respiratory epidemiology: a comparison with the 4th Morbidity Survey in General Practice (MSGP4), Thorax, vol. 54, pp. 413-9, 1999.
[Page last reviewed 7 September 2020]