Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 3,000 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography listed below is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 May 2022).

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.

Download: CPRD bibliography PDF May 2022 (PDF, 6MB, 256 pages) 

Download: CPRD bibliography .BIB May 2022 (BIB, 1.3MB, 1 page)

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website

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Estimation of recurrent atherosclerotic cardiovascular event risk in patients with established cardiovascular disease: the updated SMART2 algorithm


Authors: S. Hageman, A. McKay, P. Ueda, L. Gunn, T. Jernberg, E. Hagström, D. Bhatt, P. Steg, K. Läll, R. Mägi, Nordbø Gynnild, H. Ellekjær, I. Saltvedt, J. Tuñón, I. Mahíllo, Á Aceña, K. Kaminski, M. Chlabicz, E. Sawicka, T. Tillman, J. McEvoy, E. Di Angelantonio, I. Graham, D. De Bacquer, K. Ray, J. Dorresteijn, F. Visseren


Effectiveness of bisoprolol versus other β-blockers and other antihypertensive classes: a cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink


Authors: C. Foch, A. Allignol, T. Hohenberger, E. Boutmy, S. Schaefer, U. Hostalek


Blood eosinophils to guide inhaled maintenance therapy in a primary care COPD population


Authors: H. Ashdown, M. Smith, E. McFadden, I. Pavord, C. Butler, M. Bafadhel


Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists and Risk of Anaphylactic Reaction Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Multisite Population-Based Cohort Study


Authors: R. Pradhan, E. Patorno, H. Tesfaye, S. Schneeweiss, H. Yin, J. Franklin, A. Pawar, C. Santella, O. H. Y. Yu, C. Renoux, L. Azoulay


Observational retrospective study calculating health service costs of patients receiving surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis in England, using linked patient-level primary and secondary care electronic data


Authors: C. Clarke, E. Williamson, S. Denaxas, J. Carpenter, M. Thomas, H. Blackshaw, A. Schilder, C. Philpott, C. Hopkins, S. Morris


Long-Term patterns of cancer incidence among patients with and without type 2 diabetes in the United Kingdom


Authors: R. Pradhan, O. Yu, R. Platt, L. Azoulay


The feasibility of pragmatic influenza vaccine randomized controlled real-world trials in Denmark and England


Authors: J. Nealon, D. Modin, R. Ghosh, D. Rudin, G. Gislason, H. Booth, J. Jensen, R. Williams, H. Shepherd, E. Yelland, H. Bricout, S. Chaves, T. Biering-Sørensen


Has the gout epidemic peaked in the UK? A nationwide cohort study using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, from 1997 to across the COVID-19 pandemic in 2021


Authors: A. Abhishek, L. Tata, M. Mamas, A. Avery


Real-world weight change, adherence, and discontinuation among patients with type 2 diabetes initiating glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in the UK


Authors: T. Weiss, L. Yang, R. Carr, S. Pal, B. Sawhney, R. Boggs, S. Rajpathak, K. Iglay


Opioid use prior to total knee replacement: comparative analysis of trends in England and Sweden


Authors: D. Yu, C. Hellberg, T. Appleyard, A. Dell'Isola, G. Thomas, A. Turkiewicz, M. Englund, G. Peat


The risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in people prescribed mirtazapine: an active comparator cohort study using electronic health records


Authors: R. Joseph, R. Jack, R. Morriss, R. Knaggs, D. Butler, C. Hollis, J. Hippisley-Cox, C. Coupland


Screening for type 2 diabetes after a diagnosis of gestational diabetes by ethnicity: A retrospective cohort study


Authors: E. Vounzoulaki, K. Khunti, J. Miksza, B. Tan, M. Davies, C. Gillies


Effectiveness and safety of apixaban vs. rivaroxaban in patients with atrial fibrillation and type 2 diabetes mellitus


Authors: Roy Chowdhury, J. Michaud, O. H. Y. Yu, H. Yin, L. Azoulay, C. Renoux


UK poSt Arthroplasty Follow-up rEcommendations (UK SAFE): what does analysis of linked, routinely collected national data sets tell us about mid-late term revision risk after hip replacement? Retrospective cohort study


Authors: L. Smith, C. Garriga, S. Kingsbury, R. Pinedo-Villanueva, A. Delmestri, N. Arden, M. Stone, P. Conaghan, A. Judge


Primary care and cancer: an analysis of the impact and inequalities of the COVID-19 pandemic on patient pathways


Authors: T. Watt, R. Sullivan, A. Aggarwal


Reduction of Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality versus Risk of New Onset Diabetes with Statin Use in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis


Authors: G. Ozen, S. Dell'Aniello, S. Pedro, K. Michaud, S. Suissa


Epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease and sequelae in the United Kingdom during the period 2008 to 2017 - a secondary database analysis


Authors: S. Guedes, H. Bricout, E. Langevin, S. Tong, I. Bertrand-Gerentes


Serum potassium variability as a predictor of clinical outcomes in patients with cardiorenal disease or diabetes: a retrospective UK database study


Authors: G. James, J. Kim, C. Mellström, K. Ford, N. Jenkins, C. Tsang, M. Evans, P. McEwan


Intra-abdominal cancer risk with abdominal pain: a prospective cohort primary care study


Authors: S. Price, N. Gibson, W. Hamilton, A. King, E. Shephard


Effects of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers: protocol for a UK cohort study using routinely collected electronic health records with validation against the ONTARGET trial


Authors: P. Baptiste, A. Wong, A. Schultze, M. Cunnington, J. Mann, C. Clase, C. Leyrat, L. Tomlinson, K. Wing


Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers and risk of depression among older people with hypertension


Authors: T. van Sloten, P. Souverein, C. Stehouwer, J. Driessen


Association between covid-19 vaccination, SARS-CoV-2 infection, and risk of immune mediated neurological events: population based cohort and self-controlled case series analysis


Authors: X. Li, B. Raventós, E. Roel, A. Pistillo, E. Martinez-Hernandez, A. Delmestri, C. Reyes, V. Strauss, D. Prieto-Alhambra, E. Burn, T. Duarte-Salles


Changes in heart failure management and long-term mortality over 10 years: observational study


Authors: A. Bottle, R. Newson, P. Faitna, B. Hayhoe, M. Cowie


Characteristics of New Users of Aclidinium Bromide, Aclidinium/Formoterol, and Other COPD Medications in the United Kingdom, Denmark, and Germany


Authors: E. Rivero-Ferrer, M. Olesen, E. Plana, J. Aguado, N. Saigi-Morgui, A. Rubino, S. Daoud, A. Lei, S. Perez-Gutthann, T. Schink, N. Kristiansen, J. Hallas, A. Pottegard, C. Rebordosa


Primary care clinical management following self-harm during the first wave of COVID-19 in the UK: population-based cohort study


Authors: S. Steeg, M. Carr, L. Trefan, D. Ashcroft, N. Kapur, E. Nielsen, B. McMillan, R. Webb


Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular and Heart Failure Events With SGLT2 Inhibitors, GLP-1 Receptor Agonists, and Their Combination in Type 2 Diabetes


Authors: A. Wright, M. Carr, E. Kontopantelis, L. Leelarathna, H. Thabit, R. Emsley, I. Buchan, M. Mamas, T. van Staa, N. Sattar, D. Ashcroft, M. Rutter


Associations between multiple long-term conditions and mortality in diverse ethnic groups


Authors: M. Stafford, H. Knight, J. Hughes, A. Alarilla, L. Mondor, Pefoyo Kone, W. Wodchis, S. Deeny


Impact of covid-19 on primary care contacts with children and young people aged 0-24 years in England; longitudinal trends study 2015-2020


Authors: K. Foley, E Maile, A. Bottle, F. Neale, R. Viner, S. Kenny, A. Majeed, D. Hargreaves, S. Saxena


Therapies for Long COVID in non-hospitalised individuals: from symptoms, patient-reported outcomes and immunology to targeted therapies (The TLC Study)


Authors: S. Haroon, K. Nirantharakumar, S. Hughes, A. Subramanian, O. Aiyegbusi, E. Davies, P. Myles, T. Williams, G. Turner, J. Chandan, C. McMullan, J. Lord, D. Wraith, K. McGee, A. Denniston, T. Taverner, L. Jackson, E. Sapey, G. Gkoutos, K. Gokhale, E. Leggett, C. Iles, C. Frost, G. McNamara, A. Bamford, T. Marshall, D. Zemedikun, G. Price, S. Marwaha, N. Simms-Williams, K. Brown, A. Walker, K. Jones, K. Matthews, J. Camaradou, M. Saint-Cricq, S. Kumar, Y. Alder, D. Stanton, L. Agyen, M. Baber, H. Blaize, M. Calvert


Does Cardiovascular Mortality Overtake Cancer Mortality During Cancer Survivorship?: An English Retrospective Cohort Study


Authors: H. Strongman, S. Gadd, A. Matthews, K. Mansfield, S. Stanway, A. Lyon, I. dos-Santos-Silva, L. Smeeth, K. Bhaskaran


Fluticasone-Based versus Budesonide-Based Triple Therapies in COPD: Real-World Comparative Effectiveness and Safety


Authors: S. Suissa, S. Dell'Aniello, P. Ernst


Discontinuation of Inhaled Corticosteroids from Triple Therapy in COPD: Effects on Major Outcomes in Real World Clinical Practice


Authors: S. Suissa, S. Dell'Aniello, P. Ernst


Associations of Cardiovascular and Non-Cardiovascular Comorbidities with Dementia Risk in Patients with Diabetes: Results from a Large UK Cohort Study


Authors: B. Zheng, B. Su, C. Udeh-Momoh, G. Price, I. Tzoulaki, E. Vamos, A. Majeed, E. Riboli, S. Ahmadi-Abhari, L. Middleton


Adverse outcomes after partner bereavement in people with reduced kidney function: Parallel cohort studies in England and Denmark


Authors: P. Bidulka, S. Vestergaard, A. Hlupeni, A. Kjaersgaard, A. Wong, S. Langan, S. Schmidt, S. Lyon, C. Christiansen, D. Nitsch


Assessing the severity of cardiovascular disease in 213 088 patients with coronary heart disease: a retrospective cohort study


Authors: S. Zghebi, M. Mamas, D. Ashcroft, M. Rutter, H. VanMarwijk, C. Salisbury, C. Mallen, C. Chew-Graham, N. Qureshi, S. Weng, T. Holt, I. Buchan, N. Peek, S. Giles, D. Reeves, E. Kontopantelis


Assessment of common infections and incident dementia using UK primary and secondary care data: a historical cohort study


Authors: R. Muzambi, K. Bhaskaran, L. Smeeth, C. Brayne, N. Chaturvedi, C. Warren-Gash


Associations between attainment of incentivised primary care diabetes indicators and mortality in an English cohort


Authors: A. McKay, L. Gunn, E. Vamos, J. Valabhji, G. Molina, M. Molokhia, A. Majeed


Associations between breast cancer survivorship and adverse mental health outcomes: A matched population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom


Authors: H. Carreira, R. Williams, G. Funston, S. Stanway, K. Bhaskaran


Asthma phenotyping in primary care: applying the International Severe Asthma Registry eosinophil phenotype algorithm across all asthma severities


Authors: M. Kerkhof, T. Tran, R. Allehebi, G. Canonica, L. Heaney, M. Hew, Perez de Llano, M. Wechsler, L. Bulathsinhala, V. Carter, I. Chaudhry, N. Eleangovan, R. Murray, C. Price, D. Price


Atopic eczema in adulthood and mortality: UK population-based cohort study, 1998-2016


Authors: R. Silverwood, K. Mansfield, A. Mulick, A. Wong, S. Schmidt, A. Roberts, L. Smeeth, K. Abuabara, S. Langan


Atopic-eczema-associated fracture risk and oral corticosteroids: a population-based cohort study


Authors: J. Matthewman, K. Mansfield, D. Prieto-Alhambra, A. Mulick, L. Smeeth, K. Lowe, R. Silverwood, S. Langan


Characterising the background incidence rates of adverse events of special interest for covid-19 vaccines in eight countries: multinational network cohort study


Authors: X. Li, A. Ostropolets, R. Makadia, A. Shoaibi, A. Rao, A. Sena, E. Martinez-Hernandez, K. Verhamme, P. Rijnbeek, P.B. Ryan, D. Prieto-Alhambra


Characterization and Associated Costs of Constipation Relating to Exposure to Strong Opioids in England: An Observational Study


Authors: C. Morgan, S. Jenkins-Jones, R. Knaggs, C. Currie, P. Conway, C. Poole, E. Berni


A Cohort Study to Evaluate the Risk of Hospitalisation for Congestive Heart Failure Associated with the Use of Aclidinium and Other Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Medications in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink


Authors: C. Rebordosa, E. Plana, A. Rubino, J. Aguado, A. Lei, S. Daoud, N. Saigi-Morgui, S. Perez-Gutthann, E. Rivero-Ferrer


Comorbid diseases and conditions in people with HIV in the UK


Authors: B. Jones, A. Freedman, M. Thomas, C. Villalba-Mendez, L. Sathia, D. Flanagan, S. Francis, C. Currie


Comparative differences in musculoskeletal pain consultation and analgesic prescription for people with dementia: a UK-wide matched cohort study


Authors: L. Bullock, J. Bedson, Y. Chen, C. Chew-Graham, P. Campbell


Comparative Effectiveness of Initial LAMA versus LABA in COPD: Real-World Cohort Study


Authors: S. Suissa, S. Dell'Aniello, P. Ernst


Comparing initial LABA-ICS inhalers in COPD: Real-world effectiveness and safety


Authors: S. Suissa, S. Dell'Aniello, P. Ernst


Comparison of Pregnancy Outcomes of Patients Treated With Ondansetron vs Alternative Antiemetic Medications in a Multinational, Population-Based Cohort


Authors: C. Dormuth, B. Winquist, A. Fisher, F. Wu, P. Reynier, S. Suissa, M. Dahl, Z. Ma, X. Lu, J. Zhang, C. Raymond, K. Filion, R. Platt, C. Moriello, J. Paterson


The Complex Association Between Bariatric Surgery and Depression: a National Nested-Control Study


Authors: C. Arhi, R. Dudley, O. Moussa, M. Ardissino, S. Scholtz, S. Purkayastha