Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 July 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 206 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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Author [ Title(Desc)] Type Year
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S. S. Zghebi, Steinke, D. T., Rutter, M. K., Emsley, R. A., and Ashcroft, D. M., Comparative risk of major cardiovascular events associated with second-line antidiabetic treatments: a retrospective cohort study using UK primary care data linked to hospitalization and mortality records, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 18, pp. 916-24, 2016.
J. M. Gamble, Donnan, J. R., Chibrikov, E., Twells, L. K., Midodzi, W. K., and Majumdar, S. R., Comparative Safety of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors Versus Sulfonylureas and Other Glucose-lowering Therapies for Three Acute Outcomes, Sci Rep, vol. 8, p. 15142, 2018.
D. B. Price, Carter, V., Martin, J., Gardener, E. A., Skinner, D., Yang, S., Hoffman, M., Willis, J. C., and Cooper, A. J., Comparative Safety Profile of the Fixed-Dose Combination Corticosteroid and Long-acting beta2-Agonist Fluticasone Propionate/Formoterol Fumarate: A 36-Month Longitudinal Cohort Study in UK Primary Care, Drugs, 2019.
S. Borghs, Byram, L., Chan, J., Dedeken, P., Logan, J., Kiri, V., Noack-Rink, M., Patsalos, P. N., and Thieffry, S., Comparing healthcare cost associated with the use of enzyme-inducing and non-enzyme active antiepileptic drugs in elderly patients with epilepsy in the UK: a long-term retrospective, matched cohort study, BMC Neurol, vol. 20, p. 7, 2020.
S. L. Brilleman and Salisbury, C., Comparing measures of multimorbidity to predict outcomes in primary care: a cross sectional study, Fam Pract, vol. 30, pp. 172-8, 2013.
R. A. Charlton, Weil, J. G., Cunnington, M. C., Ray, S., and de Vries, C. S., Comparing the General Practice Research Database and the UK Epilepsy and Pregnancy Register as tools for postmarketing teratogen surveillance: anticonvulsants and the risk of major congenital malformations, Drug Saf, vol. 34, pp. 157-71, 2011.
M. C. Gulliford, Sun, X., Anjuman, T., Yelland, E., and Murray-Thomas, T., Comparison of antibiotic prescribing records in two UK primary care electronic health record systems: cohort study using CPRD GOLD and CPRD Aurum databases, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e038767, 2020.
J. Hoare, Comparison of area-based inequality measures and disease morbidity in England, 1994–1998., Health Stat Q, vol. 18, pp. 18-24, 2003.
C. S. Arhi, Bottle, A., Burns, E. M., Clarke, J. M., Aylin, P., Ziprin, P., and Darzi, A., Comparison of cancer diagnosis recording between the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Cancer Registry and Hospital Episodes Statistics, Cancer Epidemiol, vol. 57, pp. 148-157, 2018.
R. D. Neal, Din, N. U., Hamilton, W., Ukoumunne, O. C., Carter, B., Stapley, S., and Rubin, G., Comparison of cancer diagnostic intervals before and after implementation of NICE guidelines: analysis of data from the UK General Practice Research Database, Br J Cancer, vol. 110, pp. 584-92, 2014.
T. P. van Staa, Leufkens, H. G., Zhang, B., and Smeeth, L., A comparison of cost effectiveness using data from randomized trials or actual clinical practice: selective cox-2 inhibitors as an example, PLoS Med, vol. 6, p. e1000194, 2009.
A. Brown, Kirichek, O., Balkwill, A., Reeves, G., Beral, V., Sudlow, C., Gallacher, J., and Green, J., Comparison of dementia recorded in routinely collected hospital admission data in England with dementia recorded in primary care, Emerg Themes Epidemiol, vol. 13, p. 11, 2016.
H. Strongman, D'Oca, K., Langerman, H., and Das, R., Comparison of diabetes-associated secondary healthcare utilization between alternative oral antihyperglycaemic dual therapy combinations with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes: an observational cohort study, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 17, pp. 573-80, 2015.
H. Jick, Ulcickas, M., and Dean, A., Comparison of frequencies of suicidal tendencies among patients receiving fluoxetine, lofepramine, mianserin, or trazodone, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 12, pp. 451-4, 1992.
A. Ruigomez, Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Wallander, M. A., Johansson, S., and Dent, J., Comparison of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and heartburn diagnoses in UK primary care, Curr Med Res Opin, vol. 22, pp. 1661-8, 2006.
U. Gungabissoon, Kirichek, O., C. Baou, E., and Galwey, N., Comparison of long-term use of prolonged-release ropinirole and immediate-release dopamine agonists in an observational study in patients with Parkinson's disease, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
T. Sheppard, Tamblyn, R., Abrahamowicz, M., Lunt, M., Sperrin, M., and Dixon, W. G., A comparison of methods for estimating the temporal change in a continuous variable: Example of HbA1c in patients with diabetes, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 26, pp. 1474-1482, 2017.
J. L. Hong, Webster-Clark, M., Funk, M. J., Sturmer, T., Dempster, S., Cole, S. R., Herr, I., and LoCasale, R., Comparison of Methods to Generalize Randomized Clinical Trial Results without Individual-Level Data for the Target Population, Am J Epidemiol, 2018.
L. A. Garcia Rodriguez, Ruigomez, A., Hasselgren, G., Wallander, M. A., and Johansson, S., Comparison of mortality from peptic ulcer bleed between patients with or without peptic ulcer antecedents, Epidemiology, vol. 9, pp. 452-6, 1998.
H. Jick, Wilson, A., Wiggins, P., and Chamberlain, D. P., Comparison of prescription drug costs in the United States and the United Kingdom, part 2: proton pump inhibitors, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 32, pp. 489-92, 2012.
L. Hassan, Senior, J., Frisher, M., Edge, D., and Shaw, J., A comparison of psychotropic medication prescribing patterns in East of England prisons and the general population, J Psychopharmacol, vol. 28, pp. 357-62, 2014.
T. P. van Staa, Setakis, E., Di Tanna, G. L., Lane, D. A., and Lip, G. Y., A comparison of risk stratification schemes for stroke in 79,884 atrial fibrillation patients in general practice, J Thromb Haemost, vol. 9, pp. 39-48, 2011.
C. B. Forrest, Majeed, A., Weiner, J. P., Carroll, K., and Bindman, A. B., Comparison of specialty referral rates in the United Kingdom and the United States: retrospective cohort analysis, Bmj, vol. 325, pp. 370-1, 2002.
S. De Wilde, Carey, I. M., Bremner, S. A., Richards, N., Hilton, S. R., Strachan, D. P., and Cook, D. G., A comparison of the recording of 30 common childhood conditions in the Doctor's Independent Network and General Practice Research Databases, Health Stat Q, pp. 21-31, 2004.
C. J. Crooks, West, J., and Card, T. R., A comparison of the recording of comorbidity in primary and secondary care by using the Charlson Index to predict short-term and long-term survival in a routine linked data cohort, BMJ Open, vol. 5, p. e007974, 2015.
H. Jick, Hall, G. C., Dean, A. D., Jick, S. S., and Derby, L. E., A comparison of the risk of hypoglycemia between users of human and animal insulins. 1. Experience in the United Kingdom, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 10, pp. 395-7, 1990.
R. D. Farmer, Lawrenson, R. A., Todd, J. C., Williams, T. J., MacRae, K. D., Tyrer, F., and Leydon, G. M., A comparison of the risks of venous thromboembolic disease in association with different combined oral contraceptives, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 49, pp. 580-90, 2000.
J. Griffin, Lee, S., Caiado, M., Kesten, S., and Price, D., Comparison of tiotropium bromide and combined ipratropium/salbutamol for the treatment of COPD: a UK General Practice Research Database 12-month follow-up study, Prim Care Respir J, vol. 17, pp. 104-10, 2008.
M. C. Kulik, Nusselder, W. J., Boshuizen, H. C., Lhachimi, S. K., Fernandez, E., Baili, P., Bennett, K., Mackenbach, J. P., and Smit, H. A., Comparison of tobacco control scenarios: quantifying estimates of long-term health impact using the DYNAMO-HIA modeling tool, PLoS One, vol. 7, p. e32363, 2012.
M. Frischer, Norwood, J., Heatlie, H., Millson, D., Lowdell, J., Hickman, M., Chapman, S., and Bashford, J., A comparison of trends in problematic drug misuse from two reporting systems, J Public Health Med, vol. 22, pp. 362-7, 2000.
E. Herrett, Shah, A. D., Boggon, R., Denaxas, S., Smeeth, L., Van Staa, T., Timmis, A., and Hemingway, H., Completeness and diagnostic validity of recording acute myocardial infarction events in primary care, hospital care, disease registry, and national mortality records: cohort study, Bmj, vol. 346, p. f2350, 2013.
R. Mathur, Bhaskaran, K., Chaturvedi, N., Leon, D. A., vanStaa, T., Grundy, E., and Smeeth, L., Completeness and usability of ethnicity data in UK-based primary care and hospital databases, J Public Health (Oxf), vol. 36, pp. 684-92, 2014.
K. Mansfield, Crellin, E., Denholm, R., Quint, J. K., Smeeth, L., Cook, S., and Herrett, E., Completeness and validity of alcohol recording in general practice within the UK: a cross-sectional study, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e031537, 2019.
C. S. Arhi, Burns, E. M., Bouras, G., Aylin, P., Ziprin, P., and Darzi, A., Complications after discharge and delays in adjuvant chemotherapy following colonic resection: a cohort study of linked primary and secondary care data, Colorectal Dis, 2018.
M. Pufulete, Harris, J., Sterne, J. A. C., Johnson, T. W., Lasserson, D., Mumford, A., Doble, B., Wordsworth, S., Benedetto, U., Rogers, C. A., Loke, Y., Pithara, C., Redwood, S., and Reeves, B. C., Comprehensive ascertainment of bleeding in patients prescribed different combinations of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and triple therapy (TT) in the UK: study protocol for three population-based cohort studies emulating 'target trials' (the ADAPTT Stu, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e029388, 2019.
L. Parkin, Hagberg, K. W., and Jick, H., Comprehensive comparison of drug prescribing in the United States and United Kingdom, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 31, pp. 623-9, 2011.
K. M. Rhodes, Turner, R. M., Payne, R. A., and White, I. R., Computationally efficient methods for fitting mixed models to electronic health records data, Stat Med, vol. 37, pp. 4557-4570, 2018.
D. M. Fleming, Ross, A. M., Cross, K. W., Kendall, H., and Elliot, A. J., Concerning: 'Why has antibiotic prescribing for respiratory illness declined in primary care? A longitudinal study using the General Practice Research Database', J Public Health (Oxf), vol. 27, pp. 228-9; author reply 229-31, 2005.
F. Nissen, Morales, D. R., Mullerova, H., Smeeth, L., Douglas, I. J., and Quint, J. K., Concomitant diagnosis of asthma and COPD: a quantitative study in UK primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 68, pp. e775-e782, 2018.
F. de Vries, Setakis, E., and van Staa, T. P., Concomitant use of ibuprofen and paracetamol and the risk of major clinical safety outcomes, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 70, pp. 429-38, 2010.
M. E. Saine, Carbonari, D. M., Newcomb, C. W., Gallagher, A. M., Blak, B. T., Roy, J. A., Wood, J., Cardillo, S., Hennessy, S., Strom, B. L., and , Concordance of hospitalizations between Clinical Practice Research Datalink and linked Hospital Episode Statistics among patients treated with oral antidiabetic therapies, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
Y. Lis, Spitzer, W. O., Mann, R. D., Chukwujindu, J., Thorogood, M., Evans, S., Suissa, S., and Lelorier, J., A concurrent cohort study of oral contraceptive users from the VAMP research bank, Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, vol. 2, pp. 51-63, 1993.
D. J. Humes, Fleming, K. M., Spiller, R. C., and West, J., Concurrent drug use and the risk of perforated colonic diverticular disease: a population-based case-control study, Gut, vol. 60, pp. 219-24, 2011.
L. Azoulay, Dell'Aniello, S., Simon, T., Renoux, C., and Suissa, S., The concurrent use of antithrombotic therapies and the risk of bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation, Thromb Haemost, vol. 109, pp. 431-9, 2013.
F. Lapi, Azoulay, L., Yin, H., Nessim, S. J., and Suissa, S., Concurrent use of diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of acute kidney injury: nested case-control study, Bmj, vol. 346, p. e8525, 2013.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Concurrent use of long-acting bronchodilators in COPD and the risk of adverse cardiovascular events, Eur Respir J, vol. 49, 2017.
J. P. Fournier, Duijnhoven, R. G., Renoux, C., Dell'Aniello, S., Klungel, O. H., and Suissa, S., Concurrent use of statins and hormone therapy and risk of venous thromboembolism in postmenopausal women: a population-based case-control study, Menopause, vol. 21, pp. 1023-6, 2014.
L. Azoulay, Dell'Aniello, S., Huiart, L., Fort, G. G. du, and Suissa, S., Concurrent use of tamoxifen with CYP2D6 inhibitors and the risk of breast cancer recurrence, Breast Cancer Res Treat, vol. 126, pp. 695-703, 2011.
L. Watson, Das, R., Farquhar, R., Langerman, H., and Barnett, A. H., Consequences of delaying treatment intensification in type 2 diabetes: evidence from a UK database, Curr Med Res Opin, vol. 32, pp. 1465-75, 2016.
S. Rowlands and Moser, K., Consultation rates from the general practice research database, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 52, pp. 658-60, 2002.
[Page last reviewed 6 July 2020]