Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 June 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 205 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2528 results:
Author Title [ Type(Desc)] Year
Journal Article
M. C. Gulliford, Dregan, A., Moore, M. V., Ashworth, M., Staa, T., McCann, G., Charlton, J., Yardley, L., Little, P., and McDermott, L., Continued high rates of antibiotic prescribing to adults with respiratory tract infection: survey of 568 UK general practices, BMJ Open, vol. 4, p. e006245, 2014.
P. Tammes, Purdy, S., Salisbury, C., MacKichan, F., Lasserson, D., and Morris, R. W., Continuity of Primary Care and Emergency Hospital Admissions Among Older Patients in England, Ann Fam Med, vol. 15, pp. 515-522, 2017.
C. Schneider, Jick, S. S., Bothner, U., and Meier, C. R., COPD and the risk of depression, Chest, vol. 137, pp. 341-7, 2010.
A. D. Morgan, Herrett, E., De Stavola, B. L., Smeeth, L., and Quint, J. K., COPD disease severity and the risk of venous thromboembolic events: a matched case-control study, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 11, pp. 899-908, 2016.
E. Merinopoulou, Raluy-Callado, M., Ramagopalan, S., MacLachlan, S., and Khalid, J. M., COPD exacerbations by disease severity in England, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 11, pp. 697-709, 2016.
Y. S. Punekar, Shukla, A., and Mullerova, H., COPD management costs according to the frequency of COPD exacerbations in UK primary care, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 9, pp. 65-73, 2014.
J. G. Royle, Lanyon, P. C., Grainge, M. J., Abhishek, A., and Pearce, F. A., Correction to: The incidence, prevalence, and survival of systemic sclerosis in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Clin Rheumatol, vol. 37, p. 2601, 2018.
C. Deschaseaux-Voinet, Lafuma, A., and Berdeaux, G., Cost and effectiveness of brinzolamide versus dorzolamide in current practice: an analysis based on the UK-GPRD database, J Med Econ, vol. 6, pp. 69-78, 2003.
G. Moncrieff, Lied-Lied, A., Nelson, G., Holy, C. E., Weinstein, R., Wei, D., and Rowe, S., Cost and effectiveness of prescribing emollient therapy for atopic eczema in UK primary care in children and adults: a large retrospective analysis of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMC Dermatol, vol. 18, p. 9, 2018.
R. De Natale, Lafuma, A., and Berdeaux, G., Cost effectiveness of travoprost versus a fixed combination of latanoprost/timolol in patients with ocular hypertension or glaucoma: analysis based on the UK general practitioner research database, Clin Drug Investig, vol. 29, pp. 111-20, 2009.
P. Dolan and Torgerson, D. J., The cost of treating osteoporotic fractures in the United Kingdom female population, Osteoporos Int, vol. 8, pp. 611-7, 1998.
C. I. Bloom, Douglas, I., Olney, J., D'Ancona, G., Smeeth, L., and Quint, J. K., Cost saving of switching to equivalent inhalers and its effect on health outcomes, Thorax, 2019.
M. C. Gulliford, Bhattarai, N., Charlton, J., and Rudisill, C., Cost-effectiveness of a universal strategy of brief dietary intervention for primary prevention in primary care: population-based cohort study and Markov model, Cost Eff Resour Alloc, vol. 12, p. 4, 2014.
S. J. Ronaldson, Raghunath, A., Torgerson, D. J., and Van Staa, T., Cost-effectiveness of antibiotics for COPD management: observational analysis using CPRD data, ERJ Open Res, vol. 3, 2017.
R. J. Pitman, Nagy, L. D., and Sculpher, M. J., Cost-effectiveness of childhood influenza vaccination in England and Wales: Results from a dynamic transmission model, Vaccine, vol. 31, pp. 927-42, 2013.
J. Leal, Gray, A. M., Hawley, S., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Delmestri, A., Arden, N. K., Cooper, C., Javaid, M. K., and Judge, A., Cost-Effectiveness of Orthogeriatric and Fracture Liaison Service Models of Care for Hip Fracture Patients: A Population-Based Study, J Bone Miner Res, vol. 32, pp. 203-211, 2017.
A. Lafuma and Berdeaux, G., Costs and effectiveness of travoprost versus a dorzolamide + timolol fixed combination in first-line treatment of glaucoma: analysis conducted on the United Kingdom General Practitioner Research Database, Curr Med Res Opin, vol. 23, pp. 3009-16, 2007.
M. C. Gulliford, Charlton, J., Prevost, T., Booth, H., Fildes, A., Ashworth, M., Littlejohns, P., Reddy, M., Khan, O., and Rudisill, C., Costs and Outcomes of Increasing Access to Bariatric Surgery: Cohort Study and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Using Electronic Health Records, Value Health, vol. 20, pp. 85-92, 2017.
P. Denis, Lafuma, A., and Berdeaux, G., Costs and persistence of alpha-2 adrenergic agonists versus carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, both associated with prostaglandin analogues, for glaucoma as recorded by The United Kingdom General Practitioner Research Database, Clin Ophthalmol, vol. 2, pp. 321-9, 2008.
A. Lafuma, Laurendeau, C., and Berdeaux, G., Costs and persistence of brimonidine versus brinzolamide in everyday glaucoma care: an analysis conducted on the UK General Practitioner Research Database, J Med Econ, vol. 11, pp. 485-97, 2008.
A. Lafuma and Berdeaux, G., Costs and persistence of carbonic anhydrase inhibitor versus alpha-2 agonists, associated with beta-blockers, in glaucoma and ocular hypertension: an analysis of the UK-GPRD database, Curr Med Res Opin, vol. 24, pp. 1519-27, 2008.
J. Hong, Reed, C., Novick, D., and Happich, M., Costs associated with treatment of chronic low back pain: an analysis of the UK General Practice Research Database, Spine (Phila Pa 1976), vol. 38, pp. 75-82, 2013.
P. Dolan, Torgerson, D. J., and Wolstenholme, J., Costs of breast cancer treatment in the United Kingdom, Breast, vol. 8, pp. 205-7, 1999.
S. V. Ramagopalan, Samnaliev, M., Weir, S., Sammon, C. J., Carroll, R., and Alikhan, R., Costs of gastrointestinal bleeding events in atrial fibrillation: a UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink study, Future Cardiol, 2019.
K. C. Chang, Soljak, M., Lee, J. T., Woringer, M., Johnston, D., Khunti, K., Majeed, A., and Millett, C., Coverage of a national cardiovascular risk assessment and management programme (NHS Health Check): Retrospective database study, Prev Med, vol. 78, pp. 1-8, 2015.
N. M. Davies, Smith, G. D., Windmeijer, F., and Martin, R. M., COX-2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of gastrointestinal tract complications and myocardial infarction: an instrumental variable analysis, Epidemiology, vol. 24, pp. 352-62, 2013.
O. A. Oshagbemi, Franssen, F. M. E., Wouters, E. F. M., van der Zee, A. H. Maitlan, Driessen, J. H. M., de Boer, A., and de Vries, F., C-reactive protein as a biomarker of response to inhaled corticosteroids among patients with COPD, Pulm Pharmacol Ther, p. 101870, 2019.
C. Francois, Tanasescu, A., Lamy, F. X., Despiegel, N., Falissard, B., Chalem, Y., Lancon, C., Llorca, P. M., Saragoussi, D., Verpillat, P., Wade, A. G., and Zighed, D. A., Creating an index to measure health state of depressed patients in automated healthcare databases: the methodology, J Mark Access Health Policy, vol. 5, p. 1372025, 2017.
M. Touya, Lamy, F. X., Tanasescu, A., Saragoussi, D., Francois, C., Wade, A. G., Llorca, P. M., Lancon, C., and Falissard, B., Creation and validation of a linear index to measure the health state of patients with depression in automated healthcare databases, J Mark Access Health Policy, vol. 7, p. 1674115, 2019.
R. Boggon, Eaton, S., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., Gabriel, H., Minhas, I., and van Staa, T. P., Current prescribing of statins and persistence to statins following ACS in the UK: a MINAP/GPRD study, Br J Cardiol, vol. 19, p. 24, 2012.
L. M. Fischer, Schlienger, R. G., Matter, C. M., Jick, H., and Meier, C. R., Current use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and the risk of acute myocardial infarction, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 25, pp. 503-10, 2005.
R. G. Schlienger, Fischer, L. M., Jick, H., and Meier, C. R., Current use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of acute myocardial infarction, Drug Saf, vol. 27, pp. 1157-65, 2004.
F. Andersohn, Schade, R., Suissa, S., and Garbe, E., Cyclooxygenase-2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the risk of ischemic stroke: a nested case-control study, Stroke, vol. 37, pp. 1725-30, 2006.
A. W. Lim, Landy, R., Castanon, A., Hollingworth, A., Hamilton, W., Dudding, N., and Sasieni, P., Cytology in the diagnosis of cervical cancer in symptomatic young women: a retrospective review, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 66, pp. e871-e879, 2016.
J. Wilding, Bailey, C., Rigney, U., Blak, B., Kok, M., and Emmas, C., Dapagliflozin therapy for type 2 diabetes in primary care: Changes in HbA1c, weight and blood pressure over 2 years follow-up, Prim Care Diabetes, vol. 11, pp. 437-444, 2017.
S. C. Denaxas, George, J., Herrett, E., Shah, A. D., Kalra, D., Hingorani, A. D., Kivimaki, M., Timmis, A. D., Smeeth, L., and Hemingway, H., Data resource profile: cardiovascular disease research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER), Int J Epidemiol, vol. 41, pp. 1625-38, 2012.
E. Herrett, Gallagher, A. M., Bhaskaran, K., Forbes, H., Mathur, R., Van Staa, T., and Smeeth, L., Data Resource Profile: Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), Int J Epidemiol, vol. 44, pp. 827-36, 2015.
A. Wolf, Dedman, D., Campbell, J., Booth, H., Lunn, D., Chapman, J., and Myles, P., Data resource profile: Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) Aurum, Int J Epidemiol, 2019.
R. A. Charlton, Cunnington, M. C., de Vries, C. S., and Weil, J. G., Data resources for investigating drug exposure during pregnancy and associated outcomes: the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) as an alternative to pregnancy registries, Drug Saf, vol. 31, pp. 39-51, 2008.
P. Rockenschaub, Nguyen, V., Aldridge, R. W., Acosta, D., Garcia-Gomez, J. M., and Saez, C., Data-driven discovery of changes in clinical code usage over time: a case-study on changes in cardiovascular disease recording in two English electronic health records databases (2001-2015), BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e034396, 2020.
M. C. Gulliford, Charlton, J., Rudd, A., Wolfe, C. D., and Toschke, A. M., Declining 1-year case-fatality of stroke and increasing coverage of vascular risk management: population-based cohort study, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol. 81, pp. 416-22, 2010.
R. Ravindrarajah, Dregan, A., Hazra, N. C., Hamada, S., Jackson, S. H. D., and Gulliford, M. C., Declining blood pressure and intensification of blood pressure management among people over 80 years: cohort study using electronic health records, J Hypertens, vol. 35, pp. 1276-1282, 2017.
R. Howell-Jones, Soldan, K., Wetten, S., Mesher, D., Williams, T., Gill, O. N., and Hughes, G., Declining genital Warts in young women in england associated with HPV 16/18 vaccination: an ecological study, J Infect Dis, vol. 208, pp. 1397-403, 2013.
T. Fundament, Eldridge, P. R., Green, A. L., Whone, A. L., Taylor, R. S., Williams, A. C., and Schuepbach, W. M., Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease with Early Motor Complications: A UK Cost-Effectiveness Analysis, PLoS One, vol. 11, p. e0159340, 2016.
J. R. Ayala Solares, Raimondi, F. E. Diletta, Zhu, Y., Rahimian, F., Canoy, D., Tran, J., Gomes, A. C. Pinho, Payberah, A. H., Zottoli, M., Nazarzadeh, M., Conrad, N., Rahimi, K., and Salimi-Khorshidi, G., Deep learning for electronic health records: A comparative review of multiple deep neural architectures, J Biomed Inform, vol. 101, p. 103337, 2020.
M. Frischer, Heatlie, H., Chapman, S., and Millson, D., Defining the spectrum of appropriate prescribing: implications for effective medicines management, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Medicine, vol. 14, pp. 17-21, 2000.
C. J. Crooks, Card, T. R., and West, J., Defining upper gastrointestinal bleeding from linked primary and secondary care data and the effect on occurrence and 28 day mortality, BMC Health Serv Res, vol. 12, p. 392, 2012.
A. Douros, Dell'Aniello, S., Dehghan, G., Boivin, J. F., and Renoux, C., Degree of serotonin reuptake inhibition of antidepressants and ischemic risk: A cohort study, Neurology, vol. 93, pp. e1010-e1020, 2019.
S. K. Paul, Klein, K., Thorsted, B. L., Wolden, M. L., and Khunti, K., Delay in treatment intensification increases the risks of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes, Cardiovasc Diabetol, vol. 14, p. 100, 2015.
C. S. Arhi, Markar, S., Burns, E. M., Bouras, G., Bottle, A., Hanna, G., Aylin, P., Ziprin, P., and Darzi, A., Delays in referral from primary care are associated with a worse survival in patients with esophagogastric cancer, Dis Esophagus, 2019.
[Page last reviewed 5 June 2020]