Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 3,000 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography listed below is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 15 March 2023).

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.

Download: CPRD bibliography PDF March 2023 (PDF, 4.2MB, 286 pages) 

Download: CPRD bibliography .BIB March 2023 (BIB, 1.3MB, 1 page)

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website

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Does Cardiovascular Mortality Overtake Cancer Mortality During Cancer Survivorship?: An English Retrospective Cohort Study


Authors: H. Strongman, S. Gadd, A. Matthews, K. Mansfield, S. Stanway, A. Lyon, I. dos-Santos-Silva, L. Smeeth, K. Bhaskaran


Effects of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers: protocol for a UK cohort study using routinely collected electronic health records with validation against the ONTARGET trial


Authors: P. Baptiste, A. Wong, A. Schultze, M. Cunnington, J. Mann, C. Clase, C. Leyrat, L. Tomlinson, K. Wing


Susceptibility to COVID-19 Diagnosis in People with Down Syndrome Compared to the General Population: Matched-Cohort Study Using Primary Care Electronic Records in the UK


Authors: R. Baksh, A. Strydom, S. Pape, L. Chan, M. Gulliford


Late effects of cancer in children, teenagers and young adults: Population-based study on the burden of 183 conditions, in-patient and critical care admissions and years of life lost


Authors: W. Chang, M. Katsoulis, Y . Y. Tan, S. Mueller, K. Green, A. Lai


Therapies for Long COVID in non-hospitalised individuals: from symptoms, patient-reported outcomes and immunology to targeted therapies (The TLC Study)


Authors: S. Haroon, K. Nirantharakumar, S. Hughes, A. Subramanian, O. Aiyegbusi, E. Davies, P. Myles, T. Williams, G. Turner, J. Chandan, C. McMullan, J. Lord, D. Wraith, K. McGee, A. Denniston, T. Taverner, L. Jackson, E. Sapey, G. Gkoutos, K. Gokhale, E. Leggett, C. Iles, C. Frost, G. McNamara, A. Bamford, T. Marshall, D. Zemedikun, G. Price, S. Marwaha, N. Simms-Williams, K. Brown, A. Walker, K. Jones, K. Matthews, J. Camaradou, M. Saint-Cricq, S. Kumar, Y. Alder, D. Stanton, L. Agyen, M. Baber, H. Blaize, M. Calvert


Cardiovascular risk prediction in type 2 diabetes: a comparison of 22 risk scores in primary care settings


Authors: K. Dziopa, F. Asselbergs, J. Gratton, N. Chaturvedi, A. Schmidt


Presence of Codes for Indication for Use in Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum: An Assessment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Treatments


Authors: R. Persson, K. Hagberg, C. Vasilakis-Scaramozza, E. Yelland, T. Williams, P. Myles, S. Jick


Long term impact of prophylactic antibiotic use before incision versus after cord clamping on children born by caesarean section: longitudinal study of UK electronic health records


Authors: D. Sumilo, K. Nirantharakumar, B. Willis, G. Rudge, J. Martin, K. Gokhale, R. Thayakaran, N. Adderley, J. Chandan, K. Okoth, I. Harris, R. Hewston, M. Skrybant, J. Deeks, P. Brocklehurst


Five comparative cohorts to assess the risk of genital tract infections associated with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors initiation in type 2 diabetes mellitus


Authors: W. Alkabbani, A. Zongo, J. Minhas-Sandhu, D. Eurich, B. Shah, M. Alsabbagh, J. Gamble


The sexual and reproductive health of women with mental illness: a primary care registry study


Authors: H. Hope, M. Pierce, E. Johnstone, J. Myers, K. Abel


Changes in heart failure management and long-term mortality over 10 years: observational study


Authors: A. Bottle, R. Newson, P. Faitna, B. Hayhoe, M. Cowie


Intensity of care in cancer patients in the last year of life: a retrospective data linkage study


Authors: X. Luta, K. Diernberger, J. Bowden, J. Droney, P. Hall, J. Marti


Association between Inhaled β(2)-agonists Initiation and Risk of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events: A Population-based Nested Case-Control Study


Authors: J. Amegadzie, J. Gamble, J. Farrell, Z. Gao


Temporal trends and patterns in atrial fibrillation incidence: A population-based study of 3·4 million individuals


Authors: J. Wu, R. Nadarajah, Y. Nakao, K. Nakao, C. Wilkinson, M. Mamas, A. Camm, C. Gale


Mortality of Care Home Residents and Community-Dwelling Controls During the COVID-19 Pandemic in 2020: Matched Cohort Study


Authors: M. Gulliford, A. Prevost, A. Clegg, E. Rezel-Potts


Background rates of five thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndromes of special interest for COVID-19 vaccine safety surveillance: Incidence between 2017 and 2019 and patient profiles from 38.6 million people in six European countries


Authors: E. Burn, X. Li, K. Kostka, H. Stewart, C. Reich, S. Seager, T. Duarte-Salles, S. Fernandez-Bertolin, M. Aragón, C. Reyes, E. Martinez-Hernandez, E. Marti, A. Delmestri, K. Verhamme, P. Rijnbeek, S. Horban, D. Morales, D. Prieto-Alhambra


Privacy-preserving estimation of an optimal individualized treatment rule: a case study in maximizing time to severe depression-related outcomes


Authors: E. Moodie, J. Coulombe, C. Danieli, C. Renoux, S. Shortreed


Primary care consultations and pain medicine prescriptions: a comparison between patients with and without chronic pain after total knee replacement


Authors: R. Pinedo-Villanueva, S. Kolovos, C. Maronga, A. Delmestri, N. Howells, A. Judge, R. Gooberman-Hill, V. Wylde


Facilitating safety evaluation in maternal immunization trials: a retrospective cohort study to assess pregnancy outcomes and events of interest in low-risk pregnancies in England


Authors: M. Riley, D. Lambrelli, S. Graham, O. Henry, A. Sutherland, A. Schmidt, N. Sawalhi-Leckenby, R. Donaldson, S. Stoszek


Health Needs and Their Relationship with Life Expectancy in People with and without Intellectual Disabilities in England


Authors: F. Tyrer, R. Morriss, R. Kiani, S. Gangadharan, H. Kundaje, M. Rutherford


Incidence and pattern of mycophenolate discontinuation associated with abnormal monitoring blood-test results: cohort study using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum


Authors: G. Nakafero, M. Grainge, T. Card, C. Mallen, R. Riley, D. van der Windt, C. Fox, M. Taal, G. Aithal, H. Williams, A. Abhishek


Linaclotide utilization and potential for off-label use and misuse in three European countries


Authors: J. Cid-Ruzafa, B. Lacy, A. Schultze, M. Duong, Y. Lu, M. Raluy-Callado, R. Donaldson, D. Weissman, A. Gómez-Lumbreras, D. Ouchi, M. Giner-Soriano, R. Morros, A. Ukah, D. Pohl


COVID-19 ethnic inequalities in mental health and multimorbidities: protocol for the COVEIMM study


Authors: E. Impara, I. Bakolis, L. Bécares, H. Dasch, A. Dregan, J. Dyer, M. Hotopf, R. Stewart, R. Stuart, J. Ocloo, J. Das-Munshi


Prevalence and healthcare resource utilization of patients with Dravet syndrome: Retrospective linkage cohort study


Authors: Owen Pickrell, F. Guelfucci, M. Martin, R. Holland, R. Chin


Inhaled Corticosteroid Withdrawal and Change in Lung Function in Primary Care Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients in England


Authors: H. Whittaker, K. Wing, I. Douglas, S. Kiddle, J. Quint


Suicide and death by other causes among patients with a severe mental illness: cohort study comparing risks among patients discharged from inpatient care v. those treated in the community


Authors: R. Musgrove, M. Carr, N. Kapur, C. Chew-Graham, F. Mughal, D. Ashcroft, R. Webb


Significant reduction in chronic kidney disease progression with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors compared to dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in adults with type 2 diabetes in a UK clinical setting


Authors: I. Idris, R. Zhang, J. Mamza, M. Ford, T. Morris, A. Banerjee, K. Khunti


Bilirubin levels and kidney function decline: An analysis of clinical trial and real world data


Authors: Y. Aoki, C. Cabrera, M. Ouwens, K. Bamberg, J. Nyström, I. Raz, B. Scirica, B. Hamrén, P. Greasley, D. Rekić


Morbidities among older workers and work exit: the HEAF cohort


Authors: K. Walker-Bone, S. D'Angelo, C. Linaker, M. Stevens, G. Ntani, C. Cooper, H. Syddall


Influenza vaccination reduced myocardial infarctions in UK older adults: a prior event rate ratio study


Authors: A. Streeter, L. Rodgers, F. Hamilton, J. Masoli, A. Ble, W. Hamilton, W. Henley


Developing and internally validating a prognostic model (P Risk) to improve the prediction of psychosis in a primary care population using electronic health records: The MAPPED study


Authors: S. Sullivan, D. Kounali, R. Morris, D. Kessler, W. Hamilton, G. Lewis, P. Lilford, I. Nazareth


Associations between frailty trajectories and cardiovascular, renal, and mortality outcomes in chronic kidney disease


Authors: T. Wilkinson, J. Miksza, F. Zaccardi, C. Lawson, A. Nixon, H. Young, K. Khunti, A. Smith


The Association of Long-Acting Insulin Analogue Use Versus Neutral Protamine Hagedorn Insulin Use With Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events Among Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study


Authors: V. Brunetti, O. H. Y. Yu, R. Platt, K. Filion


Are we missing lifetime COPD diagnosis among people with COPD recorded death?


Authors: A. Gayle, A. Lenoir, C. Minelli, J. Quint


Primary care contacts, continuity, identification of palliative care needs, and hospital use: a population-based cohort study in people dying with dementia


Authors: J. Leniz, M. Gulliford, I. Higginson, S. Bajwah, D. Yi, W. Gao, K. Sleeman


Incretin-Based Drugs and the Risk of Acute Liver Injury Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes


Authors: R. Pradhan, H. Yin, O. H. Y. Yu, L. Azoulay


Real-World Effectiveness of Beta-Blockers versus Other Antihypertensives in Reducing All-Cause Mortality and Cardiovascular Events


Authors: Caroline Foch, Arthur Allignol, Ulrike Hostalek, Emmanuelle Boutmy, Thilo Hohenberger, Bing Niu


Incidence and associations of hospital delirium diagnoses in 85,979 people with severe mental illness: A data linkage study


Authors: Y. Bauernfreund, N. Launders, G. Favarato, J. Hayes, D. Osborn, E. Sampson


Treatment patterns and clinical and economic burden of hip dislocation following primary total hip arthroplasty in England


Authors: T. Galvain, J. Mantel, O. Kakade, T. Board


Inflammatory marker testing in primary care in the year before Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosis: a UK population-based case-control study in patients aged ≤50 years


Authors: M. Rafiq, G. Abel, C. Renzi, G. Lyratzopoulos


Incidence, morbidity, mortality and disparities in dementia: A population linked electronic health records study of 4.3 million individuals


Authors: S. Chung, R. Providencia, R. Sofat, M. Pujades-Rodriguez, A. Torralbo, G. Fatemifar, N. Fitzpatrick, J. Taylor, K. Li, C. Dale, M. Rossor, D. Acosta-Mena, J. Whittaker, S. Denaxas


Oral bisphosphonates are associated with increased risk of severe acute kidney injury in elderly patients with complex health needs: a self-controlled case series in the UK


Authors: T. Oda, A. Jödicke, D. Robinson, A. Delmestri, R. Keogh, D. Prieto-Alhambra


No evidence that herpes zoster is associated with increased risk of dementia diagnosis


Authors: C. Warren-Gash, E. Williamson, S. Shiekh, J. Borjas-Howard, N. Pearce, J. Breuer, L. Smeeth


Statin use is associated with lower risk of dementia in stroke patients: a community-based cohort study with inverse probability weighted marginal structural model analysis


Authors: Z. Yang, S. Toh, X. Li, D. Edwards, C. Brayne, J. Mant


Surgical treatment, complications, reoperations, and healthcare costs among patients with clavicle fracture in England


Authors: S. Wolf, A. Chitnis, A. Manoranjith, M. Vanderkarr, J. Plaza, L. Gador, C. Holy, C. Sparks, S. Lambert


Comparing antibiotic prescribing between clinicians in UK primary care: an analysis in a cohort study of eight different measures of antibiotic prescribing


Authors: T. Van Staa, Y. Li, N. Gold, T. Chadborn, W. Welfare, V. Palin, D. Ashcroft, J. Bircher


Characteristics of New Users of Aclidinium Bromide, Aclidinium/Formoterol, and Other COPD Medications in the United Kingdom, Denmark, and Germany


Authors: E. Rivero-Ferrer, M. Olesen, E. Plana, J. Aguado, N. Saigi-Morgui, A. Rubino, S. Daoud, A. Lei, S. Perez-Gutthann, T. Schink, N. Kristiansen, J. Hallas, A. Pottegard, C. Rebordosa


UK poSt Arthroplasty Follow-up rEcommendations (UK SAFE): what does analysis of linked, routinely collected national datasets tell us about mid-late term revision risk after knee replacement?


Authors: L. Smith, C. Garriga, S. Kingsbury, R. Pinedo-Villanueva, A. Delmestri, N. Arden, M. Stone, P. Conaghan, A. Judge


Screening for type 2 diabetes after a diagnosis of gestational diabetes by ethnicity: A retrospective cohort study


Authors: E. Vounzoulaki, K. Khunti, J. Miksza, B. Tan, M. Davies, C. Gillies


The risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in people prescribed mirtazapine: an active comparator cohort study using electronic health records


Authors: R. Joseph, R. Jack, R. Morriss, R. Knaggs, D. Butler, C. Hollis, J. Hippisley-Cox, C. Coupland