Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 March 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 224 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2741 results:
Author Title Type [ Year(Asc)]
T. Tran and Suissa, S., Comparing New-User Cohort Designs: The Example of Proton Pump Inhibitor Effectiveness in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis, Am J Epidemiol, 2020.
M. C. Gulliford, Sun, X., Anjuman, T., Yelland, E., and Murray-Thomas, T., Comparison of antibiotic prescribing records in two UK primary care electronic health record systems: cohort study using CPRD GOLD and CPRD Aurum databases, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e038767, 2020.
V. M. Walker, Davies, N. M., Martin, R. M., and Kehoe, P. G., Comparison of antihypertensive drug classes for dementia prevention, Epidemiology, 2020.
U. Gungabissoon, Kirichek, O., C. Baou, E., and Galwey, N., Comparison of long-term use of prolonged-release ropinirole and immediate-release dopamine agonists in an observational study in patients with Parkinson's disease, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
P. Bidulka, Iwagami, M., Mansfield, K. E., Kalogirou, F., Wong, A. Y. S., Douglas, I. J., Smeeth, L., Summers, C., and Tomlinson, L. A., Comparisons of Staphylococcus aureus infection and other outcomes between users of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers: lessons for COVID-19 from a nationwide cohort study, Wellcome Open Res, vol. 5, p. 77, 2020.
S. Abtahi, Driessen, J. H. M., Burden, A. M., Souverein, P. C., van den Bergh, J. P., van Staa, T. P., Boonen, A., and de Vries, F., Concomitant use of oral glucocorticoids and proton pump inhibitors and risk of osteoporotic fractures among patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based cohort study, Ann Rheum Dis, 2020.
A. D. Morgan, Sinnott, S. J., Smeeth, L., Minassian, C., and Quint, J., Concordance in the recording of stroke across UK primary and secondary care datasets: a population-based cohort study, BJGP Open, 2020.
Y. Li, Sperrin, M., Ashcroft, D. M., and van Staa, T. P., Consistency of variety of machine learning and statistical models in predicting clinical risks of individual patients: longitudinal cohort study using cardiovascular disease as exemplar, Bmj, vol. 371, p. m3919, 2020.
D. Yu, Appleyard, T., Cottrell, E., and Peat, G., Co-prescription of gabapentinoids and opioids among adults with and without osteoarthritis in the United Kingdom between 1995 and 2017, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2020.
J. Leal, Murphy, J., Garriga, C., Delmestri, A., Rangan, A., Price, A., Carr, A., Prieto-Alhambra, D., and Judge, A., Costs of joint replacement in osteoarthritis: a study using the National Joint Registry and Clinical Practice Research Datalink datasets, Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken), 2020.
S. E. Holden, Morice, A., Birring, S. S., Jenkins-Jones, S., Langerman, H., Weaver, J., and Currie, C. J., Cough presentation in primary care and the identification of chronic cough: a need for diagnostic clarity?, Curr Med Res Opin, vol. 36, pp. 139-150, 2020.
E. Ford, Starlinger, J., Rooney, P., Oliver, S., Banerjee, S., van Marwijk, H., and Cassell, J., Could dementia be detected from UK primary care patients' records by simple automated methods earlier than by the treating physician? A retrospective case-control study, Wellcome Open Res, vol. 5, p. 120, 2020.
R. Persson, Vasilakis-Scaramozza, C., Hagberg, K. W., Sponholtz, T., Williams, T., Myles, P., and Jick, S. S., CPRD Aurum database: Assessment of data quality and completeness of three important comorbidities, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
P. Rockenschaub, Nguyen, V., Aldridge, R. W., Acosta, D., Garcia-Gomez, J. M., and Saez, C., Data-driven discovery of changes in clinical code usage over time: a case-study on changes in cardiovascular disease recording in two English electronic health records databases (2001-2015), BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e034396, 2020.
J. R. Ayala Solares, Raimondi, F. E. Diletta, Zhu, Y., Rahimian, F., Canoy, D., Tran, J., Gomes, A. C. Pinho, Payberah, A. H., Zottoli, M., Nazarzadeh, M., Conrad, N., Rahimi, K., and Salimi-Khorshidi, G., Deep learning for electronic health records: A comparative review of multiple deep neural architectures, J Biomed Inform, vol. 101, p. 103337, 2020.
C. S. Arhi, Burns, E. M., Bottle, A., Bouras, G., Aylin, P., Ziprin, P., and Darzi, A., Delays in referral from primary care worsen survival for patients with colorectal cancer: a retrospective cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 70, pp. e463-e471, 2020.
J. Blackwell, Saxena, S., Petersen, I., Hotopf, M., Creese, H., Bottle, A., Alexakis, C., and Pollok, R. C., Depression in individuals who subsequently develop inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based nested case-control study, Gut, 2020.
I. Gurol-Urganci, Geary, R. S., Mamza, J. B., Iwagami, M., El-Hamamsy, D., Duckett, J., Wilson, A., Tincello, D., and van der Meulen, J., Determinants of referral of women with urinary incontinence to specialist services: a national cohort study using primary care data from the UK, BMC Fam Pract, vol. 21, p. 211, 2020.
H. Batchelor, Determination of healthcare resource and cost implications of using alternative sodium valproate formulations in the treatment of epilepsy in children in England: a retrospective database review, Eur J Pharm Biopharm, 2020.
M. M. Loiacono, Mitsakakis, N., Kwong, J. C., Gomez, G. B., Chit, A., and Grootendorst, P., Development and Validation of a Clinical Prediction Tool for Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in England, JAMA Netw Open, vol. 3, p. e207743, 2020.
J. K. Quint, O'Leary, C., Venerus, A., Holmgren, U., Varghese, P., and Cabrera, C., Development and Validation of a Method to Estimate COPD Severity in Multiple Datasets: A Retrospective Study, Pulm Ther, 2020.
C. Mistry, Palin, V., Li, Y., Martin, G. P., Jenkins, D., Welfare, W., Ashcroft, D. M., and Van Staa, T., Development and validation of a multivariable prediction model for infection-related complications in patients with common infections in UK primary care and the extent of risk-based prescribing of antibiotics, BMC Med, vol. 18, p. 118, 2020.
R. A. Payne, Mendonca, S. C., Elliott, M. N., Saunders, C. L., Edwards, D. A., Marshall, M., and Roland, M., Development and validation of the Cambridge Multimorbidity Score, Cmaj, vol. 192, pp. E107-e114, 2020.
S. S. Zghebi, Mamas, M. A., Ashcroft, D. M., Salisbury, C., Mallen, C. D., Chew-Graham, C. A., Reeves, D., van Marwijk, H., Qureshi, N., Weng, S., Holt, T., Buchan, I., Peek, N., Giles, S., Rutter, M. K., and Kontopantelis, E., Development and validation of the DIabetes Severity SCOre (DISSCO) in 139 626 individuals with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study, BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, vol. 8, 2020.
C. J. D. Threapleton, Kimpton, J. E., Carey, I. M., DeWilde, S., Cook, D. G., Harris, T., and Baker, E. H., Development of a structured clinical pharmacology review for specialist support for management of complex polypharmacy in primary care, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2020.
G. Funston, Hamilton, W., Abel, G., Crosbie, E. J., Rous, B., and Walter, F. M., The diagnostic performance of CA125 for the detection of ovarian and non-ovarian cancer in primary care: A population-based cohort study, PLoS Med, vol. 17, p. e1003295, 2020.
T. R. Card, Zittan, E., Nguyen, G. C., and Grainge, M. J., Disease Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Is Associated With Arterial Vascular Disease, Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2020.
M. Pujades-Rodriguez, Morgan, A. W., Cubbon, R. M., and Wu, J., Dose-dependent oral glucocorticoid cardiovascular risks in people with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases: A population-based cohort study, PLoS Med, vol. 17, p. e1003432, 2020.
T. Galvain, Chitnis, A., Paparouni, K., Tong, C., Holy, C. E., and Giannoudis, P. V., The economic burden of infections following intramedullary nailing for a tibial shaft fracture in England, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e035404, 2020.
O. Moussa, Ardissino, M., Heaton, T., Tang, A., Khan, O., Ziprin, P., Darzi, A., Collins, P., and Purkayastha, S., Effect of bariatric surgery on long-term cardiovascular outcomes: a nationwide nested cohort study, Eur Heart J, 2020.
G. H. B. Greenhall, Mansfield, K. E., Nitsch, D., Iwagami, M., Leyrat, C., Johnston, R., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L. A., The effect of initiation of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors on haemoglobin: A national cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2020.
M. Carney, Quiroga, M., Mounce, L., Shephard, E., Hamilton, W., and Price, S., Effect of pre-existing conditions on bladder cancer stage at diagnosis: a cohort study using electronic primary care records in the UK, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
T. P. van Staa, Palin, V., Li, Y., Welfare, W., Felton, T. W., Dark, P., and Ashcroft, D. M., The effectiveness of frequent antibiotic use in reducing the risk of infection-related hospital admissions: results from two large population-based cohorts, BMC Med, vol. 18, p. 40, 2020.
G. Nakafero, Grainge, M. J., Myles, P. R., Mallen, C. D., Zhang, W., Doherty, M., Nguyen-Van-Tam, J. S., and Abhishek, A., Effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccine in autoimmune rheumatic diseases treated with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2020.
T. Tran, Assayag, D., Ernst, P., and Suissa, S., Effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a population-based cohort study, Chest, 2020.
S. S. Zghebi, Steinke, D. T., Rutter, M. K., and Ashcroft, D. M., Eleven-year multimorbidity burden among 637 255 people with and without type 2 diabetes: a population-based study using primary care and linked hospitalisation data, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e033866, 2020.
R. Ravindrarajah, Reeves, D., Howarth, E., Meacock, R., Soiland-Reyes, C., Cotterill, S., Whittaker, W., Heller, S., Sutton, M., Bower, P., and Kontopantelis, E., Epidemiology and determinants of non-diabetic hyperglycaemia and its conversion to type 2 diabetes mellitus, 2000-2015: cohort population study using UK electronic health records, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e040201, 2020.
Y. Ye, Jiang, B., Manne, S., Moses, P. L., Almansa, C., Bennett, D., Dolin, P., and Ford, A. C., Epidemiology and outcomes of gastroparesis, as documented in general practice records, in the United Kingdom, Gut, 2020.
F. N. Mirza, Yumeen, S., and Walter, F. M., The Epidemiology of Malignant Melanoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Basal Cell Carcinoma in the United Kingdom from 2004-2014: A Population-Based Cohort Analysis using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Br J Dermatol, 2020.
J. D. Pauling, McGrogan, A., Snowball, J., and McHugh, N. J., Epidemiology of systemic sclerosis in the UK: an analysis of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2020.
A. G. Lai, Pasea, L., Banerjee, A., Hall, G., Denaxas, S., Chang, W. H., Katsoulis, M., Williams, B., Pillay, D., Noursadeghi, M., Linch, D., Hughes, D., Forster, M. D., Turnbull, C., Fitzpatrick, N. K., Boyd, K., Foster, G. R., Enver, T., Nafilyan, V., Humberstone, B., Neal, R. D., Cooper, M., Jones, M., Pritchard-Jones, K., Sullivan, R., Davie, C., Lawler, M., and Hemingway, H., Estimated impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer services and excess 1-year mortality in people with cancer and multimorbidity: near real-time data on cancer care, cancer deaths and a population-based cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e043828, 2020.
A. Banerjee, Pasea, L., Harris, S., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Torralbo, A., Shallcross, L., Noursadeghi, M., Pillay, D., Sebire, N., Holmes, C., Pagel, C., Wong, W. K., Langenberg, C., Williams, B., Denaxas, S., and Hemingway, H., Estimating excess 1-year mortality associated with the COVID-19 pandemic according to underlying conditions and age: a population-based cohort study, Lancet, vol. 395, pp. 1715-1725, 2020.
M. D. Danese, Pemberton-Ross, P., Catterick, D., and Villa, G., Estimation of the increased risk associated with recurrent events or polyvascular atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in the United Kingdom, Eur J Prev Cardiol, p. 2047487319899212, 2020.
R. Mathur, Palla, L., Farmer, R. E., Chaturvedi, N., and Smeeth, L., Ethnic differences in the severity and clinical management of type 2 diabetes at time of diagnosis: A cohort study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Diabetes Res Clin Pract, vol. 160, p. 108006, 2020.
R. Mathur, Farmer, R. E., Eastwood, S. V., Chaturvedi, N., Douglas, I., and Smeeth, L., Ethnic disparities in initiation and intensification of diabetes treatment in adults with type 2 diabetes in the UK, 1990-2017: A cohort study, PLoS Med, vol. 17, p. e1003106, 2020.
E. M. Heintjes, Bezemer, I. D., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Smits, E., Booth, H. P., Dedman, D., He, Y., Hoti, F., Vehkala, M., de Vogel, S., Robinson, N. J., Appenteng, K., and van Beest, F. J. A. Penn, Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Additional Risk Minimization Measure to Reduce the Risk of Prescribing Mirabegron to Patients with Severe Uncontrolled Hypertension in Four European Countries, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 12, pp. 423-433, 2020.
R. Palladino, Marrie, R. A., Majeed, A., and Chataway, J., Evaluating the Risk of Macrovascular Events and Mortality Among People With Multiple Sclerosis in England, JAMA Neurol, 2020.
Y. Li, Sperrin, M., Martin, G. P., Ashcroft, D. M., and van Staa, T. P., Examining the impact of data quality and completeness of electronic health records on predictions of patients' risks of cardiovascular disease, Int J Med Inform, vol. 133, p. 104033, 2020.
M. Besford, Graham, S., Sammon, C., Mehmud, F., Allan, V., Alikhan, R., and Ramagopalan, S., Factors associated with non-prescription of oral anticoagulant treatment in non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients with dementia: a CPRD-HES study, Age Ageing, 2020.
G. Requena, Wolf, A., Williams, R., Dedman, D., Quint, J. K., Murray-Thomas, T., and Pimenta, J. M., Feasibility of using Clinical Practice Research Datalink data to identify patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to enrol into real-world trials, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
[Page last reviewed 8 March 2021]