Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,900 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 January 2022) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 6MB, 247 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2949 results:
Author Title Type [ Year(Asc)]
M. C. Gulliford, Charlton, J., Boiko, O., Winter, J. R., Rezel-Potts, E., Sun, X., Burgess, C., McDermott, L., Bunce, C., Shearer, J., Curcin, V., Fox, R., Hay, A. D., Little, P., Moore, M. V., and Ashworth, M., Health Services and Delivery Research, in Safety of reducing antibiotic prescribing in primary care: a mixed-methods study, Southampton (UK): NIHR Journals Library Copyright © 2021 Gulliford et al. This work was produced by Gulliford et al. under the terms of a commissioning contract issued by the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care. This is an Open Access publication distributed und, 2021.
J. Lister, Han, L., Bellass, S., Taylor, J., Alderson, S. L., Doran, T., Gilbody, S., Hewitt, C., Holt, R. I. G., Jacobs, R., Kitchen, C. E. W., Prady, S. L., Radford, J., Ride, J. R., Shiers, D., Wang, H. I., and Siddiqi, N., Health Services and Delivery Research, in Identifying determinants of diabetes risk and outcomes for people with severe mental illness: a mixed-methods study, Southampton (UK): NIHR Journals Library Copyright © 2021 Lister et al. This work was produced by Lister et al. under the terms of a commissioning contract issued by the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care. This is an Open Access publication distributed under the, 2021.
M. Samnaliev, Barut, V., Weir, S., Langham, J., Langham, S., Wang, X., Desta, B., and Hammond, E., Health-care utilization and costs in adults with systemic lupus erythematosus in the United Kingdom: a real-world observational retrospective cohort analysis, Rheumatol Adv Pract, vol. 5, p. rkab071, 2021.
A. Ruigomez, Plana, E., Gilsenan, A., Fortuny, J., Cainzos-Achirica, M., Flynn, R. W. V., MacDonald, T. M., Garcia-Rodriguez, L., Ziemiecki, R., and Andrews, E. B., Identification and Validation of Major Cardiovascular Events in the United Kingdom Data Sources Included in a Multi-database Post-authorization Safety Study of Prucalopride, Drug Saf, 2021.
M. Katsoulis, Lai, A. G., Diaz-Ordaz, K., Gomes, M., Pasea, L., Banerjee, A., Denaxas, S., Tsilidis, K., Lagiou, P., Misirli, G., Bhaskaran, K., Wannamethee, G., Dobson, R., Batterham, R. L., Kipourou, D. K., Lumbers, R. T., Wen, L., Wareham, N., Langenberg, C., and Hemingway, H., Identifying adults at high-risk for change in weight and BMI in England: a longitudinal, large-scale, population-based cohort study using electronic health records, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, vol. 9, pp. 681-694, 2021.
N. Alexander, Alexander, D. C., Barkhof, F., and Denaxas, S., Identifying and evaluating clinical subtypes of Alzheimer's disease in care electronic health records using unsupervised machine learning, BMC Med Inform Decis Mak, vol. 21, p. 343, 2021.
J. Offman, Pesola, F., Fitzgerald, R. C., Hamilton, W., and Sasieni, P., Impact of Barrett oesophagus diagnoses and endoscopies on oesophageal cancer survival in the UK: A cohort study, Cancer Med, 2021.
S. L. Lay-Flurrie, Sheppard, J. P., Stevens, R. J., Mallen, C., Heneghan, C., Hobbs, F. R., Williams, B., Mant, J., and McManus, R. J., Impact of changes to national guidelines on hypertension-related workload: an interrupted time series analysis in English primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 71, pp. e296-e302, 2021.
S. F. Moore, Price, S. J., Chowienczyk, S., Bostock, J., and Hamilton, W., The impact of changing risk thresholds on the number of people in England eligible for urgent investigation for possible cancer: an observational cross-sectional study, Br J Cancer, pp. 1-5, 2021.
M. J. Carr, Wright, A. K., Leelarathna, L., Thabit, H., Milne, N., Kanumilli, N., Ashcroft, D. M., and Rutter, M. K., Impact of COVID-19 restrictions on diabetes health checks and prescribing for people with type 2 diabetes: a UK-wide cohort study involving 618 161 people in primary care, BMJ Qual Saf, 2021.
J. Watson, Darlington-Pollock, F., Green, M., Giebel, C., and Akpan, A., The Impact of Demographic, Socio-Economic and Geographic Factors on Mortality Risk among People Living with Dementia in England (2002-2016), Int J Environ Res Public Health, vol. 18, 2021.
L. R. Rodgers, Streeter, A. J., Lin, N., Hamilton, W., and Henley, W. E., Impact of influenza vaccination on amoxicillin prescriptions in older adults: A retrospective cohort study using primary care data, PLoS One, vol. 16, p. e0246156, 2021.
L. Han, Doran, T., Holt, R. I. G., Hewitt, C., Jacobs, R., Prady, S. L., Alderson, S. L., Shiers, D., Wang, H. I., Bellass, S., Gilbody, S., Kitchen, C. E. W., Lister, J., Taylor, J., and Siddiqi, N., The impact of severe mental illness on healthcare use and health outcomes for people with type 2 diabetes, Br J Gen Pract, 2021.
R. Costello, McDonagh, J., Hyrich, K., and Humphreys, J., Incidence and prevalence of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in the United Kingdom 2000-2018: results from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2021.
J. West, Card, T. R., Bishton, M. J., Lanyon, P., Ban, L., Bythell, M., Elliss-Brookes, L., Manson, J. J., Nanduri, V., Rankin, J., Tattersall, R. S., and Crooks, C. J., Incidence and survival of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: A population-based cohort study from England, J Intern Med, 2021.
J. Røikjer, Werkman, N. C. C., Ejskjaer, N., van den Bergh, J. P. W., Vestergaard, P., Schaper, N. C., Jensen, M. H., Klungel, O., de Vries, F., Nielen, J. T. H., Driessen, J. H. M., Ejskjaer, N., van den Bergh, J. P. W., Vestergaard, P., Schaper, N. C., M. Jensen, H., Klungel, O., de Vries, F., Nielen, J. T. H., Driessen, J. H. M., and de Vries, F., Incidence, hospitalization and mortality and their changes over time in people with a first ever diabetic foot ulcer, Diabet Med, p. e14725, 2021.
K. Ngaosuwan, Johnston, D. G., Godsland, I. F., Cox, J., Majeed, A., Quint, J. K., Oliver, N., and Robinson, S., Increased mortality risk in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2021.
G. Requena, Logie, J., Gibbons, D. C., Steinfeld, J., and Van Dyke, M. K., The increasing incidence and prevalence of hypereosinophilic syndrome in the United Kingdom, Immun Inflamm Dis, 2021.
J. L. Faillie, Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., Herrero, A., Altwegg, R., Renoux, C., and Azoulay, L., Incretin-Based Drugs and Risk of Intestinal Obstruction Among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes, Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2021.
K. E. Mansfield, Mathur, R., Tazare, J., Henderson, A. D., Mulick, A. R., Carreira, H., Matthews, A. A., Bidulka, P., Gayle, A., Forbes, H., Cook, S., Wong, A. Y. S., Strongman, H., Wing, K., Warren-Gash, C., Cadogan, S. L., Smeeth, L., Hayes, J. F., Quint, J. K., McKee, M., and Langan, S. M., Indirect acute effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical and mental health in the UK: a population-based study, Lancet Digit Health, 2021.
A. Head, Fleming, K., Kypridemos, C., Schofield, P., Pearson-Stuttard, J., and O'Flaherty, M., Inequalities in incident and prevalent multimorbidity in England, 2004–19: a population-based, descriptive study, Lancet Healthy Longev, vol. 2, pp. e489-e497, 2021.
B. van Bodegraven, Palin, V., Mistry, C., Sperrin, M., White, A., Welfare, W., Ashcroft, D. M., and van Staa, T. P., Infection-related complications after common infection in association with new antibiotic prescribing in primary care: retrospective cohort study using linked electronic health records, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e041218, 2021.
A. Douros, Santella, C., Dell'Aniello, S., Azoulay, L., Renoux, C., Suissa, S., and Brassard, P., Infectious Disease Burden and the Risk of Alzheimer's Disease: A Population-Based Study, J Alzheimers Dis, 2021.
Y. Schonmann, Mansfield, K. E., Mulick, A., Roberts, A., Smeeth, L., Langan, S. M., and Nitsch, D., Inflammatory Skin Diseases and the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease - Population-Based Case-control and Cohort analyses, Br J Dermatol, 2021.
R. Ferguson, Prieto-Alhambra, D., Peat, G., Delmestri, A., Jordan, K. P., Strauss, V. Y., Valderas, J. M., Walker, C., Yu, D., Glyn-Jones, S., and Silman, A., Influence of pre-existing multimorbidity on receiving a hip arthroplasty: cohort study of 28 025 elderly subjects from UK primary care, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e046713, 2021.
V. C. Brunetti, Yu, O. H. Y., Platt, R. W., and Filion, K. B., Initiation of four basal insulins and subsequent treatment modification in people treated for type 2 diabetes in the United Kingdom: Changes over the period 2003-2018, Diabet Med, p. e14603, 2021.
D. R. Morales, Lipworth, B. J., Donnan, P. T., and Wang, H., Intolerance to Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors in Asthma and the General Population: A UK Population-Based Cohort Study, J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, 2021.
A. K. Roalfe, Lay-Flurrie, S. L., Ordonez-Mena, J. M., Goyder, C. R., Jones, N. R., Hobbs, F. D. R., and Taylor, C. J., Long term trends in natriuretic peptide testing for heart failure in UK primary care: a cohort study, Eur Heart J, 2021.
M. Ardissino, Vincent, M., Hines, O., Amin, R., Eichhorn, C., Tang, A. R., Collins, P., Moussa, O., and Purkayastha, S., Long-term cardiovascular outcomes after orlistat therapy in patients with obesity: a nationwide, propensity-score matched cohort study, Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother, 2021.
O. Moussa, Ardissino, M., Tang, A., Edwards, J., Heaton, T., Khan, O., Tsang, K., Collins, P., and Purkayastha, S., Long-term cerebrovascular outcomes after bariatric surgery: A nationwide cohort study, Clin Neurol Neurosurg, vol. 203, p. 106560, 2021.
O. Moussa, Ardissino, M., Muttoni, S., Faraj, A., Tang, A., Khan, O., Collins, P., Jaffer, U., and Purkayastha, S., Long-term incidence and outcomes of obesity-related peripheral vascular disease after bariatric surgery, Langenbecks Arch Surg, 2021.
M. S. Persson, Harman, K. E., Thomas, K. S., Chalmers, J. R., Vinogradova, Y., Langan, S. M., Hippisley-Cox, J., and Gran, S., Long-term oral prednisolone exposure in primary care for bullous pemphigoid: population-based study, Br J Gen Pract, 2021.
A. Arana, Pottegard, A., Kuiper, J. G., Booth, H., Reutfors, J., Calingaert, B., Lund, L. C., Crellin, E., Schmitt-Egenolf, M., Kaye, J. A., Gembert, K., Rothman, K. J., Kieler, H., Dedman, D., Houben, E., Gutierrez, L., Hallas, J., and Perez-Gutthann, S., Long-Term Risk of Skin Cancer and Lymphoma in Users of Topical Tacrolimus and Pimecrolimus: Final Results from the Extension of the Cohort Study Protopic Joint European Longitudinal Lymphoma and Skin Cancer Evaluation (JOELLE), Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 13, 2021.
S. Abtahi, Driessen, J. H. M., Burden, A. M., Souverein, P. C., van den Bergh, J. P., van Staa, T. P., Boonen, A., and de Vries, F., Low-dose oral glucocorticoid therapy and risk of osteoporotic fractures in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2021.
K. Wing, Williamson, E., Carpenter, J. R., Wise, L., Schneeweiss, S., Smeeth, L., Quint, J. K., and Douglas, I., Medications for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a historical non-interventional cohort study with validation against RCT results, Health Technol Assess, vol. 25, pp. 1-70, 2021.
S. S. Jackson, Pfeiffer, R. M., Gabbi, C., Anderson, L., Gadalla, S. M., and Koshiol, J., Menopausal hormone therapy and risk of biliary tract cancers, Hepatology, 2021.
J. Jerrim, The mental health of adolescents in England: How does it vary during their time at school?, British Educational Research Journal, 2021.
K. Suissa, Schneeweiss, S., Douros, A., Filion, K. B., Yin, H., Patorno, E., and Azoulay, L., The modifying effects of adiposity on the cardiovascular safety of sulphonylureas, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2021.
L. Minjon, van den Ban, E., Bazelier, M. T., Lalmohamed, A., Egberts, T. C. G., and Heerdink, E. R., Monitoring of Adverse Drug Reaction-Related Parameters in Children, Youth, and Young Adults Prescribed Antipsychotic Drugs by General Practitioners, J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol, 2021.
F. Tyrer, Morriss, R., Kiani, R., Gangadharan, S. K., and Rutherford, M. J., Mortality disparities and deprivation among people with intellectual disabilities in England: 2000-2019, J Epidemiol Community Health, 2021.
J. Tran, Norton, R., Canoy, D., Solares, J. R. Ayala, Conrad, N., Nazarzadeh, M., Raimondi, F., Salimi-Khorshidi, G., Rodgers, A., and Rahimi, K., Multi-morbidity and blood pressure trajectories in hypertensive patients: A multiple landmark cohort study, PLoS Med, vol. 18, p. e1003674, 2021.
C. J. Taylor, Lay-Flurrie, S. L., Ordonez-Mena, J. M., Goyder, C. R., Jones, N. R., Roalfe, A. K., and Hobbs, F. R., Natriuretic peptide level at heart failure diagnosis and risk of hospitalisation and death in England 2004-2018, Heart, 2021.
T. Tervonen, Prawitz, T., Chua, G. N., Hyacinthe, J., and Pinto, C. A., Net clinical benefit of antiplatelet therapy was affected by patient preferences: A personalized benefit-risk assessment, J Clin Epidemiol, 2021.
K. Richardson, Savva, G. M., Boyd, P. J., Aldus, C., Maidment, I., Pakpahan, E., Loke, Y. K., Arthur, A., Steel, N., Ballard, C., Howard, R., and Fox, C., Non-benzodiazepine hypnotic use for sleep disturbance in people aged over 55 years living with dementia: a series of cohort studies, Health Technol Assess, vol. 25, pp. 1-202, 2021.
S. Lopes, Meincke, H. H., Lamotte, M., Olivieri, A. V., and Lean, M. E. J., A novel decision model to predict the impact of weight management interventions: The Core Obesity Model, Obes Sci Pract, vol. 7, pp. 269-280, 2021.
R. K. Akyea, Doehner, W., Iyen, B., Weng, S. F., Qureshi, N., and Ntaios, G., Obesity and long-term outcomes after incident stroke: a prospective population-based cohort study, J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle, 2021.
C. W. le Roux, Hartvig, N. V., Haase, C. L., Nordsborg, R. B., Olsen, A. H., and Satylganova, A., Obesity, cardiovascular risk and healthcare resource utilization in the UK, Eur J Prev Cardiol, vol. 28, pp. 1235-1241, 2021.
S. Erridge, Moussa, O., McIntyre, C., Hariri, A., Tolley, N., Kotecha, B., and Purkayastha, S., Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Obese Patients: a UK Population Analysis, Obes Surg, 2021.
S. Khalid, Reyes, C., Ernst, M., Delmestri, A., Toth, E., Libanati, C., Abrahamsen, B., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., One- and 2-year incidence of osteoporotic fracture: a multi-cohort observational study using routinely collected real-world data, Osteoporos Int, 2021.
E. J. Peach, Pearce, F. A., Gibson, J., Cooper, A. J., Chen, L. C., and Knaggs, R. D., Opioids and the Risk of Fracture: a Self-Controlled Case Series Study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Am J Epidemiol, 2021.
[Page last reviewed 4 January 2022]