Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 3,000 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography listed below is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 8 November 2022).

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.

Download: CPRD bibliography PDF November 2022 (PDF, 6MB, 277 pages) 

Download: CPRD bibliography .BIB November 2022 (BIB, 1.3MB, 1 page)

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website

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Primary care consultations and pain medicine prescriptions: a comparison between patients with and without chronic pain after total knee replacement


Authors: R. Pinedo-Villanueva, S. Kolovos, C. Maronga, A. Delmestri, N. Howells, A. Judge, R. Gooberman-Hill, V. Wylde


Facilitating safety evaluation in maternal immunization trials: a retrospective cohort study to assess pregnancy outcomes and events of interest in low-risk pregnancies in England


Authors: M. Riley, D. Lambrelli, S. Graham, O. Henry, A. Sutherland, A. Schmidt, N. Sawalhi-Leckenby, R. Donaldson, S. Stoszek


Health Needs and Their Relationship with Life Expectancy in People with and without Intellectual Disabilities in England


Authors: F. Tyrer, R. Morriss, R. Kiani, S. Gangadharan, H. Kundaje, M. Rutherford


Incidence and pattern of mycophenolate discontinuation associated with abnormal monitoring blood-test results: cohort study using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum


Authors: G. Nakafero, M. Grainge, T. Card, C. Mallen, R. Riley, D. van der Windt, C. Fox, M. Taal, G. Aithal, H. Williams, A. Abhishek


Linaclotide utilization and potential for off-label use and misuse in three European countries


Authors: J. Cid-Ruzafa, B. Lacy, A. Schultze, M. Duong, Y. Lu, M. Raluy-Callado, R. Donaldson, D. Weissman, A. Gómez-Lumbreras, D. Ouchi, M. Giner-Soriano, R. Morros, A. Ukah, D. Pohl


COVID-19 ethnic inequalities in mental health and multimorbidities: protocol for the COVEIMM study


Authors: E. Impara, I. Bakolis, L. Bécares, H. Dasch, A. Dregan, J. Dyer, M. Hotopf, R. Stewart, R. Stuart, J. Ocloo, J. Das-Munshi


Prevalence and healthcare resource utilization of patients with Dravet syndrome: Retrospective linkage cohort study


Authors: Owen Pickrell, F. Guelfucci, M. Martin, R. Holland, R. Chin


Inhaled Corticosteroid Withdrawal and Change in Lung Function in Primary Care Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients in England


Authors: H. Whittaker, K. Wing, I. Douglas, S. Kiddle, J. Quint


Suicide and death by other causes among patients with a severe mental illness: cohort study comparing risks among patients discharged from inpatient care v. those treated in the community


Authors: R. Musgrove, M. Carr, N. Kapur, C. Chew-Graham, F. Mughal, D. Ashcroft, R. Webb


Significant reduction in chronic kidney disease progression with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors compared to dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in adults with type 2 diabetes in a UK clinical setting


Authors: I. Idris, R. Zhang, J. Mamza, M. Ford, T. Morris, A. Banerjee, K. Khunti


Bilirubin levels and kidney function decline: An analysis of clinical trial and real world data


Authors: Y. Aoki, C. Cabrera, M. Ouwens, K. Bamberg, J. Nyström, I. Raz, B. Scirica, B. Hamrén, P. Greasley, D. Rekić


Morbidities among older workers and work exit: the HEAF cohort


Authors: K. Walker-Bone, S. D'Angelo, C. Linaker, M. Stevens, G. Ntani, C. Cooper, H. Syddall


Influenza vaccination reduced myocardial infarctions in UK older adults: a prior event rate ratio study


Authors: A. Streeter, L. Rodgers, F. Hamilton, J. Masoli, A. Ble, W. Hamilton, W. Henley


Developing and internally validating a prognostic model (P Risk) to improve the prediction of psychosis in a primary care population using electronic health records: The MAPPED study


Authors: S. Sullivan, D. Kounali, R. Morris, D. Kessler, W. Hamilton, G. Lewis, P. Lilford, I. Nazareth


Associations between frailty trajectories and cardiovascular, renal, and mortality outcomes in chronic kidney disease


Authors: T. Wilkinson, J. Miksza, F. Zaccardi, C. Lawson, A. Nixon, H. Young, K. Khunti, A. Smith


The Association of Long-Acting Insulin Analogue Use Versus Neutral Protamine Hagedorn Insulin Use With Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events Among Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study


Authors: V. Brunetti, O. H. Y. Yu, R. Platt, K. Filion


Are we missing lifetime COPD diagnosis among people with COPD recorded death?


Authors: A. Gayle, A. Lenoir, C. Minelli, J. Quint


Primary care contacts, continuity, identification of palliative care needs, and hospital use: a population-based cohort study in people dying with dementia


Authors: J. Leniz, M. Gulliford, I. Higginson, S. Bajwah, D. Yi, W. Gao, K. Sleeman


Incretin-Based Drugs and the Risk of Acute Liver Injury Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes


Authors: R. Pradhan, H. Yin, O. H. Y. Yu, L. Azoulay


Real-World Effectiveness of Beta-Blockers versus Other Antihypertensives in Reducing All-Cause Mortality and Cardiovascular Events


Authors: Caroline Foch, Arthur Allignol, Ulrike Hostalek, Emmanuelle Boutmy, Thilo Hohenberger, Bing Niu


Incidence and associations of hospital delirium diagnoses in 85,979 people with severe mental illness: A data linkage study


Authors: Y. Bauernfreund, N. Launders, G. Favarato, J. Hayes, D. Osborn, E. Sampson


Treatment patterns and clinical and economic burden of hip dislocation following primary total hip arthroplasty in England


Authors: T. Galvain, J. Mantel, O. Kakade, T. Board


Inflammatory marker testing in primary care in the year before Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosis: a UK population-based case-control study in patients aged ≤50 years


Authors: M. Rafiq, G. Abel, C. Renzi, G. Lyratzopoulos


Incidence, morbidity, mortality and disparities in dementia: A population linked electronic health records study of 4.3 million individuals


Authors: S. Chung, R. Providencia, R. Sofat, M. Pujades-Rodriguez, A. Torralbo, G. Fatemifar, N. Fitzpatrick, J. Taylor, K. Li, C. Dale, M. Rossor, D. Acosta-Mena, J. Whittaker, S. Denaxas


Oral bisphosphonates are associated with increased risk of severe acute kidney injury in elderly patients with complex health needs: a self-controlled case series in the UK


Authors: T. Oda, A. Jödicke, D. Robinson, A. Delmestri, R. Keogh, D. Prieto-Alhambra


Treatment Transitions in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Retrospective Analyses of US and UK Healthcare Databases


Authors: C. Bloom, J. Montonen, O. Jöns, E. Garry, S. Bhatt


Has the gout epidemic peaked in the UK? A nationwide cohort study using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, from 1997 to across the COVID-19 pandemic in 2021


Authors: A. Abhishek, L. Tata, M. Mamas, A. Avery


Alcohol use recording in adults with depression in English primary care: a cross-sectional study


Authors: E. Adesanya, S. Cook, E. Crellin, S. Langan, K. Mansfield, L. Smeeth, E. Herrett


First Maintenance Therapy for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Retrospective Analyses of US and UK Healthcare Databases


Authors: C. Bloom, J. Montonen, O. Jöns, E. Garry, S. Bhatt


Transparency of high-dimensional propensity score analyses: guidance for diagnostics and reporting


Authors: J. Tazare, R. Wyss, J. Franklin, L. Smeeth, S. Evans, S. Wang, S. Schneeweiss, I. Douglas, J. Gagne, E. Williamson


The feasibility of pragmatic influenza vaccine randomized controlled real-world trials in Denmark and England


Authors: J. Nealon, D. Modin, R. Ghosh, D. Rudin, G. Gislason, H. Booth, J. Jensen, R. Williams, H. Shepherd, E. Yelland, H. Bricout, S. Chaves, T. Biering-Sørensen


Epidemiology of pre-existing multimorbidity in pregnant women in the UK in 2018: a population-based cross-sectional study


Authors: S. Lee, A. Azcoaga-Lorenzo, U. Agrawal, J. Kennedy, A. Fagbamigbe, H. Hope, A. Subramanian, A. Anand, B. Taylor, C. Nelson-Piercy, C. Damase-Michel, C. Yau, F. Crowe, G. Santorelli, K. Eastwood, Z. Vowles, M. Loane, N. Moss, P. Brocklehurst, R. Plachcinski, S. Thangaratinam, M. Black, D. O'Reilly, K. Abel, S. Brophy, K. Nirantharakumar, C. McCowan


Clustering of comorbidities and associated outcomes in people with osteoarthritis - A UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink study


Authors: S. Swain, C. Coupland, V. Strauss, C. Mallen, C. Kuo, A. Sarmanova, S. Bierma-Zeinstra, M. Englund, D. Prieto-Alhambra, M. Doherty, W. Zhang


Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonists and Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors and Risk of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes


Authors: R. Pradhan, H. Yin, O. Yu, L. Azoulay


Primary care clinical management following self-harm during the first wave of COVID-19 in the UK: population-based cohort study


Authors: S. Steeg, M. Carr, L. Trefan, D. Ashcroft, N. Kapur, E. Nielsen, B. McMillan, R. Webb


No evidence that herpes zoster is associated with increased risk of dementia diagnosis


Authors: C. Warren-Gash, E. Williamson, S. Shiekh, J. Borjas-Howard, N. Pearce, J. Breuer, L. Smeeth


Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists and Risk of Anaphylactic Reaction Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Multisite Population-Based Cohort Study


Authors: R. Pradhan, E. Patorno, H. Tesfaye, S. Schneeweiss, H. Yin, J. Franklin, A. Pawar, C. Santella, O. H. Y. Yu, C. Renoux, L. Azoulay


Blood eosinophils to guide inhaled maintenance therapy in a primary care COPD population


Authors: H. Ashdown, M. Smith, E. McFadden, I. Pavord, C. Butler, M. Bafadhel


Antipsychotic treatment patterns in Alzheimer's disease patients with agitation: a cohort study using the UK clinical practice research datalink


Authors: C. Tran, M. Bøg, S. Collings, M. Johnson, N. Qizilbash, S. Lind, R. Baker, K. Jørgensen


Statin use is associated with lower risk of dementia in stroke patients: a community-based cohort study with inverse probability weighted marginal structural model analysis


Authors: Z. Yang, S. Toh, X. Li, D. Edwards, C. Brayne, J. Mant


Surgical treatment, complications, reoperations, and healthcare costs among patients with clavicle fracture in England


Authors: S. Wolf, A. Chitnis, A. Manoranjith, M. Vanderkarr, J. Plaza, L. Gador, C. Holy, C. Sparks, S. Lambert


Comparing antibiotic prescribing between clinicians in UK primary care: an analysis in a cohort study of eight different measures of antibiotic prescribing


Authors: T. Van Staa, Y. Li, N. Gold, T. Chadborn, W. Welfare, V. Palin, D. Ashcroft, J. Bircher


Characteristics of New Users of Aclidinium Bromide, Aclidinium/Formoterol, and Other COPD Medications in the United Kingdom, Denmark, and Germany


Authors: E. Rivero-Ferrer, M. Olesen, E. Plana, J. Aguado, N. Saigi-Morgui, A. Rubino, S. Daoud, A. Lei, S. Perez-Gutthann, T. Schink, N. Kristiansen, J. Hallas, A. Pottegard, C. Rebordosa


UK poSt Arthroplasty Follow-up rEcommendations (UK SAFE): what does analysis of linked, routinely collected national datasets tell us about mid-late term revision risk after knee replacement?


Authors: L. Smith, C. Garriga, S. Kingsbury, R. Pinedo-Villanueva, A. Delmestri, N. Arden, M. Stone, P. Conaghan, A. Judge


Screening for type 2 diabetes after a diagnosis of gestational diabetes by ethnicity: A retrospective cohort study


Authors: E. Vounzoulaki, K. Khunti, J. Miksza, B. Tan, M. Davies, C. Gillies


The risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in people prescribed mirtazapine: an active comparator cohort study using electronic health records


Authors: R. Joseph, R. Jack, R. Morriss, R. Knaggs, D. Butler, C. Hollis, J. Hippisley-Cox, C. Coupland


Reduction of Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality versus Risk of New Onset Diabetes with Statin Use in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis


Authors: G. Ozen, S. Dell'Aniello, S. Pedro, K. Michaud, S. Suissa


Real-world weight change, adherence, and discontinuation among patients with type 2 diabetes initiating glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in the UK


Authors: T. Weiss, L. Yang, R. Carr, S. Pal, B. Sawhney, R. Boggs, S. Rajpathak, K. Iglay


Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular and Heart Failure Events With SGLT2 Inhibitors, GLP-1 Receptor Agonists, and Their Combination in Type 2 Diabetes


Authors: A. Wright, M. Carr, E. Kontopantelis, L. Leelarathna, H. Thabit, R. Emsley, I. Buchan, M. Mamas, T. van Staa, N. Sattar, D. Ashcroft, M. Rutter


Associations of Cardiovascular and Non-Cardiovascular Comorbidities with Dementia Risk in Patients with Diabetes: Results from a Large UK Cohort Study


Authors: B. Zheng, B. Su, C. Udeh-Momoh, G. Price, I. Tzoulaki, E. Vamos, A. Majeed, E. Riboli, S. Ahmadi-Abhari, L. Middleton