Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,800 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 9 Sepember 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 4MB, 239 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2869 results:
Author Title Type [ Year(Asc)]
A. Adiamah, Ban, L., Otete, H., Crooks, C. J., West, J., and Humes, D. J., Outcomes after non-operative management of perforated diverticular disease: a population-based cohort study, BJS Open, vol. 5, 2021.
T. Inns, Fleming, K. M., Iturriza-Gomara, M., and Hungerford, D., Paediatric rotavirus vaccination, coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes in children: a population-based cohort study, BMC Med, vol. 19, p. 147, 2021.
L. Sun, Pennells, L., Kaptoge, S., Nelson, C. P., Ritchie, S. C., Abraham, G., Arnold, M., Bell, S., Bolton, T., Burgess, S., Dudbridge, F., Guo, Q., Sofianopoulou, E., Stevens, D., Thompson, J. R., Butterworth, A. S., Wood, A., Danesh, J., Samani, N. J., Inouye, M., and Di Angelantonio, E., Polygenic risk scores in cardiovascular risk prediction: A cohort study and modelling analyses, PLoS Med, vol. 18, p. e1003498, 2021.
M. Noble, Burden, A., Stirling, S., Clark, A., Musgrave, S., M. Sallakh, A., Price, D., Davies, G., Pinnock, H., Pond, M., Sheikh, A., Sims, E., Walker, S., and Wilson, A., Predicting asthma-related crisis events using routine electronic healthcare data, Br J Gen Pract, 2021.
D. Groves, Karsanji, U., Evans, R. A., Greening, N., Singh, S. J., Quint, J. K., Whittaker, H., Richardson, M., Barrett, J., Sutch, S. P., and Steiner, M. C., Predicting Future Health Risk in COPD: Differential Impact of Disease-Specific and Multi-Morbidity-Based Risk Stratification, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 16, pp. 1741-1754, 2021.
S. Khalid, Pineda-Moncusí, M., El-Hussein, L., Delmestri, A., Ernst, M., Smith, C., Libanati, C., Toth, E., Javaid, M. K., Cooper, C., Abrahamsen, B., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Predicting Imminent Fractures in Patients With a Recent Fracture or Starting Oral Bisphosphonate Therapy: Development and International Validation of Prognostic Models, J Bone Miner Res, 2021.
Z. Xu, Arnold, M., Stevens, D., Kaptoge, S., Pennells, L., Sweeting, M. J., Barrett, J., Angelantonio, E. D., and Wood, A. M., Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Accounting for Future Initiation of Statin Treatment, Am J Epidemiol, 2021.
J. F. Hayes, Osborn, D. P. J., Francis, E., Ambler, G., Tomlinson, L. A., Boman, M., Wong, I. C. K., Geddes, J. R., Dalman, C., and Lewis, G., Prediction of individuals at high risk of chronic kidney disease during treatment with lithium for bipolar disorder, BMC Med, vol. 19, p. 99, 2021.
R. E. Farmer, Beard, I., Raza, S. I., Gollop, N. D., Patel, N., Tebboth, A., McGovern, A. P., Kanumilli, N., and Ternouth, A., Prescribing in Type 2 Diabetes Patients With and Without Cardiovascular Disease History: a Descriptive Analysis in the UK CPRD, Clin Ther, 2021.
A. Mitchell, Snowball, J., Welsh, T. J., Watson, M. C., and McGrogan, A., Prescribing of direct oral anticoagulants and warfarin to older people with atrial fibrillation in UK general practice: a cohort study, BMC Med, vol. 19, p. 189, 2021.
T. X. D. Cao, Fraga, L. F. C., Fergusson, E., Michaud, J., Dell'Aniello, S., Yin, H., Rej, S., Azoulay, L., and Renoux, C., Prescribing Trends of Antidepressants and Psychotropic Coprescription for Youths in UK Primary Care, 2000-2018, J Affect Disord, vol. 287, pp. 19-25, 2021.
T. Jiao, Platt, R. W., Douros, A., and Filion, K. B., Prescription Patterns for the Use of Antihypertensive Drugs for Primary Prevention among Patients with Hypertension in the United Kingdom, Am J Hypertens, 2021.
R. F. M. Chin, Pickrell, W. O., Guelfucci, F., Martin, M., and Holland, R., Prevalence, healthcare resource utilization and mortality of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: retrospective linkage cohort study, Seizure, vol. 91, pp. 159-166, 2021.
V. Baskaran, Pearce, F., Harwood, R. H., McKeever, T. M., and Lim, W. S., Primary care consultations after hospitalisation for pneumonia: a large population-based cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 71, pp. e250-e257, 2021.
Y. Zhou, Walter, F. M., Singh, H., Hamilton, W., Abel, G. A., and Lyratzopoulos, G., Prolonged Diagnostic Intervals as Marker of Missed Diagnostic Opportunities in Bladder and Kidney Cancer Patients with Alarm Features: A Longitudinal Linked Data Study, Cancers (Basel), vol. 13, 2021.
J. P. Brown, Tazare, J. R., Williamson, E., Mansfield, K. E., Evans, S. J., Tomlinson, L. A., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., Wing, K., and Douglas, I. J., Proton pump inhibitors and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2021.
D. Abrahami, McDonald, E. G., Schnitzer, M. E., Barkun, A. N., Suissa, S., and Azoulay, L., Proton pump inhibitors and risk of colorectal cancer, Gut, 2021.
D. Abrahami, McDonald, E. G., Schnitzer, M. E., Barkun, A. N., Suissa, S., and Azoulay, L., Proton pump inhibitors and risk of gastric cancer: population-based cohort study, Gut, 2021.
R. Persson, Sponholtz, T., Vasilakis-Scaramozza, C., Hagberg, K. W., Williams, T., Kotecha, D., Myles, P., and Jick, S. S., Quality and Completeness of Myocardial Infarction Recording in Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 13, pp. 745-753, 2021.
M. J. Schuemie, Weinstein, R., Ryan, P. B., and Berlin, J. A., Quantifying bias in epidemiologic studies evaluating the association between acetaminophen use and cancer, Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, vol. 120, p. 104866, 2021.
B. Coles, Zaccardi, F., Seidu, S., Gillies, C. L., Davies, M. J., Hvid, C., and Khunti, K., Rates and estimated cost of primary care consultations in people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and comorbidities: A retrospective analysis of 8.9 million consultations, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2021.
E. M. Powell, Douglas, I. J., Gungabissoon, U., Smeeth, L., and Wing, K., Real-world effects of medications for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: protocol for a UK population-based non-interventional cohort study with validation against randomised trial results, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e042947, 2021.
S. W. D. Merriel, Ingle, S. M., May, M. T., and Martin, R. M., Retrospective cohort study evaluating clinical, biochemical and pharmacological prognostic factors for prostate cancer progression using primary care data, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e044420, 2021.
J. A. Prior, Paskins, Z., Whittle, R., Abdul-Sultan, A., Chew-Graham, C. A., Muller, S., Bajpai, R., Shepherd, T. A., Sumathipala, A., and Mallen, C. D., Rheumatic Conditions as Risk Factors for Self-Harm: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken), vol. 73, pp. 130-137, 2021.
S. Ahmad, Carey, I. M., Harris, T., Cook, D. G., DeWilde, S., and Strachan, D. P., The rising tide of dementia deaths: triangulation of data from three routine data sources using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMC Geriatr, vol. 21, p. 375, 2021.
A. Subota, Jetté, N., Josephson, C. B., McMillan, J., Keezer, M. R., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., and Holroyd-Leduc, J., Risk factors for dementia development, frailty, and mortality in older adults with epilepsy - A population-based analysis, Epilepsy Behav, vol. 120, p. 108006, 2021.
L. van der Sande, Jöbsis, Q., Bannier, M., van de Garde, E. M. W., Coremans, J. J. M., de Vries, F., Dompeling, E., and Driessen, J. H. M., The risk of community-acquired pneumonia in children using gastric acid suppressants, Eur Respir J, 2021.
K. J. Smith, Peterson, M. D., Victor, C., and Ryan, J. M., Risk of dementia in adults with cerebral palsy: a matched cohort study using general practice data, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e042652, 2021.
C. Wallenhorst, Martinez, C., and Freedman, B., Risk of ischemic stroke in asymptomatic atrial fibrillation incidentally-detected in primary care compared with other clinical presentations, Thromb Haemost, 2021.
A. M. Mueller, Liakoni, E., Schneider, C., Burkard, T., Jick, S. S., Krahenbuhl, S., Meier, C. R., and Spoendlin, J., The Risk of Muscular Events Among New Users of Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Statins: an Observational Cohort Study, J Gen Intern Med, 2021.
R. Schneider, Reinau, D., Stoffel, S., Jick, S. S., Meier, C. R., and Spoendlin, J., Risk of skin cancer in new users of thiazides and thiazide-like diuretics: a cohort study using an active comparator group, Br J Dermatol, 2021.
O. Ayodele, Cabral, H. J., McManus, D., and Jick, S., The Risk of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) in Men with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Treated with 5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitors (5ARIs), Clin Epidemiol, vol. 13, pp. 661-673, 2021.
R. Morriss, Tyrer, F., Zaccardi, F., and Khunti, K., Safety of antidepressants in a primary care cohort of adults with obesity and depression, PLoS One, vol. 16, p. e0245722, 2021.
R. K. Akyea, Vinogradova, Y., Qureshi, N., Patel, R. S., Kontopantelis, E., Ntaios, G., Asselbergs, F. W., Kai, J., and Weng, S. F., Sex, Age, and Socioeconomic Differences in Nonfatal Stroke Incidence and Subsequent Major Adverse Outcomes, Stroke, vol. 52, pp. 396-405, 2021.
R. K. Akyea, Kontopantelis, E., Kai, J., Weng, S. F., Patel, R. S., Asselbergs, F. W., and Qureshi, N., Sex disparity in subsequent outcomes in survivors of coronary heart disease, Heart, 2021.
V. C. Brunetti, Reynier, P., Azoulay, L., Yu, O. H. Y., Ernst, P., Platt, R. W., and Filion, K. B., SGLT-2 inhibitors and the risk of hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia: A population-based cohort study, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2021.
V. Palin, Welfare, W., Ashcroft, D. M., and van Staa, T. P., Shorter and longer courses of antibiotics for common infections and the association with reductions of infection-related complications including hospital admissions, Clin Infect Dis, 2021.
A. J. McKay, Gunn, L. H., Ference, B. A., Dorresteijn, J. A. N., Berkelmans, G. F. N., Visseren, F. L. J., and Ray, K. K., Is the SMART risk prediction model ready for real-world implementation? A validation study in a routine care setting of approximately 380 000 individuals, Eur J Prev Cardiol, 2021.
C. H. Coughlan, Ruzangi, J., Neale, F. K., B. Maldonado, N., Blair, M., Bottle, A., Saxena, S., and Hargreaves, D., Social and ethnic group differences in healthcare use by children aged 0-14 years: a population-based cohort study in England from 2007 to 2017, Arch Dis Child, 2021.
J. L. Walker, Rentsch, C. T., McDonald, H. I., Bak, J., Minassian, C., Amirthalingam, G., Edelstein, M., and Thomas, S., Social determinants of pertussis and influenza vaccine uptake in pregnancy: a national cohort study in England using electronic health records, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e046545, 2021.
G. J. Lefeber, Knol, W., Souverein, P. C., Bouvy, M. L., de Boer, A., and Koek, H. L., Statins After Ischemic Stroke in the Oldest: A Cohort Study Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink Database, Stroke, p. Strokeaha120030755, 2021.
K. Phiri, Hallas, J., Linder, M., Margulis, A., Suehs, B., Arana, A., Bahmanyar, S., Hoffman, V., Enger, C., Horter, L., Odsbu, I., Olesen, M., Perez-Gutthann, S., Kristiansen, N. S., Appenteng, K., de Vogel, S., and Seeger, J., A study of cancer occurrence in users of mirabegron and antimuscarinic treatments for overactive bladder, Curr Med Res Opin, p. 1, 2021.
S. Swain, Coupland, C., Mallen, C., Kuo, C. F., Sarmanova, A., Bierma-Zeinstra, S. M. A., Englund, M., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Doherty, M., and Zhang, W., Temporal relationship between osteoarthritis and comorbidities: a combined case control and cohort study in the UK primary care setting, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2021.
L. Cybulski, Ashcroft, D. M., Carr, M. J., Garg, S., Chew-Graham, C. A., Kapur, N., and Webb, R. T., Temporal trends in annual incidence rates for psychiatric disorders and self-harm among children and adolescents in the UK, 2003-2018, BMC Psychiatry, vol. 21, p. 229, 2021.
J. van Dalem, Driessen, J. H. M., Burden, A. M., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Klungel, O. H., de Vries, F., and Brouwers, M., Thiazolidinediones and Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists and the Risk of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cohort Study, Hepatology, 2021.
G. Russell, Stapley, S., Newlove-Delgado, T., Salmon, A., White, R., Warren, F., Pearson, A., and Ford, T., Time trends in autism diagnosis over 20 years: a UK population-based cohort study, J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 2021.
A. Rahman, Kane, J., Montastruc, F., and Renoux, C., Trends in new prescription of gabapentinoids and of coprescription with opioids in the 4 nations of the UK, 1993-2017, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2021.
J. Pearson-Stuttard, Bennett, J., Cheng, Y. J., Vamos, E. P., Cross, A. J., Ezzati, M., and Gregg, E. W., Trends in predominant causes of death in individuals with and without diabetes in England from 2001 to 2018: an epidemiological analysis of linked primary care records, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, vol. 9, pp. 165-173, 2021.
L. Szatkowski, Vaz, L. R., Fiaschi, L., Tata, L., and Coleman, T., Trends in prescribing of nicotine replacement therapy to pregnant women in primary care in England, Nicotine Tob Res, 2021.
E. F. Pujol, Hancock, R., and Morciano, M., Trends in survival of older care home residents in England: A 10-year multi-cohort study, Soc Sci Med, p. 113883, 2021.
[Page last reviewed 9 September 2021]