Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,800 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 June 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 229 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2809 results:
Author Title Type [ Year(Asc)]
M. S. M. Persson, Harman, K. E., Thomas, K. S., Chalmers, J. R., Vinogradova, Y., Langan, S. M., Hippisley-Cox, J., and Gran, S., Using electronic health records to inform trial feasibility in a rare autoimmune blistering skin disease in England, BMC Med Res Methodol, vol. 21, p. 22, 2021.
D. Roy, Akriche, F., Amlani, B., and Shakir, S., Utilisation and Safety of Polyethylene Glycol 3350 with Electrolytes in Children Under 2 Years: A Retrospective Cohort, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, 2021.
G. Requena, Dedman, D., Quint, J. K., Ghosh, R. E., Williams, R., and Pimenta, J. M., The Utilization and Safety of Umeclidinium and Umeclidinium/Vilanterol in UK Primary Care: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 16, pp. 629-642, 2021.
T. Burkard, Rauch, M., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Validity of bariatric surgery codes in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) GOLD compared with Hospital Episodes Statistics, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2021.
C. L. Haase, Lopes, S., Olsen, A. H., Satylganova, A., Schnecke, V., and McEwan, P., Weight loss and risk reduction of obesity-related outcomes in 0.5 million people: evidence from a UK primary care database, Int J Obes (Lond), 2021.
G. Nakafero, Grainge, M. J., Card, T., Mallen, C. D., Zhang, W., Doherty, M., Taal, M. W., Aithal, G. P., and Abhishek, A., What is the incidence of methotrexate or leflunomide discontinuation related to cytopenia, liver enzyme elevation or kidney function decline?, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2021.
J. Erwin, Enki, D. G., and Woolf, A. D., Younger people with rheumatoid arthritis are at increased risk of fracture even before age 50 years: a population-based cohort study, Osteoporos Int, 2021.
G. Nakafero, Grainge, M. J., Valdes, A. M., Townsend, N., Mallen, C., Zhang, W., Doherty, M., Mamas, M., and Abhishek, A., β-blocker prescription is associated with lower cumulative risk of knee osteoarthritis and knee pain consultations in primary care: a propensity score matched cohort study, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2021.
R. Flynn, Hedenmalm, K., Murray-Thomas, T., Pacurariu, A., Arlett, P., Shepherd, H., Myles, P., and Kurz, X., Ability of primary care health databases to assess medicinal products discussed by the European Union Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee, Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2020.
H. R. Whittaker, Bloom, C., Morgan, A., Jarvis, D., Kiddle, S. J., and Quint, J. K., Accelerated FEV(1) decline and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in a primary care population of COPD patients, Eur Respir J, 2020.
G. Simoneau, Moodie, E. E. M., Azoulay, L., and Platt, R. W., Adaptive Treatment Strategies with Survival Outcomes: An Application to the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes using a Large Observational Database, Am J Epidemiol, 2020.
K. Kostikas, Rhee, C. K., Hurst, J. R., Agostoni, P., Cao, H., Fogel, R., Jones, R., Kocks, J. W. H., Mezzi, K., S. Ming, W. Yau, Ryan, R., and Price, D. B., Adequacy of Therapy for People with Both COPD and Heart Failure in the UK: Historical Cohort Study, Pragmat Obs Res, vol. 11, pp. 55-66, 2020.
K. Richardson, Loke, Y. K., Fox, C., Maidment, I., Howard, R., Steel, N., Arthur, A., Boyd, P. J., Aldus, C., Ballard, C., and Savva, G. M., Adverse effects of Z-drugs for sleep disturbance in people living with dementia: a population-based cohort study, BMC Med, vol. 18, p. 351, 2020.
H. Kither, Heazell, A., Bruce, I. N., Tower, C., and Crocker, I., Adverse pregnancy outcomes and subsequent development of connective tissue disease in the UK: an epidemiological study, Bjog, 2020.
A. K. Wright, Welsh, P., Gill, J. M. R., Kontopantelis, E., Emsley, R., Buchan, I., Ashcroft, D. M., Rutter, M. K., and Sattar, N., Age-, sex- and ethnicity-related differences in body weight, blood pressure, HbA(1c) and lipid levels at the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes relative to people without diabetes, Diabetologia, 2020.
H. C. Gorton, Webb, R. T., Parisi, R., Carr, M. J., DelPozo-Banos, M., Moriarty, K. J., Pickrell, W. O., John, A., and Ashcroft, D. M., Alcohol-Specific Mortality in People With Epilepsy: Cohort Studies in Two Independent Population-Based Datasets, Front Neurol, vol. 11, p. 623139, 2020.
L. Shallcross, Rockenschaub, P., Blackburn, R., Nazareth, I., Freemantle, N., and Hayward, A., Antibiotic prescribing for lower UTI in elderly patients in primary care and risk of bloodstream infection: A cohort study using electronic health records in England, PLoS Med, vol. 17, p. e1003336, 2020.
R. Cushen and Francis, N. A., Antibiotic use and serious complications following acute otitis media and acute sinusitis: a retrospective cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 70, pp. e255-e263, 2020.
S. Charlier, Vavanikunnel, J., Becker, C., Jick, S. S., Meier, C., and Meier, C. R., Antidiabetic treatment, level of glycemic control, and risk of fracture in diabetes type 2: A nested case-control study, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2020.
A. B. Leuppi-Taegtmeyer, Reinau, D., Yilmaz, S., Ruegg, S., Krahenbuhl, S., Jick, S. S., Leuppi, J. D., and Meier, C. R., Antiseizure drugs and risk of developing smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or lung cancer: A population-based case-control study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2020.
S. Ramagopalan, Leahy, T. P., Stamp, E., and Sammon, C., Approaches for the identification of chronic kidney disease in CPRD-HES-linked studies, J Comp Eff Res, 2020.
F. Khosrow-Khavar, Filion, K. B., Bouganim, N., Suissa, S., and Azoulay, L., Aromatase Inhibitors and the Risk of Cardiovascular Outcomes in Women With Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Circulation, vol. 141, pp. 549-559, 2020.
F. Hamilton, Arnold, D., Henley, W., and Payne, R. A., Aspirin reduces cardiovascular events in patients with pneumonia: a prior event rate ratio analysis in a large primary care database, Eur Respir J, 2020.
A. Pate, Van Staa, T., and Emsley, R., An assessment of the potential miscalibration of cardiovascular disease risk predictions caused by a secular trend in cardiovascular disease in England, BMC Med Res Methodol, vol. 20, p. 289, 2020.
G. Requena, Ma, L., Sturmer, T., Layton, J. B., and DiBello, J., Association Between an Acute, Drug-Induced Decrease in High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels and Risk of Cardiovascular Events, Clin Drug Investig, 2020.
R. Hiramatsu, Iwagami, M., and Nitsch, D., Association between chronic kidney disease and incident diagnosis of dementia in England: a cohort study in Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e033811, 2020.
J. Ruzangi, Iwagami, M., Smeeth, L., Mangtani, P., and Nitsch, D., The association between chronic kidney disease and tuberculosis; a comparative cohort study in England, BMC Nephrol, vol. 21, p. 420, 2020.
C. E. Morton, Forbes, H. J., Pearce, N., Smeeth, L., and Warren-Gash, C., Association Between Common Infections and Incident Post-Stroke Dementia: A Cohort Study Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 12, pp. 907-916, 2020.
M. Kerkhof, Voorham, J., Dorinsky, P., Cabrera, C., Darken, P., Kocks, J. W., Sadatsafavi, M., Sin, D. D., Carter, V., and Price, D. B., Association between COPD exacerbations and lung function decline during maintenance therapy, Thorax, 2020.
D. Abrahami, Renoux, C., Yin, H., Fournier, J. P., and Azoulay, L., The Association between Oral Anticoagulants and Cancer Incidence among Individuals with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation, Thromb Haemost, 2020.
A. Y. S. Wong, Froslev, T., Dearing, L., Forbes, H. J., Mulick, A., Mansfield, K. E., Silverwood, R. J., Kjaersgaard, A., Sorensen, H. T., Smeeth, L., Lewin, A., Schmidt, S. A. J., and Langan, S. M., The association between partner bereavement and melanoma: cohort studies in the U.K. and Denmark, Br J Dermatol, 2020.
R. Palladino, Tabak, A. G., Khunti, K., Valabhji, J., Majeed, A., Millett, C., and Vamos, E. P., Association between pre-diabetes and microvascular and macrovascular disease in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, vol. 8, 2020.
R. Jacobs, Aylott, L., Dare, C., Doran, T., Gilbody, S., Goddard, M., Gravelle, H., Gutacker, N., Kasteridis, P., Kendrick, T., Mason, A., Rice, N., Ride, J., Siddiqi, N., and Williams, R., The association between primary care quality and health-care use, costs and outcomes for people with serious mental illness: a retrospective observational study, in Health Services and Delivery Research, Southampton (UK): NIHR Journals Library Copyright © Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2020. This work was produced by Jacobs et al. under the terms of a commissioning contract issued by the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care. This issue may be freely rep, 2020.
B. D. Nicholson, Hamilton, W., Koshiaris, C., Oke, J. L., Hobbs, F. D. R., and Aveyard, P., The association between unexpected weight loss and cancer diagnosis in primary care: a matched cohort analysis of 65,000 presentations, Br J Cancer, 2020.
C. Clarke, Hamilton, W., Price, S., and Bailey, S. E., Association of non-malignant diseases with thrombocytosis: a prospective cohort study in general practice, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 70, pp. e852-e857, 2020.
Z. Yang, Edwards, D., Burgess, S., Brayne, C., and Mant, J., Association of Prior Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease with Dementia After Stroke: A Retrospective Cohort Study, J Alzheimers Dis, 2020.
H. Fan, Gilbert, R., O'Callaghan, F., and Li, L., Associations between macrolide antibiotics prescribing during pregnancy and adverse child outcomes in the UK: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 368, p. m331, 2020.
C. I. Bloom, Cabrera, C., Arnetorp, S., Coulton, K., Nan, C., van der Valk, R. J. P., and Quint, J. K., Asthma-Related Health Outcomes Associated with Short-Acting β(2)-Agonist Inhaler Use: An Observational UK Study as Part of the SABINA Global Program, Adv Ther, 2020.
M. Ardissino, Watson, F., Amin, R., Collins, P., Moussa, O., and Purkayastha, S., Atherosclerotic Disease Burden After Bariatric Surgery in Patients with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes, J Diabetes, 2020.
A. Ascott, Mansfield, K. E., Schonmann, Y., Mulick, A., Abuabara, K., Roberts, A., Smeeth, L., and Langan, S. M., Atopic eczema and obesity: a population-based study, Br J Dermatol, 2020.
Y. Li, Rao, S., Solares, J. R. A., Hassaine, A., Ramakrishnan, R., Canoy, D., Zhu, Y., Rahimi, K., and Salimi-Khorshidi, G., BEHRT: Transformer for Electronic Health Records, Sci Rep, vol. 10, p. 7155, 2020.
F. Giorgianni, Ernst, P., Dell'Aniello, S., Suissa, S., and Renoux, C., Beta 2 agonists and the incidence of Parkinson's disease, Am J Epidemiol, 2020.
M. Kerkhof, Chaudhry, I., Pavord, I. D., Miravitlles, M., C. Rhee, K., Halpin, D. M. G., Usmani, O. S., Jones, R., Kocks, J., Alacqua, M., Morris, T., Kaplan, A., and Price, D. B., Blood eosinophil count predicts treatment failure and hospital readmission for COPD, ERJ Open Res, vol. 6, 2020.
J. A. H. Masoli, Delgado, J., Pilling, L., Strain, D., and Melzer, D., Blood pressure in frail older adults: associations with cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality, Age Ageing, 2020.
M. Gokhale, Hattori, T., Evitt, L., Lenney, W., Nordstrom, B., Collins, J., Schultze, A., and Van Dyke, M. K., Burden of asthma exacerbations and health care utilization in pediatric patients with asthma in the US and England, Immun Inflamm Dis, 2020.
I. Matthews, Duong, M., Parsons, V. L., Nozad, B., Qizilbash, N., Patel, Y., and Guimicheva, B., Burden of disease from shingles and post-herpetic neuralgia in the over 80 year olds in the UK, PLoS One, vol. 15, p. e0229224, 2020.
J. Coulombe, Moodie, E. E. M., Shortreed, S. M., and Renoux, C., Can the Risk of Severe Depression-Related Outcomes be Reduced by Tailoring the Antidepressant Therapy to Patient Characteristics?, Am J Epidemiol, 2020.
E. Ford, Rooney, P., Hurley, P., Oliver, S., Bremner, S., and Cassell, J., Can the Use of Bayesian Analysis Methods Correct for Incompleteness in Electronic Health Records Diagnosis Data? Development of a Novel Method Using Simulated and Real-Life Clinical Data, Front Public Health, vol. 8, p. 54, 2020.
L. T. Mounce, Hamilton, W., and Bailey, S. E., Cancer incidence following a high-normal platelet count: cohort study using electronic healthcare records from English primary care, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
F. Khosrow-Khavar, Bouganim, N., Filion, K. B., Suissa, S., and Azoulay, L., Cardiotoxicity of Sequential Aromatase Inhibitors Use in Women with Breast Cancer, Am J Epidemiol, 2020.
[Page last reviewed 4 June 2021]