Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 3,000 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography listed below is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 8 February 2024).

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.

Download: CPRD bibliography PDF February 2024 (PDF, 4.2MB, 309 pages) 

Download: CPRD bibliography .BIB February 2024 (BIB, 1.3MB, 1 page)

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website

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Pharmacologic heterogeneity and risk of severe hypoglycemia with concomitant use of sulfonylureas and DPP-4 inhibitors: population-based cohort study


Authors: J. Dimakos, Y. Cui, R. Platt, C. Renoux, K. Filion, A. Douros


Contemporary trends in the utilization of second-line pharmacological therapies for type 2 diabetes in the United States and the United Kingdom


Authors: D. Abrahami, E. D'Andrea, H. Yin, S. Kim, J. Paik, D. Wexler, L. Azoulay, E. Patorno


Evaluation of common prescription analgesics and adjuvant analgesics as markers of suicide risk: a longitudinal population-based study in England


Authors: D. Alothman, E. Tyrrell, S. Lewis, T. Card, A. Fogarty


Comparison of causal forest and regression-based approaches to evaluate treatment effect heterogeneity: an application for type 2 diabetes precision medicine


Authors: A. Venkatasubramaniam, B. Mateen, B. Shields, A. Hattersley, A. Jones, S. Vollmer, J. Dennis


Real-world comparative effectiveness of three single-inhaler dual bronchodilators for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


Authors: J. Li, S. Dell'Aniello, P. Ernst, S. Suissa


Recent trends in asthma diagnosis, preschool wheeze diagnosis and asthma exacerbations in English children and adolescents: a SABINA Jr study


Authors: C. Kallis, E. Maslova, A. Morgan, I. Sinha, G. Roberts, R. van der Valk, J. Quint, T. Tran


Real-world evidence from the first online healthcare analytics platform-Livingstone. Validation of its descriptive epidemiology module


Authors: B. Heywood, C. Morgan, T. Berni, D. Summers, B. Jones, S. Jenkins-Jones, S. Holden, L. Riddick, H. Fisher, J. Bateman, C. Bannister, J. Threlfall, A. Buxton, C. Shepherd, E. Mathias, R. Thomason, E. Hubbuck, C. Currie


Pharmacologically Treated Anxiety and Depression in People Diagnosed with von Willebrand Disease: Matched Cohort Study


Authors: K. Hagberg, S. Jick, G. Ozen, P. Du


Frequency and impact of medication reviews for people aged 65 years or above in UK primary care: an observational study using electronic health records


Authors: R. Joseph, R. Knaggs, C. Coupland, A. Taylor, Y. Vinogradova, D. Butler, L. Gerrard, D. Waldram, B. Iyen, R. Akyea, D. Ashcroft, A. Avery, R. Jack


Healthcare Resource Use and Costs Associated with Organ Damage in Newly Diagnosed Adults with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in the UK


Authors: H. Stirnadel-Farrant, S. Golam, B. Naisbett-Groet, D. Gibson, J. Langham, S. Langham, M. Samnaliev


An algorithm-based approach to ascertain patients with rare diseases in electronic health records using hypereosinophilic syndrome as an example


Authors: G. Requena, S. Joksaite, N. Galwey, R. Jakes


Prevalence and treatment patterns of adult atopic dermatitis in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink


Authors: C. Kleyn, R. McKenzie, A. Meeks, B. Gittens, L. von Arx


Health economic impact of moderate-to-severe chronic pain associated with osteoarthritis in England: a retrospective analysis of linked primary and secondary care data


Authors: G. Coates, P. Clewes, C. Lohan, H. Stevenson, R. Wood, T. Tritton, R. Knaggs, A. Dickson, D. Walsh


Independent Associations of Incident Epilepsy and Enzyme-Inducing and Non-Enzyme-Inducing Antiseizure Medications With the Development of Osteoporosis


Authors: C. Josephson, A. Gonzalez-Izquierdo, S. Denaxas, T. Sajobi, K. Klein, S. Wiebe


Stratification of diabetes in the context of comorbidities, using representation learning and topological data analysis


Authors: M. Wamil, A. Hassaine, S. Rao, Y. Li, M. Mamouei, D. Canoy, M. Nazarzadeh, Z. Bidel, E. Copland, K. Rahimi, G. Salimi-Khorshidi


Healthcare utilisation and mortality in people with osteoarthritis in the UK: findings from a national primary care database


Authors: S. Swain, C. Coupland, A. Sarmanova, C. Kuo, C. Mallen, M. Doherty, W. Zhang


Pre-diagnostic prescribing patterns in dyspnoea patients with as-yet-undiagnosed lung cancer: A longitudinal study of linked primary care and cancer registry data


Authors: B. Wickramasinghe, C. Renzi, M. Barclay, M. Callister, M. Rafiq, G. Lyratzopoulos


Temporal patterns in the recorded annual incidence of common mental disorders over two decades in the United Kingdom: a primary care cohort study


Authors: J. Dykxhoorn, D. Osborn, K. Walters, J. Kirkbride, S. Gnani, A. Lazzarino


Changes to healthcare utilisation and symptoms for common mental health problems over the first 21 months of the COVID-19 pandemic: parallel analyses of electronic health records and survey data in England


Authors: V. Taxiarchi, M. Senior, D. Ashcroft, M. Carr, H. Hope, M. Hotopf, E. Kontopantelis, S. McManus, P. Patalay, S. Steeg, R. Webb, K. Abel, M. Pierce


Dementia risk in patients with type 2 diabetes: Comparing metformin with no pharmacological treatment


Authors: B. Zheng, B. Su, S. Ahmadi-Abhari, D. Kapogiannis, I. Tzoulaki, E. Riboli, L. Middleton


Prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in England from 2000 to 2019


Authors: P. Stone, M. Osen, A. Ellis, R. Coaker, J. Quint


Age at Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis and Cause-Specific Mortality: Observational Study of Primary Care Patients in England


Authors: M. Barker, M. Davies, J. Sargeant, J. Chan, E. Gregg, S. Shabnam, K. Khunti, F. Zaccardi


Post-initiation predictors of discontinuation of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors: A comparative cohort study from the United Kingdom


Authors: W. Alkabbani, B. Shah, A. Zongo, D. Eurich, M. Alsabbagh, J. Gamble


Association Between Fluoroquinolone Use and Hospitalization With Aortic Aneurysm or Aortic Dissection


Authors: J. Brown, K. Wing, C. Leyrat, S. Evans, K. Mansfield, A. Wong, L. Smeeth, N. Galwey, I. Douglas


Duration of Type 2 Diabetes and Incidence of Cancer: An Observational Study in England


Authors: F. Zaccardi, S. Ling, K. Brown, M. Davies, K. Khunti


Progression of stroke risk in patients aged <65 years diagnosed with atrial fibrillation: a cohort study in general practice


Authors: S. Mendonca, D. Edwards, J. Lund, C. Saunders, J. Mant


Association of Different Prescribing Patterns for Oral Corticosteroids With Fracture Preventive Care Among Older Adults in the UK and Ontario


Authors: J. Matthewman, M. Tadrous, K. Mansfield, D. Thiruchelvam, D. Redelmeier, A. Cheung, I. Lega, D. Prieto-Alhambra, L. Cunliffe, A. Mulick, A. Henderson, S. Langan, A. Drucker


Incidence of 12 common cardiovascular diseases and subsequent mortality risk in the general population


Authors: C. Prugger, M. Perier, A. Gonzalez-Izquierdo, H. Hemingway, S. Denaxas, J. Empana


All-Cause, Cardiovascular and Respiratory Mortality in People with Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in England: A Cohort Study Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)


Authors: A. Raslan, J. Quint, S. Cook


"Take up to eight tablets per day": Incorporating free-text medication instructions into a transparent and reproducible process for preparing drug exposure data for pharmacoepidemiology


Authors: M. Jani, B. Yimer, D. Selby, M. Lunt, G. Nenadic, W. Dixon


Bariatric Surgery and Incident Heart Failure: a Propensity Score Matched Nationwide Cohort Study


Authors: L. Kostanjsek, M. Ardissino, O. Moussa, B. Rayes, R. Amin, P. Collins, S. Purkayastha


Prediction of short-term atrial fibrillation risk using primary care electronic health records


Authors: R. Nadarajah, J. Wu, D. Hogg, K. Raveendra, Y. Nakao, K. Nakao, R. Arbel, M. Haim, D. Zahger, J. Parry, C. Bates, C. Cowan, C. Gale


Association between body mass index, weight loss and the chance of pregnancy in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and overweight or obesity: a retrospective cohort study in the UK


Authors: C. Haas, A. Varbo, P. Laursen, V. Schnecke, A. Balen


Variation in laboratory testing for patients with long-term conditions: a longitudinal cohort study in UK primary care


Authors: T. Jones, R. Patel, M. Elwenspoek, J. Watson, E. Mann, K. Alsop, P. Whiting


Is Vaccination Against COVID-19 Associated With Inflammatory Bowel Disease Flare? Self-Controlled Case Series Analysis Using the UK CPRD


Authors: T. Card, G. Nakafero, M. Grainge, C. Mallen, J. Van-Tam, H. Williams, A. Abhishek


Sodium channel-inhibiting drugs and cancer-specific survival: a population-based study of electronic primary care data


Authors: C. Fairhurst, F. Martin, I. Watt, M. Bland, T. Doran, W. Brackenbury


Maternal and child outcomes for pregnant women with pre-existing multiple long-term conditions: protocol for an observational study in the UK


Authors: S. Lee, H. Hope, D. O'Reilly, L. Kent, G. Santorelli, A. Subramanian, N. Moss, A. Azcoaga-Lorenzo, A. Fagbamigbe, C. Nelson-Piercy, C. Yau, C. McCowan, J. Kennedy, K. Phillips, M. Singh, M. Mhereeg, N. Cockburn, P. Brocklehurst, R. Plachcinski, R. Riley, S. Thangaratinam, S. Brophy, S. Sudasinghe, U. Agrawal, Z. Vowles, K. Abel, K. Nirantharakumar, M. Black, K. Eastwood


Osteoporosis-related characteristics in care home population of England: a retrospective cohort study


Authors: V. Gerasimaviciute, R. Mathur, K. Mansfield, M. McDermott, D. Neasham, J. O'Kelly


Completeness, agreement, and representativeness of ethnicity recording in the United Kingdom's Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and linked Hospital Episode Statistics (HES)


Authors: S. Shiekh, M. Harley, R. Ghosh, M. Ashworth, P. Myles, H. Booth, E. Axson


Treatment Patterns, Healthcare Utilization and Clinical Outcomes of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Initiating Single-Inhaler Long-Acting β(2)-Agonist/Long-Acting Muscarinic Antagonist Dual Therapy in Primary Care in England


Authors: G. Requena, V. Banks, A. Czira, R. Wood, T. Tritton, R. Wild, C. Compton, A. Ismaila


Identifying subtypes of chronic kidney disease with machine learning: development, internal validation and prognostic validation using linked electronic health records in 350,067 individuals


Authors: A. Dashtban, M. Mizani, L. Pasea, S. Denaxas, R. Corbett, J. Mamza, H. Gao, T. Morris, H. Hemingway, A. Banerjee


Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on incidence of tics in children and young people: a population-based cohort study


Authors: R. Jack, R. Joseph, C. Coupland, C. Hall, C. Hollis


Inequalities in cancer mortality trends in people with type 2 diabetes: 20 year population-based study in England


Authors: S. Ling, F. Zaccardi, E. Issa, M. Davies, K. Khunti, K. Brown


Combined and progestagen-only hormonal contraceptives and breast cancer risk: A UK nested case-control study and meta-analysis


Authors: D. Fitzpatrick, K. Pirie, G. Reeves, J. Green, V. Beral


Twenty-year trajectories of cardio-metabolic factors among people with type 2 diabetes by dementia status in England: a retrospective cohort study


Authors: H. Lai, K. Chang, M. Sharabiani, J. Valabhji, E. Gregg, L. Middleton, A. Majeed, J. Pearson-Stuttard, C. Millett, A. Bottle, E. Vamos


Burden of Pertussis in Adults Aged 50 Years and Older: A Retrospective Database Study in England


Authors: L. Harrington, E. Aris, A. Bhavsar, N. Jamet, E. Akpo, J. Simeone, A. Ramond, D. Lambrelli, J. Oppenheimer, Y. Sergerie, P. Mukherjee, K. Meszaros


Contextualising adverse events of special interest to characterise the baseline incidence rates in 24 million patients with COVID-19 across 26 databases: a multinational retrospective cohort study


Authors: E. Voss, A. Shoaibi, Yin Lai, C. Blacketer, T. Alshammari, R. Makadia, K. Haynes, A. Sena, G. Rao, S. van Sandijk, C. Fraboulet, L. Boyer, T. Le Carrour, S. Horban, D. Morales, Martínez Roldán, J. Ramirez-Anguita, M. Mayer, M. de Wilde, L. John, T. Duarte-Salles, E. Roel, A. Pistillo, R. Kolde, F. Maljković, S. Denaxas, V. Papez, M. Kahn, K. Natarajan, C. Reich, A. Secora, E. Minty, N. Shah, J. Posada, M. Morales, D. Bosca, Cadenas Juanino, Diaz Holgado, Pedrera Jiménez, Serrano Balazote, García Barrio, S. Şen, A . Y. Üresin, B. Erdogan, L. Belmans, G. Byttebier, Mlng Malbrain, D. Dedman, Z. Cuccu, R. Vashisht, A. Butte, A. Patel, L. Dahm, C. Han, F. Bu, F. Arshad, A. Ostropolets, F. Nyberg, G. Hripcsak, M. Suchard, D. Prieto-Alhambra, P. Rijnbeek, M. Schuemie, P. Ryan


Trends in gabapentinoid prescribing in UK primary care using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink: an observational study

Authors: Julie Ashworth, Ram Bajpai, Sara Muller, James Bailey, Toby Helliwell, Sarah Harrisson, Rebecca Whittle, Christian Mallen


Characterising the burden of chronic kidney disease among people with type 2 diabetes in England: a cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink


Authors: S. Cook, N. Schmedt, J. Broughton, P. Kalra, L. Tomlinson, J. Quint


Prescribing of Low-dose Rivaroxaban in Patients with Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands


Authors: N. Hunt, R. Pajouheshnia, A. Salih, S. van Doorn, P. Souverein, M. Bazelier, O. Klungel, H. Gardarsdottir