Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 7 September 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 209 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2588 results:
Author Title Type [ Year(Asc)]
S. Weir, Samnaliev, M., Kuo, T. C., Tierney, T. S., Manca, A., Taylor, R. S., Bruce, J., Eldabe, S., and Cumming, D., Persistent postoperative pain and healthcare costs associated with instrumented and non-instrumented spinal surgery: a case-control study, J Orthop Surg Res, vol. 15, p. 127, 2020.
B. M. Hicks, Busby, J., Mills, K., O'Neil, F. A., McIntosh, S. A., Zhang, S. D., Liberante, F. G., and Cardwell, C. R., Post-diagnostic antipsychotic use and cancer mortality: a population based cohort study, BMC Cancer, vol. 20, p. 804, 2020.
K. Bowman, Jones, L., Masoli, J., Mujica-Mota, R., Strain, D., Butchart, J., Valderas, J. M., Fortinsky, R. H., Melzer, D., and Delgado, J., Predicting incident delirium diagnoses using data from primary-care electronic health records, Age Ageing, vol. 49, pp. 374-381, 2020.
S. J. Kiddle, Whittaker, H. R., Seaman, S. R., and Quint, J. K., Prediction of five-year mortality after COPD diagnosis using primary care records, PLoS One, vol. 15, p. e0236011, 2020.
C. Martinez, Katholing, A., Wallenhorst, C., and Cohen, A. T., Prediction of significant bleeding during vitamin K antagonist treatment for venous thromboembolism in outpatients, Br J Haematol, 2020.
J. Blackwell, Saxena, S., Jayasooriya, N., Bottle, A., Petersen, I., Hotopf, M., Alexakis, C., and Pollok, R. C., Prevalence and duration of gastrointestinal symptoms before diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and predictors of timely specialist review: a population-based study, J Crohns Colitis, 2020.
W. Gao, Gulliford, M., Morgan, M., and Higginson, I. J., Primary care service use by end-of-life cancer patients: a nationwide population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom, BMC Fam Pract, vol. 21, p. 76, 2020.
L. R. Rodgers, Dennis, J. M., Shields, B. M., Mounce, L., Fisher, I., Hattersley, A. T., and Henley, W. E., Prior event rate ratio adjustment produced estimates consistent with randomised trial: a diabetes case study, J Clin Epidemiol, 2020.
B. D. Nicholson, Aveyard, P., Price, S. J., Hobbs, F. R., Koshiaris, C., and Hamilton, W., Prioritising primary care patients with unexpected weight loss for cancer investigation: diagnostic accuracy study, Bmj, vol. 370, p. m2651, 2020.
M. C. Gulliford, Charlton, J., Winter, J. R., Sun, X., Rezel-Potts, E., Bunce, C., Fox, R., Little, P., Hay, A. D., Moore, M. V., and Ashworth, M., Probability of sepsis after infection consultations in primary care in the United Kingdom in 2002-2017: Population-based cohort study and decision analytic model, PLoS Med, vol. 17, p. e1003202, 2020.
Y. Chen, Hayward, R., Chew-Graham, C. A., Hubbard, R., Croft, P., Sims, K., and Jordan, K. P., Prognostic value of first-recorded breathlessness for future chronic respiratory and heart disease a cohort study using a UK national primary care database, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
S. S. Jick, Hagberg, K. W., Persson, R., Vasilakis-Scaramozza, C., Williams, T., Crellin, E., and Myles, P., Quality and completeness of diagnoses recorded in the new CPRD Aurum Database: evaluation of pulmonary embolism, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
A. Bakhai, Petri, H., Vahidnia, F., Wolf, C., Ding, Y., Foskett, N., and Sculpher, M., Real-world data on the incidence, mortality, and cost of ischaemic stroke and major bleeding events among non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients in England, J Eval Clin Pract, 2020.
R. Lahoz, Fagan, A., McSharry, M., Proudfoot, C., Corda, S., and Studer, R., Recurrent heart failure hospitalizations are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in patients with heart failure in Clinical Practice Research Datalink, ESC Heart Fail, 2020.
A. Price, Ford, T., Janssens, A., Williams, A. J., and Newlove-Delgado, T., Regional analysis of UK primary care prescribing and adult service referrals for young people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, BJPsych Open, vol. 6, p. e7, 2020.
G. C. Meier, Watkins, J., McEwan, P., and Pockett, R. D., Resource use and direct medical costs of acute respiratory illness in the UK based on linked primary and secondary care records from 2001 to 2009, PLoS One, vol. 15, p. e0236472, 2020.
L. Manikam, Schilder, A. G. M., Lakhanpaul, M., Littlejohns, P., Alexander, E. C., and Hayward, A., Respiratory tract infection-related healthcare utilisation in children with Down's syndrome, Infection, vol. 48, pp. 403-410, 2020.
J. A. Prior, Paskins, Z., Whittle, R., Abdul-Sultan, A., Chew-Graham, C. A., Muller, S., Bajpai, R., Shepherd, T. A., Sumathipala, A., and Mallen, C. D., Rheumatological conditions as risk factors for self-harm: A retrospective cohort study, Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken), 2020.
T. Burkard, Rauch, M., Spoendlin, J., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Risk of hand osteoarthritis in new users of hormone replacement therapy: A nested case-control analysis, Maturitas, vol. 132, pp. 17-23, 2020.
H. Forbes, Douglas, I., Finn, A., Breuer, J., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., Packer, S., Langan, S. M., Mansfield, K. E., Marlow, R., Whitaker, H., and Warren-Gash, C., Risk of herpes zoster after exposure to varicella to explore the exogenous boosting hypothesis: self controlled case series study using UK electronic healthcare data, Bmj, vol. 368, p. l6987, 2020.
Z. Z. N. Yiu, Parisi, R., Lunt, M., Warren, R. B., Griffiths, C. E. M., Langan, S. M., and Ashcroft, D. M., Risk of Hospitalisation and Death due to Infection in People with Psoriasis: a Population-based Cohort Study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Br J Dermatol, 2020.
Y. Zhang, Souverein, P. C., Gardarsdottir, H., van den Ham, H. A., van der Zee, A. H. Maitlan, and de Boer, A., Risk of major bleeding among users of direct oral anticoagulants combined with interacting drugs: A population-based nested case-control study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2020.
I. J. A. de Bruin, Wyers, C. E., Souverein, P. C., van Staa, T. P., Geusens, P., van den Bergh, J. P. W., de Vries, F., and Driessen, J. H. M., The risk of new fragility fractures in patients with chronic kidney disease and hip fracture-a population-based cohort study in the UK, Osteoporos Int, 2020.
T. A. Althunian, de Boer, A., Groenwold, R. H. H., Rengerink, K. O., Souverein, P. C., and Klungel, O. H., Rivaroxaban was found to be noninferior to warfarin in routine clinical care: A retrospective noninferiority cohort replication study, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
D. J. Grint, McDonald, H. I., Walker, J. L., Amirthalingam, G., Andrews, N., and Thomas, S., Safety of inadvertent administration of live zoster vaccine to immunosuppressed individuals in a UK-based observational cohort analysis, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e034886, 2020.
M. Peppa, Thomas, S. L., Minassian, C., Walker, J. L., McDonald, H. I., Andrews, N. J., Kempley, S. T., and Mangtani, P., Seasonal influenza vaccination during pregnancy and the risk of major congenital malformations in live-born infants: A 2010-2016 historical cohort study, Clin Infect Dis, 2020.
M. C. Gulliford, Sun, X., Charlton, J., Winter, J. R., Bunce, C., Boiko, O., Fox, R., Little, P., Moore, M., Hay, A. D., and Ashworth, M., Serious bacterial infections and antibiotic prescribing in primary care: cohort study using electronic health records in the UK, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e036975, 2020.
F. Zaccardi, Ling, S., Lawson, C., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Severe hypoglycaemia and absolute risk of cause-specific mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a UK primary care observational study, Diabetologia, 2020.
P. C. Prieto, Ibrahim, F., Campbell, R., Chinoy, H., Galloway, J., and Gordon, P., Similar risk of cardiovascular events in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy and rheumatoid arthritis in the first 5 years after diagnosis, Clin Rheumatol, 2020.
A. Sarmanova, Doherty, M., Kuo, C., Wei, J., Abhishek, A., Mallen, C., Zeng, C., Wang, Y., Lei, G., and Zhang, W., Statin use and risk of joint replacement due to osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: a propensity-score matched longitudinal cohort study, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2020.
P. Bidulka, Fu, E. L., Leyrat, C., Kalogirou, F., McAllister, K. S. L., Kingdon, E. J., Mansfield, K. E., Iwagami, M., Smeeth, L., Clase, C. M., Bhaskaran, K., van Diepen, M., Carrero, J. J., Nitsch, D., and Tomlinson, L. A., Stopping renin-angiotensin system blockers after acute kidney injury and risk of adverse outcomes: parallel population-based cohort studies in English and Swedish routine care, BMC Med, vol. 18, p. 195, 2020.
J. Zhu and Gallego, B., Targeted estimation of heterogeneous treatment effect in observational survival analysis, J Biomed Inform, vol. 107, p. 103474, 2020.
J. Zhu and Gallego, B., Targeted estimation of heterogeneous treatment effect in observational survival analysis, J Biomed Inform, vol. 107, p. 103474, 2020.
E. L. Axson, Sundaram, V., Bloom, C. I., Bottle, A., Cowie, M. R., and Quint, J. K., Temporal Trends in the Incidence of Heart Failure among Patients with COPD and Its Association with Mortality, Ann Am Thorac Soc, 2020.
P. Planell-Morell, Bajekal, M., Denaxas, S., Raine, R., and Alexander, D. C., Trajectories of Disease Accumulation Using Electronic Health Records, Stud Health Technol Inform, vol. 270, pp. 469-473, 2020.
D. C. Gibbons, Aggarwal, B., Fairburn-Beech, J., Hinds, D., Fletcher, M., Bosnic-Anticevich, S., and Price, D., Treatment patterns among non-active users of maintenance asthma medication in the United Kingdom: a retrospective cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, J Asthma, pp. 1-12, 2020.
J. Ruzangi, Blair, M., Cecil, E., Greenfield, G., Bottle, A., Hargreaves, D. S., and Saxena, S., Trends in healthcare use in children aged less than 15 years: a population-based cohort study in England from 2007 to 2017, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e033761, 2020.
S. Swain, Sarmanova, A., Mallen, C., Kuo, C. F., Coupland, C., Doherty, M., and Zhang, W., Trends in incidence and prevalence of osteoarthritis in the United Kingdom: findings from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2020.
A. Hart, Ng, S. C., Watkins, J., Paridaens, K., Edwards, J. O., Fullarton, J. R., Sonderegger, Y. L. Y., Ghatnekar, O., and Ghosh, S., The use of 5-aminosalicylates in Crohn's disease: a retrospective study using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Ann Gastroenterol, vol. 33, pp. 500-507, 2020.
R. Denholm, van der Werf, E. T., and Hay, A. D., Use of antibiotics and asthma medication for acute lower respiratory tract infections in people with and without asthma: retrospective cohort study, Respir Res, vol. 21, p. 4, 2020.
N. C. C. Werkman, Nielen, J. T. H., van den Bergh, J. P. W., Ejskjaer, N., Røikjer, J., Schaper, N. C., Rossi, B., Klungel, O., Vestergaard, P., de Vries, F., and Driessen, J. H. M., Use of Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter-2-Inhibitors (SGLT2-Is) and Risk of Lower Limb Amputation, Curr Drug Saf, 2020.
M. S. M. Persson, Harman, K. E., Vinogradova, Y., Langan, S. M., Hippisley-Cox, J., Thomas, K. S., and Gran, S., Validation study of bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris recording in routinely collected electronic primary healthcare records in England, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e035934, 2020.
N. M. Davies, Taylor, A. E., Taylor, G. M., Itani, T., Jones, T., Martin, R. M., Munafo, M. R., Windmeijer, F., and Thomas, K. H., Varenicline versus nicotine replacement therapy for long-term smoking cessation: an observational study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Health Technol Assess, vol. 24, pp. 1-46, 2020.
M. Giustozzi, Curcio, A., Weijs, B., Field, T. S., Sudikas, S., Katholing, A., Wallenhorst, C., Weitz, J. I., Martinez, C., and Cohen, A. T., Variation in the Association between Antineoplastic Therapies and Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with Active Cancer, Thromb Haemost, vol. 120, pp. 847-856, 2020.
C. Santella, Yin, H., Hicks, B. M., Yu, O. H. Y., Bouganim, N., and Azoulay, L., Weight-lowering effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and detection of breast cancer among obese women with diabetes, Epidemiology, 2020.
H. Strongman, Williams, R., and Bhaskaran, K., What are the implications of using individual and combined sources of routinely collected data to identify and characterise incident site-specific cancers? a concordance and validation study using linked English electronic health records data, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e037719, 2020.
J. S. Minhas, Coles, B., Mistri, A. K., Eveson, D. J., Hussain, S. T., Potter, J. F., Khunti, K., and Robinson, T. G., What is the optimal blood pressure level for patients with atrial fibrillation treated with direct oral anticoagulants?, J Hypertens, 2020.
W. D. Strain, Tsang, C., Hurst, M., McEwan, P., Unadkat, M., Meadowcroft, S., Shardlow, R., and Evans, M., What Next After Metformin in Type 2 Diabetes? Selecting the Right Drug for the Right Patient, Diabetes Ther, vol. 11, pp. 1381-1395, 2020.
[Page last reviewed 7 September 2020]