Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,800 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 9 Sepember 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 4MB, 239 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 169 results:
Author Title Type [ Year(Asc)]
Filters: Author is Smeeth, L.  [Clear All Filters]
M. F. Barakat, McDonald, H. I., Collier, T. J., Smeeth, L., Nitsch, D., and Quint, J. K., Acute kidney injury in stable COPD and at exacerbation, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 10, pp. 2067-77, 2015.
K. L. Goh, Bhaskaran, K., Minassian, C., Evans, S. J., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I. J., Angiotensin receptor blockers and risk of dementia: cohort study in UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 79, pp. 337-50, 2015.
R. Brauer, Smeeth, L., Anaya-Izquierdo, K., Timmis, A., Denaxas, S. C., Farrington, C. P., Whitaker, H., Hemingway, H., and Douglas, I., Antipsychotic drugs and risks of myocardial infarction: a self-controlled case series study, Eur Heart J, vol. 36, pp. 984-92, 2015.
I. J. Douglas, Bhaskaran, K., Batterham, R. L., and Smeeth, L., Bariatric Surgery in the United Kingdom: A Cohort Study of Weight Loss and Clinical Outcomes in Routine Clinical Care, PLoS Med, vol. 12, p. e1001925, 2015.
K. J. Rothnie, Smeeth, L., Herrett, E., Pearce, N., Hemingway, H., Wedzicha, J., Timmis, A., and Quint, J. K., Closing the mortality gap after a myocardial infarction in people with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Heart, vol. 101, pp. 1103-10, 2015.
E. Herrett, Gallagher, A. M., Bhaskaran, K., Forbes, H., Mathur, R., Van Staa, T., and Smeeth, L., Data Resource Profile: Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), Int J Epidemiol, vol. 44, pp. 827-36, 2015.
J. F. Hayes, Bhaskaran, K., Batterham, R., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I., The effect of sibutramine prescribing in routine clinical practice on cardiovascular outcomes: a cohort study in the United Kingdom, Int J Obes (Lond), vol. 39, pp. 1359-64, 2015.
I. J. Douglas, Bhaskaran, K., Batterham, R. L., and Smeeth, L., The effectiveness of pharmaceutical interventions for obesity: weight loss with orlistat and sibutramine in a United Kingdom population-based cohort, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 79, pp. 1020-7, 2015.
R. Brauer, Bhaskaran, K., Chaturvedi, N., Dexter, D. T., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I., Glitazone Treatment and Incidence of Parkinson's Disease among People with Diabetes: A Retrospective Cohort Study, PLoS Med, vol. 12, p. e1001854, 2015.
E. R. Millett, De Stavola, B. L., Quint, J. K., Smeeth, L., and Thomas, S. L., Risk factors for hospital admission in the 28 days following a community-acquired pneumonia diagnosis in older adults, and their contribution to increasing hospitalisation rates over time: a cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 5, p. e008737, 2015.
K. Bhaskaran, Douglas, I., Forbes, H., dos-Santos-Silva, I., Leon, D. A., and Smeeth, L., Body-mass index and risk of 22 specific cancers: a population-based cohort study of 5.24 million UK adults, Lancet, vol. 384, pp. 755-65, 2014.
S. L. Thomas, Minassian, C., Ganesan, V., Langan, S. M., and Smeeth, L., Chickenpox and risk of stroke: a self-controlled case series analysis, Clin Infect Dis, vol. 58, pp. 61-8, 2014.
R. Mathur, Bhaskaran, K., Chaturvedi, N., Leon, D. A., vanStaa, T., Grundy, E., and Smeeth, L., Completeness and usability of ethnicity data in UK-based primary care and hospital databases, J Public Health (Oxf), vol. 36, pp. 684-92, 2014.
K. Wing, Douglas, I., Bhaskaran, K., Klungel, O. H., Reynolds, R. F., Pirmohamed, M., Smeeth, L., and van Staa, T. P., Development of predictive genetic tests for improving the safety of new medicines: the utilization of routinely collected electronic health records, Drug Discov Today, vol. 19, pp. 361-6, 2014.
T. P. van Staa, Dyson, L., McCann, G., Padmanabhan, S., Belatri, R., Goldacre, B., Cassell, J., Pirmohamed, M., Torgerson, D., Ronaldson, S., Adamson, J., Taweel, A., Delaney, B., Mahmood, S., Baracaia, S., Round, T., Fox, R., Hunter, T., Gulliford, M., and Smeeth, L., The opportunities and challenges of pragmatic point-of-care randomised trials using routinely collected electronic records: evaluations of two exemplar trials, Health Technol Assess, vol. 18, pp. 1-146, 2014.
T. P. van Staa, Gulliford, M., Ng, E. S., Goldacre, B., and Smeeth, L., Prediction of cardiovascular risk using Framingham, ASSIGN and QRISK2: how well do they predict individual rather than population risk?, PLoS One, vol. 9, p. e106455, 2014.
H. J. Forbes, Bhaskaran, K., Thomas, S. L., Smeeth, L., Clayton, T., and Langan, S. M., Quantification of risk factors for herpes zoster: population based case-control study, Bmj, vol. 348, p. g2911, 2014.
S. M. Langan, Minassian, C., Smeeth, L., and Thomas, S. L., Risk of stroke following herpes zoster: a self-controlled case-series study, Clin Infect Dis, vol. 58, pp. 1497-503, 2014.
A. F. Macedo, Douglas, I., Smeeth, L., Forbes, H., and Ebrahim, S., Statins and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: cohort study using the UK clinical practice pesearch datalink, BMC Cardiovasc Disord, vol. 14, p. 85, 2014.
J. K. Quint, Mullerova, H., DiSantostefano, R. L., Forbes, H., Eaton, S., Hurst, J. R., Davis, K., and Smeeth, L., Validation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease recording in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD-GOLD), BMJ Open, vol. 4, p. e005540, 2014.
C. Minassian, Thomas, S. L., Williams, D. J., Campbell, O., and Smeeth, L., Acute maternal infection and risk of pre-eclampsia: a population-based case-control study, PLoS One, vol. 8, p. e73047, 2013.
A. Skow, Douglas, I., and Smeeth, L., The association between Parkinson's disease and anti-epilepsy drug carbamazepine: a case-control study using the UK General Practice Research Database, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 76, pp. 816-22, 2013.
E. Herrett, Shah, A. D., Boggon, R., Denaxas, S., Smeeth, L., Van Staa, T., Timmis, A., and Hemingway, H., Completeness and diagnostic validity of recording acute myocardial infarction events in primary care, hospital care, disease registry, and national mortality records: cohort study, Bmj, vol. 346, p. f2350, 2013.
J. K. Quint, Herrett, E., Bhaskaran, K., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., Wedzicha, J. A., and Smeeth, L., Effect of beta blockers on mortality after myocardial infarction in adults with COPD: population based cohort study of UK electronic healthcare records, Bmj, vol. 347, p. f6650, 2013.
T. P. van Staa, Smeeth, L., Ng, E. S., Goldacre, B., and Gulliford, M., The efficiency of cardiovascular risk assessment: do the right patients get statin treatment?, Heart, vol. 99, pp. 1597-602, 2013.
E. R. Millett, Quint, J. K., Smeeth, L., Daniel, R. M., and Thomas, S. L., Incidence of community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections and pneumonia among older adults in the United Kingdom: a population-based study, PLoS One, vol. 8, p. e75131, 2013.
I. Douglas, Evans, S., Rawlins, M. D., Smeeth, L., Tabrizi, S. J., and Wexler, N. S., Juvenile Huntington's disease: a population-based study using the General Practice Research Database, BMJ Open, vol. 3, 2013.
I. J. Douglas, Langham, J., Bhaskaran, K., Brauer, R., and Smeeth, L., Orlistat and the risk of acute liver injury: self controlled case series study in UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Bmj, vol. 346, p. f1936, 2013.
S. J. Evans, Douglas, I., Rawlins, M. D., Wexler, N. S., Tabrizi, S. J., and Smeeth, L., Prevalence of adult Huntington's disease in the UK based on diagnoses recorded in general practice records, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol. 84, pp. 1156-60, 2013.
K. Bhaskaran, Forbes, H. J., Douglas, I., Leon, D. A., and Smeeth, L., Representativeness and optimal use of body mass index (BMI) in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), BMJ Open, vol. 3, p. e003389, 2013.
E. Herrett, George, J., Denaxas, S., Bhaskaran, K., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., and Smeeth, L., Type and timing of heralding in ST-elevation and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction: an analysis of prospectively collected electronic healthcare records linked to the national registry of acute coronary syndromes, Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care, vol. 2, pp. 235-45, 2013.
R. Boggon, Hubbard, R., Smeeth, L., Gulliford, M., Cassell, J., Eaton, S., Pirmohamed, M., and van Staa, T. P., Variability of antibiotic prescribing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a cohort study, BMC Pulm Med, vol. 13, p. 32, 2013.
K. Bhaskaran, Douglas, I., Evans, S., Van Staa, T., and Smeeth, L., Angiotensin receptor blockers and risk of cancer: cohort study among people receiving antihypertensive drugs in UK General Practice Research Database, Bmj, vol. 344, p. e2697, 2012.
I. J. Douglas, Evans, S. J., Hingorani, A. D., Grosso, A. M., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., and Smeeth, L., Clopidogrel and interaction with proton pump inhibitors: comparison between cohort and within person study designs, Bmj, vol. 345, p. e4388, 2012.
S. C. Denaxas, George, J., Herrett, E., Shah, A. D., Kalra, D., Hingorani, A. D., Kivimaki, M., Timmis, A. D., Smeeth, L., and Hemingway, H., Data resource profile: cardiovascular disease research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER), Int J Epidemiol, vol. 41, pp. 1625-38, 2012.
C. Warren-Gash, Hayward, A. C., Hemingway, H., Denaxas, S., Thomas, S. L., Timmis, A. D., Whitaker, H., and Smeeth, L., Influenza infection and risk of acute myocardial infarction in England and Wales: a CALIBER self-controlled case series study, J Infect Dis, vol. 206, pp. 1652-9, 2012.
T. P. Staa, Goldacre, B., Gulliford, M., Cassell, J., Pirmohamed, M., Taweel, A., Delaney, B., and Smeeth, L., Pragmatic randomised trials using routine electronic health records: putting them to the test, Bmj, vol. 344, p. e55, 2012.
H. J. Forbes, Thomas, S. L., Smeeth, L., and Langan, S. M., Prescription of antiviral therapy after herpes zoster in general practice: who receives therapy?, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 62, pp. e808-14, 2012.
[Page last reviewed 9 September 2021]