Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,900 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 January 2022) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 6MB, 247 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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Author Title [ Type(Asc)] Year
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Journal Article
M. Iwagami, Tomlinson, L. A., Mansfield, K. E., Douglas, I. J., Smeeth, L., and Nitsch, D., Gastrointestinal bleeding risk of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors by level of kidney function: A population-based cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 84, pp. 2142-2151, 2018.
S. Wilkinson, Douglas, I. J., Williamson, E., Stirnadel-Farrant, H. A., Fogarty, D., Pokrajac, A., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L. A., Factors associated with choice of intensification treatment for type 2 diabetes after metformin monotherapy: a cohort study in UK primary care, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 1639-1648, 2018.
R. Hubbard, Farrington, P., Smith, C., Smeeth, L., and Tattersfield, A., Exposure to tricyclic and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants and the risk of hip fracture, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 158, pp. 77-84, 2003.
I. J. Douglas and Smeeth, L., Exposure to antipsychotics and risk of stroke: self controlled case series study, Bmj, vol. 337, p. a1227, 2008.
C. I. Bloom, Nissen, F., Douglas, I. J., Smeeth, L., Cullinan, P., and Quint, J. K., Exacerbation risk and characterisation of the UK's asthma population from infants to old age, Thorax, vol. 73, pp. 313-320, 2018.
A. A. Root, Wong, A. Y., Ghebremichael-Weldeselassie, Y., Smeeth, L., Bhaskaran, K., Evans, S. J., Brauer, R., Wong, I. C., Navaratnam, V., and Douglas, I., Evaluation of the risk of cardiovascular events with clarithromycin using both propensity score and self-controlled study designs, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 82, pp. 512-21, 2016.
T. P. van Staa, Smeeth, L., Persson, I., Parkinson, J., and Leufkens, H. G., Evaluating drug toxicity signals: is a hierarchical classification of evidence useful or a hindrance?, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 17, pp. 475-84, 2008.
S. I. Shiekh, Forbes, H., Mathur, R., Smeeth, L., Pearce, N., and Warren-Gash, C., Ethnicity and risk of diagnosed dementia after stroke: a cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, J Epidemiol Community Health, 2019.
R. Mathur, Farmer, R. E., Eastwood, S. V., Chaturvedi, N., Douglas, I., and Smeeth, L., Ethnic disparities in initiation and intensification of diabetes treatment in adults with type 2 diabetes in the UK, 1990-2017: A cohort study, PLoS Med, vol. 17, p. e1003106, 2020.
R. Mathur, Palla, L., Farmer, R. E., Chaturvedi, N., and Smeeth, L., Ethnic differences in the severity and clinical management of type 2 diabetes at time of diagnosis: A cohort study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Diabetes Res Clin Pract, vol. 160, p. 108006, 2020.
J. Davidson, Banerjee, A., Mathur, R., Ramsay, M., Smeeth, L., Walker, J., McDonald, H., and Warren-Gash, C., Ethnic differences in the incidence of clinically diagnosed influenza: an England population-based cohort study 2008-2018, Wellcome Open Res, vol. 6, p. 49, 2021.
A. A. Matthews, S. Hinton, P., Stanway, S., Lyon, A. R., Smeeth, L., Lund, J. L., and Bhaskaran, K., Endocrine therapy use and cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors, Heart, vol. 107, pp. 1327-1335, 2021.
E. Herrett, Gadd, S., Jackson, R., Bhaskaran, K., Williamson, E., Van Staa, T., Sofat, R., Timmis, A., and Smeeth, L., Eligibility and subsequent burden of cardiovascular disease of four strategies for blood pressure-lowering treatment: a retrospective cohort study, Lancet, 2019.
T. P. van Staa, Smeeth, L., Ng, E. S., Goldacre, B., and Gulliford, M., The efficiency of cardiovascular risk assessment: do the right patients get statin treatment?, Heart, vol. 99, pp. 1597-602, 2013.
I. J. Douglas, Bhaskaran, K., Batterham, R. L., and Smeeth, L., The effectiveness of pharmaceutical interventions for obesity: weight loss with orlistat and sibutramine in a United Kingdom population-based cohort, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 79, pp. 1020-7, 2015.
J. F. Hayes, Bhaskaran, K., Batterham, R., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I., The effect of sibutramine prescribing in routine clinical practice on cardiovascular outcomes: a cohort study in the United Kingdom, Int J Obes (Lond), vol. 39, pp. 1359-64, 2015.
G. H. B. Greenhall, Mansfield, K. E., Nitsch, D., Iwagami, M., Leyrat, C., Johnston, R., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L. A., The effect of initiation of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors on haemoglobin: A national cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2020.
J. K. Quint, Herrett, E., Bhaskaran, K., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., Wedzicha, J. A., and Smeeth, L., Effect of beta blockers on mortality after myocardial infarction in adults with COPD: population based cohort study of UK electronic healthcare records, Bmj, vol. 347, p. f6650, 2013.
K. Wing, Douglas, I., Bhaskaran, K., Klungel, O. H., Reynolds, R. F., Pirmohamed, M., Smeeth, L., and van Staa, T. P., Development of predictive genetic tests for improving the safety of new medicines: the utilization of routinely collected electronic health records, Drug Discov Today, vol. 19, pp. 361-6, 2014.
E. Herrett, Gallagher, A. M., Bhaskaran, K., Forbes, H., Mathur, R., Van Staa, T., and Smeeth, L., Data Resource Profile: Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), Int J Epidemiol, vol. 44, pp. 827-36, 2015.
S. C. Denaxas, George, J., Herrett, E., Shah, A. D., Kalra, D., Hingorani, A. D., Kivimaki, M., Timmis, A. D., Smeeth, L., and Hemingway, H., Data resource profile: cardiovascular disease research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER), Int J Epidemiol, vol. 41, pp. 1625-38, 2012.
C. I. Bloom, Douglas, I., Olney, J., D'Ancona, G., Smeeth, L., and Quint, J. K., Cost saving of switching to equivalent inhalers and its effect on health outcomes, Thorax, 2019.
A. D. Morgan, Herrett, E., De Stavola, B. L., Smeeth, L., and Quint, J. K., COPD disease severity and the risk of venous thromboembolic events: a matched case-control study, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 11, pp. 899-908, 2016.
A. D. Morgan, Sinnott, S. J., Smeeth, L., Minassian, C., and Quint, J., Concordance in the recording of stroke across UK primary and secondary care datasets: a population-based cohort study, BJGP Open, 2020.
F. Nissen, Morales, D. R., Mullerova, H., Smeeth, L., Douglas, I. J., and Quint, J. K., Concomitant diagnosis of asthma and COPD: a quantitative study in UK primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 68, pp. e775-e782, 2018.
K. Mansfield, Crellin, E., Denholm, R., Quint, J. K., Smeeth, L., Cook, S., and Herrett, E., Completeness and validity of alcohol recording in general practice within the UK: a cross-sectional study, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e031537, 2019.
R. Mathur, Bhaskaran, K., Chaturvedi, N., Leon, D. A., vanStaa, T., Grundy, E., and Smeeth, L., Completeness and usability of ethnicity data in UK-based primary care and hospital databases, J Public Health (Oxf), vol. 36, pp. 684-92, 2014.
E. Herrett, Shah, A. D., Boggon, R., Denaxas, S., Smeeth, L., Van Staa, T., Timmis, A., and Hemingway, H., Completeness and diagnostic validity of recording acute myocardial infarction events in primary care, hospital care, disease registry, and national mortality records: cohort study, Bmj, vol. 346, p. f2350, 2013.
P. Bidulka, Iwagami, M., Mansfield, K. E., Kalogirou, F., Wong, A. Y. S., Douglas, I. J., Smeeth, L., Summers, C., and Tomlinson, L. A., Comparisons of Staphylococcus aureus infection and other outcomes between users of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers: lessons for COVID-19 from a nationwide cohort study, Wellcome Open Res, vol. 5, p. 77, 2020.
T. P. van Staa, Leufkens, H. G., Zhang, B., and Smeeth, L., A comparison of cost effectiveness using data from randomized trials or actual clinical practice: selective cox-2 inhibitors as an example, PLoS Med, vol. 6, p. e1000194, 2009.
S. Wilkinson, Williamson, E., Pokrajac, A., Fogarty, D., Stirnadel-Farrant, H., Smeeth, L., Douglas, I. J., and Tomlinson, L. A., Comparative effects of sulfonylureas, DPP4is and SGLT2 inhibitors added to metformin monotherapy: a propensity-score matched cohort study in UK primary care, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2020.
S. J. Sinnott, Smeeth, L., Williamson, E., Perel, P., Nitsch, D., Tomlinson, L. A., and Douglas, I. J., The comparative effectiveness of fourth-line drugs in resistant hypertension: An application in electronic health record data, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
K. J. Rothnie, Smeeth, L., Herrett, E., Pearce, N., Hemingway, H., Wedzicha, J., Timmis, A., and Quint, J. K., Closing the mortality gap after a myocardial infarction in people with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Heart, vol. 101, pp. 1103-10, 2015.
I. J. Douglas, Evans, S. J., Hingorani, A. D., Grosso, A. M., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., and Smeeth, L., Clopidogrel and interaction with proton pump inhibitors: comparison between cohort and within person study designs, Bmj, vol. 345, p. e4388, 2012.
F. Nissen, Douglas, I. J., Mullerova, H., Pearce, N., Bloom, C. I., Smeeth, L., and Quint, J. K., Clinical profile of predefined asthma phenotypes in a large cohort of UK primary care patients (Clinical Practice Research Datalink), J Asthma Allergy, vol. 12, pp. 7-19, 2019.
A. D. Morgan, Rothnie, K. J., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., and Quint, J. K., Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the risk of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a population-based study using UK primary care data, Thorax, vol. 73, pp. 877-879, 2018.
M. Iwagami, Caplin, B., Smeeth, L., Tomlinson, L. A., and Nitsch, D., Chronic kidney disease and cause-specific hospitalisation: a matched cohort study using primary and secondary care patient data, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 68, pp. e512-e523, 2018.
S. L. Thomas, Minassian, C., Ganesan, V., Langan, S. M., and Smeeth, L., Chickenpox and risk of stroke: a self-controlled case series analysis, Clin Infect Dis, vol. 58, pp. 61-8, 2014.
S. Wilkinson, Douglas, I., Stirnadel-Farrant, H., Fogarty, D., Pokrajac, A., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L., Changing use of antidiabetic drugs in the UK: trends in prescribing 2000-2017, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e022768, 2018.
J. K. Quint, Millett, E. R., Joshi, M., Navaratnam, V., Thomas, S. L., Hurst, J. R., Smeeth, L., and Brown, J. S., Changes in the incidence, prevalence and mortality of bronchiectasis in the UK from 2004 to 2013: a population-based cohort study, Eur Respir J, vol. 47, pp. 186-93, 2016.
J. Wilding, Godec, T., Khunti, K., Pocock, S., Fox, R., Smeeth, L., Clauson, P., Fenici, P., Hammar, N., and Medina, J., Changes in HbA1c and weight, and treatment persistence, over the 18 months following initiation of second-line therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes: results from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMC Med, vol. 16, p. 116, 2018.
J. P. H. Wilding, Godec, T., Khunti, K., Pocock, S., Fox, R., Smeeth, L., Clauson, P., Fenici, P., Hammar, N., and Medina, J., Changes in HbA1c and weight after initiation of second-line therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes in clinical practice., Diabetologia., vol. 60, p. S301, 2017.
L. Smeeth, Hubbard, R., and Fletcher, A. E., Cataract and the use of statins: a case-control study, Qjm, vol. 96, pp. 337-43, 2003.
I. J. Douglas, Cook, C., Chakravarthy, U., Hubbard, R., Fletcher, A. E., and Smeeth, L., A case-control study of drug risk factors for age-related macular degeneration, Ophthalmology, vol. 114, pp. 1164-9, 2007.
L. Smeeth, Hall, A. J., Fombonne, E., Rodrigues, L. C., Huang, X., and Smith, P. G., A case-control study of autism and mumps-measles-rubella vaccination using the general practice research database: design and methodology, BMC Public Health, vol. 1, p. 2, 2001.
L. Smeeth, Cook, C., Chakravarthy, U., Hubbard, R., and Fletcher, A. E., A case control study of age related macular degeneration and use of statins, Br J Ophthalmol, vol. 89, pp. 1171-5, 2005.
V. Navaratnam, Millett, E. R., Hurst, J. R., Thomas, S. L., Smeeth, L., Hubbard, R. B., Brown, J., and Quint, J. K., Bronchiectasis and the risk of cardiovascular disease: a population-based study, Thorax, vol. 72, pp. 161-166, 2017.
K. Bhaskaran, Douglas, I., Forbes, H., dos-Santos-Silva, I., Leon, D. A., and Smeeth, L., Body-mass index and risk of 22 specific cancers: a population-based cohort study of 5.24 million UK adults, Lancet, vol. 384, pp. 755-65, 2014.
H. Strongman, Brown, A., Smeeth, L., and Bhaskaran, K., Body mass index and Hodgkin's lymphoma: UK population-based cohort study of 5.8 million individuals, Br J Cancer, 2019.
S. J. Sinnott, Mansfield, K. E., Schmidt, M., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., Nitsch, D., and Tomlinson, L. A., Biochemical monitoring after initiation of aldosterone antagonist therapy in users of renin-angiotensin system blockers: a UK primary care cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e018153, 2017.
[Page last reviewed 4 January 2022]