Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 February 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 220 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2709 results:
Author Title [ Type(Desc)] Year
Journal Article
I. Essers, Stolwijk, C., Boonen, A., De Bruin, M. L., Bazelier, M. T., de Vries, F., and van Tubergen, A., Ankylosing spondylitis and risk of ischaemic heart disease: a population-based cohort study, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 75, pp. 203-9, 2016.
V. Schneider-Lindner, Quach, C., Hanley, J. A., and Suissa, S., Antibacterial drugs and the risk of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children, Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, vol. 165, pp. 1107-14, 2011.
I. Petersen and Hayward, A. C., Antibacterial prescribing in primary care, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol. 60 Suppl 1, pp. i43-47, 2007.
M. Nowakowska, Van Staa, T., Molter, A., Ashcroft, D. M., Tsang, J. Y., White, A., Welfare, W., and Palin, V., Antibiotic choice in UK general practice: rates and drivers of potentially inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, J Antimicrob Chemother, 2019.
O. van Hecke, Fuller, A., Bankhead, C., Jenkins-Jones, S., Francis, N., Moore, M., Butler, C., and Wang, K., Antibiotic exposure and 'response failure' for subsequent respiratory tract infections: an observational cohort study of UK preschool children in primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 69, pp. e638-e646, 2019.
R. A. Lawrenson and Logie, J. W., Antibiotic failure in the treatment of urinary tract infections in young women, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol. 48, pp. 895-901, 2001.
M. Gharbi, Drysdale, J. H., Lishman, H., Goudie, R., Molokhia, M., Johnson, A. P., Holmes, A. H., and Aylin, P., Antibiotic management of urinary tract infection in elderly patients in primary care and its association with bloodstream infections and all cause mortality: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 364, p. l525, 2019.
C. C. Winchester, Macfarlane, T. V., Thomas, M., and Price, D., Antibiotic prescribing and outcomes of lower respiratory tract infection in UK primary care, Chest, vol. 135, pp. 1163-1172, 2009.
P. Rockenschaub, Hayward, A., and Shallcross, L., Antibiotic prescribing before and after the diagnosis of comorbidity: a cohort study using primary care electronic health records, Clin Infect Dis, 2019.
V. Palin, Molter, A., Belmonte, M., Ashcroft, D. M., White, A., Welfare, W., and Van Staa, T., Antibiotic prescribing for common infections in UK general practice: variability and drivers, J Antimicrob Chemother, 2019.
L. Shallcross, Rockenschaub, P., Blackburn, R., Nazareth, I., Freemantle, N., and Hayward, A., Antibiotic prescribing for lower UTI in elderly patients in primary care and risk of bloodstream infection: A cohort study using electronic health records in England, PLoS Med, vol. 17, p. e1003336, 2020.
H. Ahmed, Farewell, D., Jones, H. M., Francis, N. A., Paranjothy, S., and Butler, C. C., Antibiotic prophylaxis and clinical outcomes among older adults with recurrent urinary tract infection: cohort study, Age Ageing, vol. 48, pp. 228-234, 2019.
N. S. Nagra, Robinson, D. E., Douglas, I., Delmestri, A., Dakin, S. G., Snelling, S. J. B., Carr, A. J., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Antibiotic treatment and flares of rheumatoid arthritis: a self-controlled case series study analysis using CPRD GOLD, Sci Rep, vol. 9, p. 8941, 2019.
C. J. Currie, Berni, E., Jenkins-Jones, S., Poole, C. D., Ouwens, M., Driessen, S., de Voogd, H., Butler, C. C., and Morgan, C. L., Antibiotic treatment failure in four common infections in UK primary care 1991-2012: longitudinal analysis, Bmj, vol. 349, p. g5493, 2014.
D. J. Margolis, Bowe, W. P., Hoffstad, O., and Berlin, J. A., Antibiotic treatment of acne may be associated with upper respiratory tract infections, Arch Dermatol, vol. 141, pp. 1132-6, 2005.
C. Hopkins, Williamson, E., Morris, S., Clarke, C. S., Thomas, M., Evans, H., Little, P., Lund, V. J., Blackshaw, H., Schilder, A., Philpott, C., Carpenter, J., and Denaxas, S., Antibiotic usage in chronic rhinosinusitis: analysis of national primary care electronic health records, Rhinology, 2019.
A. Alonso, Jick, S. S., Jick, H., and Hernan, M. A., Antibiotic use and risk of multiple sclerosis, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 163, pp. 997-1002, 2006.
R. Cushen and Francis, N. A., Antibiotic use and serious complications following acute otitis media and acute sinusitis: a retrospective cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 70, pp. e255-e263, 2020.
T. Card, Logan, R. F., Rodrigues, L. C., and Wheeler, J. G., Antibiotic use and the development of Crohn's disease, Gut, vol. 53, pp. 246-50, 2004.
F. N. Aberra, Brensinger, C. M., Bilker, W. B., Lichtenstein, G. R., and Lewis, J. D., Antibiotic use and the risk of flare of inflammatory bowel disease, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, vol. 3, pp. 459-65, 2005.
A. A. Sultan, Mallen, C., Muller, S., Hider, S., Scott, I., Helliwell, T., and Hall, L. J., Antibiotic use and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based case-control study, BMC Med, vol. 17, p. 154, 2019.
F. S. Troelsen and Jick, S., Antibiotic Use in Childhood and Adolescence and Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Case-Control Study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2019.
C. R. Meier, Derby, L. E., Jick, S. S., Vasilakis, C., and Jick, H., Antibiotics and risk of subsequent first-time acute myocardial infarction, Jama, vol. 281, pp. 427-31, 1999.
J. A. Kaye and Jick, H., Antibiotics and the risk of breast cancer, Epidemiology, vol. 16, pp. 688-90, 2005.
C. R. Meier, Antibiotics in the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease, J Infect Dis, vol. 181 Suppl 3, pp. S558-62, 2000.
K. Richardson, Fox, C., Maidment, I., Steel, N., Loke, Y. K., Arthur, A., Myint, P. K., Grossi, C. M., Mattishent, K., Bennett, K., Campbell, N. L., Boustani, M., Robinson, L., Brayne, C., Matthews, F. E., and Savva, G. M., Anticholinergic drugs and risk of dementia: case-control study, Bmj, vol. 361, p. k1315, 2018.
S. S. Jick and Terris, B. Z., Anticonvulsants and congenital malformations, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 17, pp. 561-4, 1997.
S. S. Jick and Li, L., Antidepressant drug use and risk of venous thromboembolism, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 28, pp. 144-50, 2008.
L. E. Derby, Jick, H., and Dean, A. D., Antidepressant drugs and suicide, J Clin Psychopharmacol, vol. 12, pp. 235-40, 1992.
V. Abbing-Karahagopian, Huerta, C., Souverein, P. C., de Abajo, F., Leufkens, H. G., Slattery, J., Alvarez, Y., Miret, M., Gil, M., Oliva, B., Hesse, U., Requena, G., de Vries, F., Rottenkolber, M., Schmiedl, S., Reynolds, R., Schlienger, R. G., de Groot, M. C., Klungel, O. H., van Staa, T. P., van Dijk, L., Egberts, A. C., Gardarsdottir, H., and De Bruin, M. L., Antidepressant prescribing in five European countries: application of common definitions to assess the prevalence, clinical observations, and methodological implications, Eur J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 70, pp. 849-57, 2014.
D. Saragoussi, Chollet, J., Bineau, S., Chalem, Y., and Milea, D., Antidepressant switching patterns in the treatment of major depressive disorder: a General Practice Research Database (GPRD) Study, Int J Clin Pract, vol. 66, pp. 1079-87, 2012.
C. Martinez, Rietbrock, S., Wise, L., Ashby, D., Chick, J., Moseley, J., Evans, S., and Gunnell, D., Antidepressant treatment and the risk of fatal and non-fatal self harm in first episode depression: nested case-control study, Bmj, vol. 330, p. 389, 2005.
C. Vasilakis-Scaramozza, Aschengrau, A., Cabral, H., and Jick, S. S., Antidepressant use during early pregnancy and the risk of congenital anomalies, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 33, pp. 693-700, 2013.
R. Gafoor, Booth, H. P., and Gulliford, M. C., Antidepressant utilisation and incidence of weight gain during 10 years' follow-up: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 361, p. k1951, 2018.
S. S. Jick, Jick, H., Knauss, T. A., and Dean, A. D., Antidepressants and convulsions, J Clin Psychopharmacol, vol. 12, pp. 241-5, 1992.
S. S. Jick, Dean, A. D., and Jick, H., Antidepressants and suicide, Bmj, vol. 310, pp. 215-8, 1995.
H. Jick, Kaye, J. A., and Jick, S. S., Antidepressants and the risk of suicidal behaviors, Jama, vol. 292, pp. 338-43, 2004.
J. H. Flory, Ellenberg, S., Szapary, P. O., Strom, B. L., and Hennessy, S., Antidiabetic action of bezafibrate in a large observational database, Diabetes Care, vol. 32, pp. 547-51, 2009.
S. Hamada and Gulliford, M. C., Antidiabetic and cardiovascular drug utilisation in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus over the age of 80 years: a population-based cohort study, Age Ageing, vol. 44, pp. 566-73, 2015.
S. Maru, Koch, G. G., Stender, M., Clark, D., Gibowski, L., Petri, H., White, A. D., and Simpson, Jr., R. J., Antidiabetic drugs and heart failure risk in patients with type 2 diabetes in the U.K. primary care setting, Diabetes Care, vol. 28, pp. 20-6, 2005.
K. W. Hagberg, McGlynn, K. A., Sahasrabuddhe, V. V., and Jick, S., Anti-diabetic medications and risk of primary liver cancer in persons with type II diabetes, Br J Cancer, vol. 111, pp. 1710-7, 2014.
C. E. Koro, Bowlin, S. J., and Weiss, S. R., Antidiabetic therapy and the risk of heart failure in type 2 diabetic patients: an independent effect or confounding by indication, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 14, pp. 697-703, 2005.
S. Charlier, Vavanikunnel, J., Becker, C., Jick, S. S., Meier, C., and Meier, C. R., Antidiabetic treatment, level of glycemic control, and risk of fracture in diabetes type 2: A nested case-control study, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2020.
R. Charlton, Garne, E., Wang, H., Klungsoyr, K., Jordan, S., Neville, A., Pierini, A., Hansen, A., Engeland, A., Gini, R., Thayer, D., Bos, J., Puccini, A., Andersen, A. M. Nybo, Dolk, H., and L. van den Berg, deJong-, Antiepileptic drug prescribing before, during and after pregnancy: a study in seven European regions, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 24, pp. 1144-54, 2015.
C. Renoux, Dell'Aniello, S., Saarela, O., Filion, K. B., and Boivin, J. F., Antiepileptic drugs and the risk of ischaemic stroke and myocardial infarction: a population-based cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 5, p. e008365, 2015.
S. D. Shorvon, Tallis, R. C., and Wallace, H. K., Antiepileptic drugs: coprescription of proconvulsant drugs and oral contraceptives: a national study of antiepileptic drug prescribing practice, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol. 72, pp. 114-5, 2002.
S. C. Blackburn, Oliart, A. D., Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, and S. Gutthann, P., Antiepileptics and blood dyscrasias: a cohort study, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 18, pp. 1277-83, 1998.
A. Maguire, Mitchell, B. D., and Ruzafa, J. C., Antihyperglycaemic treatment patterns, observed glycaemic control and determinants of treatment change among patients with type 2 diabetes in the United Kingdom primary care: a retrospective cohort study, BMC Endocr Disord, vol. 14, p. 73, 2014.
S. Dial, Nessim, S. J., Kezouh, A., Benisty, J., and Suissa, S., Antihypertensive agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system and the risk of sepsis, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 78, pp. 1151-8, 2014.
H. Jick, Vasilakis, C., and Derby, L. E., Antihypertensive drugs and fatal myocardial infarction in persons with uncomplicated hypertension, Epidemiology, vol. 8, pp. 446-8, 1997.
[Page last reviewed 4 February 2021]