Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 April 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 226 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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O. H. Yu, Yin, H., and Azoulay, L., The combination of DPP-4 inhibitors versus sulfonylureas with metformin after failure of first-line treatment in the risk for major cardiovascular events and death, Can J Diabetes, vol. 39, pp. 383-9, 2015.
M. Feudjo-Tepie, Ferguson, S., Roddam, A., Taylor, A., Bayly, J., and Critchlow, C., Comorbidities, bone-sparing agent prescription history and their determinants among postmenopausal women in UK primary care settings: a retrospective database study, Arch Osteoporos, vol. 10, p. 41, 2015.
H. A. van den Ham, Klungel, O. H., Singer, D. E., Leufkens, H. G., and van Staa, T. P., Comparative Performance of ATRIA, CHADS2, and CHA2DS2-VASc Risk Scores Predicting Stroke in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: Results From a National Primary Care Database, J Am Coll Cardiol, vol. 66, pp. 1851-9, 2015.
H. Strongman, D'Oca, K., Langerman, H., and Das, R., Comparison of diabetes-associated secondary healthcare utilization between alternative oral antihyperglycaemic dual therapy combinations with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes: an observational cohort study, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 17, pp. 573-80, 2015.
C. J. Crooks, West, J., and Card, T. R., A comparison of the recording of comorbidity in primary and secondary care by using the Charlson Index to predict short-term and long-term survival in a routine linked data cohort, BMJ Open, vol. 5, p. e007974, 2015.
M. Olsson, Schnecke, V., Cabrera, C., Skrtic, S., and Lind, M., Contemporary Risk Estimates of Three HbA1c Variables for Myocardial Infarction in 101,799 Patients Following Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes, Diabetes Care, vol. 38, pp. 1481-6, 2015.
K. C. Chang, Soljak, M., Lee, J. T., Woringer, M., Johnston, D., Khunti, K., Majeed, A., and Millett, C., Coverage of a national cardiovascular risk assessment and management programme (NHS Health Check): Retrospective database study, Prev Med, vol. 78, pp. 1-8, 2015.
D. Reeves, Springate, D. A., Ashcroft, D. M., Ryan, R., Doran, T., Morris, R., Olier, I., and Kontopantelis, E., Can analyses of electronic patient records be independently and externally validated? The effect of statins on the mortality of patients with ischaemic heart disease: a cohort study with nested case-control analysis, BMJ Open, vol. 4, p. e004952, 2014.
C. A. Bannister, Holden, S. E., Jenkins-Jones, S., Morgan, C. L., Halcox, J. P., Schernthaner, G., Mukherjee, J., and Currie, C. J., Can people with type 2 diabetes live longer than those without? A comparison of mortality in people initiated with metformin or sulphonylurea monotherapy and matched, non-diabetic controls, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 16, pp. 1165-73, 2014.
S. Muller, Hider, S. L., Belcher, J., Helliwell, T., and Mallen, C. D., Is cancer associated with polymyalgia rheumatica? A cohort study in the General Practice Research Database, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 73, pp. 1769-73, 2014.
S. Couraud, Dell'Aniello, S., Bouganim, N., and Azoulay, L., Cardiac glycosides and the risk of breast cancer in women with chronic heart failure and supraventricular arrhythmia, Breast Cancer Res Treat, vol. 146, pp. 619-26, 2014.
S. Couraud, Azoulay, L., Dell'Aniello, S., and Suissa, S., Cardiac glycosides use and the risk of lung cancer: a nested case-control study, BMC Cancer, vol. 14, p. 573, 2014.
L. Wei, Mackenzie, I. S., MacDonald, T. M., and George, J., Cardiovascular risk associated with sodium-containing medicines, Expert Opin Drug Saf, vol. 13, pp. 1515-23, 2014.
C. S. Zin, Chen, L. C., and Knaggs, R. D., Changes in trends and pattern of strong opioid prescribing in primary care, Eur J Pain, vol. 18, pp. 1343-51, 2014.
S. L. Thomas, Minassian, C., Ganesan, V., Langan, S. M., and Smeeth, L., Chickenpox and risk of stroke: a self-controlled case series analysis, Clin Infect Dis, vol. 58, pp. 61-8, 2014.
A. Dregan, Charlton, J., Chowienczyk, P., and Gulliford, M. C., Chronic inflammatory disorders and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and stroke: a population-based cohort study, Circulation, vol. 130, pp. 837-44, 2014.
R. Charlton, Snowball, J., Sammon, C., and de Vries, C., The Clinical Practice Research Datalink for drug safety in pregnancy research: an overview, Therapie, vol. 69, pp. 83-9, 2014.
D. A. Springate, Kontopantelis, E., Ashcroft, D. M., Olier, I., Parisi, R., Chamapiwa, E., and Reeves, D., ClinicalCodes: an online clinical codes repository to improve the validity and reproducibility of research using electronic medical records, PLoS One, vol. 9, p. e99825, 2014.
M. C. Gulliford, van Staa, T. P., McDermott, L., McCann, G., Charlton, J., and Dregan, A., Cluster randomized trials utilizing primary care electronic health records: methodological issues in design, conduct, and analysis (eCRT Study), Trials, vol. 15, p. 220, 2014.
C. L. Morgan, Mukherjee, J., Jenkins-Jones, S., Holden, S. E., and Currie, C. J., Combination therapy with metformin plus sulphonylureas versus metformin plus DPP-4 inhibitors: association with major adverse cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 16, pp. 977-83, 2014.
S. Toovey, Nieforth, K., Smith, P., Schlagenhauf, P., Adamcova, M., Tatt, I., Tomianovic, D., and Schnetzler, G., Comparative benefit of malaria chemoprophylaxis modelled in United Kingdom travellers, Travel Med Infect Dis, vol. 12, pp. 726-32, 2014.
R. D. Neal, Din, N. U., Hamilton, W., Ukoumunne, O. C., Carter, B., Stapley, S., and Rubin, G., Comparison of cancer diagnostic intervals before and after implementation of NICE guidelines: analysis of data from the UK General Practice Research Database, Br J Cancer, vol. 110, pp. 584-92, 2014.
L. Hassan, Senior, J., Frisher, M., Edge, D., and Shaw, J., A comparison of psychotropic medication prescribing patterns in East of England prisons and the general population, J Psychopharmacol, vol. 28, pp. 357-62, 2014.
R. Mathur, Bhaskaran, K., Chaturvedi, N., Leon, D. A., vanStaa, T., Grundy, E., and Smeeth, L., Completeness and usability of ethnicity data in UK-based primary care and hospital databases, J Public Health (Oxf), vol. 36, pp. 684-92, 2014.
J. P. Fournier, Duijnhoven, R. G., Renoux, C., Dell'Aniello, S., Klungel, O. H., and Suissa, S., Concurrent use of statins and hormone therapy and risk of venous thromboembolism in postmenopausal women: a population-based case-control study, Menopause, vol. 21, pp. 1023-6, 2014.
M. C. Gulliford, Dregan, A., Moore, M. V., Ashworth, M., Staa, T., McCann, G., Charlton, J., Yardley, L., Little, P., and McDermott, L., Continued high rates of antibiotic prescribing to adults with respiratory tract infection: survey of 568 UK general practices, BMJ Open, vol. 4, p. e006245, 2014.
Y. S. Punekar, Shukla, A., and Mullerova, H., COPD management costs according to the frequency of COPD exacerbations in UK primary care, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 9, pp. 65-73, 2014.
M. C. Gulliford, Bhattarai, N., Charlton, J., and Rudisill, C., Cost-effectiveness of a universal strategy of brief dietary intervention for primary prevention in primary care: population-based cohort study and Markov model, Cost Eff Resour Alloc, vol. 12, p. 4, 2014.
C. Tsang, Bottle, A., Majeed, A., and Aylin, P., Cancer diagnosed by emergency admission in England: an observational study using the general practice research database, BMC Health Serv Res, vol. 13, p. 308, 2013.
R. Boggon, van Staa, T. P., Chapman, M., Gallagher, A. M., Hammad, T. A., and Richards, M. A., Cancer recording and mortality in the General Practice Research Database and linked cancer registries, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 22, pp. 168-75, 2013.
C. Becker, Meier, C. R., Jick, S. S., and Bodmer, M., Case-control analysis on metformin and cancer of the esophagus, Cancer Causes Control, vol. 24, pp. 1763-70, 2013.
M. Solaymani-Dodaran, Card, T. R., and West, J., Cause-specific mortality of people with Barrett's esophagus compared with the general population: a population-based cohort study, Gastroenterology, vol. 144, pp. 1375-83, 1383.e1, 2013.
E. Shephard, Neal, R., Rose, P., Walter, F., and Hamilton, W. T., Clinical features of kidney cancer in primary care: a case-control study using primary care records, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 63, pp. e250-5, 2013.
K. Khunti, Wolden, M. L., Thorsted, B. L., Andersen, M., and Davies, M. J., Clinical inertia in people with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study of more than 80,000 people, Diabetes Care, vol. 36, pp. 3411-7, 2013.
J. Chollet, Saragoussi, D., Clay, E., and Francois, C., A clinical research practice datalink analysis of antidepressant treatment patterns and health care costs in generalized anxiety disorder, Value Health, vol. 16, pp. 1133-9, 2013.
R. A. Charlton, Snowball, J. M., Bloomfield, K., and de Vries, C. S., Colorectal cancer risk reduction following macrogol exposure: a cohort and nested case control study in the UK, PLoS One, vol. 8, p. e83203, 2013.
C. J. Crooks, West, J., and Card, T. R., Comorbidities affect risk of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, Gastroenterology, vol. 144, pp. 1384-93, 1393.e1-2; quiz e18-9, 2013.
S. L. Brilleman and Salisbury, C., Comparing measures of multimorbidity to predict outcomes in primary care: a cross sectional study, Fam Pract, vol. 30, pp. 172-8, 2013.
E. Herrett, Shah, A. D., Boggon, R., Denaxas, S., Smeeth, L., Van Staa, T., Timmis, A., and Hemingway, H., Completeness and diagnostic validity of recording acute myocardial infarction events in primary care, hospital care, disease registry, and national mortality records: cohort study, Bmj, vol. 346, p. f2350, 2013.
L. Azoulay, Dell'Aniello, S., Simon, T., Renoux, C., and Suissa, S., The concurrent use of antithrombotic therapies and the risk of bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation, Thromb Haemost, vol. 109, pp. 431-9, 2013.
F. Lapi, Azoulay, L., Yin, H., Nessim, S. J., and Suissa, S., Concurrent use of diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of acute kidney injury: nested case-control study, Bmj, vol. 346, p. e8525, 2013.
R. J. Pitman, Nagy, L. D., and Sculpher, M. J., Cost-effectiveness of childhood influenza vaccination in England and Wales: Results from a dynamic transmission model, Vaccine, vol. 31, pp. 927-42, 2013.
J. Hong, Reed, C., Novick, D., and Happich, M., Costs associated with treatment of chronic low back pain: an analysis of the UK General Practice Research Database, Spine (Phila Pa 1976), vol. 38, pp. 75-82, 2013.
N. M. Davies, Smith, G. D., Windmeijer, F., and Martin, R. M., COX-2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of gastrointestinal tract complications and myocardial infarction: an instrumental variable analysis, Epidemiology, vol. 24, pp. 352-62, 2013.
G. Singh, Bell, G. S., Driever, P. H., and Sander, J. W., Cancer risk in people with epilepsy using valproate-sodium, Acta Neurol Scand, vol. 125, pp. 234-40, 2012.
A. Lalmohamed, Bazelier, M. T., van Staa, T. P., Uitdehaag, B. M., Leufkens, H. G., de Boer, A., and de Vries, F., Causes of death in patients with multiple sclerosis and matched referent subjects: a population-based cohort study, Eur J Neurol, vol. 19, pp. 1007-14, 2012.
A. Berger, Sadosky, A., Dukes, E., Edelsberg, J., and Oster, G., Clinical characteristics and patterns of healthcare utilization in patients with painful neuropathic disorders in UK general practice: a retrospective cohort study, BMC Neurol, vol. 12, p. 8, 2012.
E. A. Shephard, Stapley, S., Neal, R. D., Rose, P., Walter, F. M., and Hamilton, W. T., Clinical features of bladder cancer in primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 62, pp. e598-604, 2012.
I. J. Douglas, Evans, S. J., Hingorani, A. D., Grosso, A. M., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., and Smeeth, L., Clopidogrel and interaction with proton pump inhibitors: comparison between cohort and within person study designs, Bmj, vol. 345, p. e4388, 2012.
A. Dregan, Van Staa, T., McDermott, L., McCann, G., Ashworth, M., Charlton, J., Wolfe, C., Rudd, A., Yardley, L., and Gulliford, M., Cluster randomized trial in the general practice research database: 2. Secondary prevention after first stroke (eCRT study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial, Trials, vol. 13, p. 181, 2012.
[Page last reviewed 6 April 2021]