Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 February 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 220 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2709 results:
Author Title [ Type(Asc)] Year
Journal Article
A. Douros, Abrahami, D., Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., Renoux, C., Hudson, M., and Azoulay, L., Use of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors and New-onset Rheumatoid Arthritis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes, Epidemiology, vol. 29, pp. 904-912, 2018.
L. E. Derby, Myers, M. W., and Jick, H., Use of dexfenfluramine, fenfluramine and phentermine and the risk of stroke, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 47, pp. 565-9, 1999.
L. L. Lanza, McQuay, L. J., Rothman, K. J., Bone, H. G., Kaunitz, A. M., Harel, Z., Ataher, Q., Ross, D., Arena, P. L., and Wolter, K. D., Use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate contraception and incidence of bone fracture, Obstet Gynecol, vol. 121, pp. 593-600, 2013.
C. Meier, Brauchli, Y. B., Jick, S. S., Kraenzlin, M. E., and Meier, C. R., Use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and fracture risk, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, vol. 95, pp. 4909-16, 2010.
D. M. Carbonari, Saine, M. E., Newcomb, C. W., Blak, B., Roy, J. A., Haynes, K., Wood, J., Gallagher, A. M., Bhullar, H., Cardillo, S., Hennessy, S., Strom, B. L., and , Use of demographic and pharmacy data to identify patients included within both the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and The Health Improvement Network (THIN), Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 24, pp. 999-1003, 2015.
T. P. van Staa, Abenhaim, L., and Cooper, C., Use of cyclical etidronate and prevention of non-vertebral fractures, Br J Rheumatol, vol. 37, pp. 87-94, 1998.
Y. Vinogradova, Coupland, C., and Hippisley-Cox, J., Use of combined oral contraceptives and risk of venous thromboembolism: nested case-control studies using the QResearch and CPRD databases, Bmj, vol. 350, p. h2135, 2015.
L. A. Garcia Rodriguez, Johansson, S., and L. Soriano, C., Use of clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors after a serious acute coronary event: risk of coronary events and peptic ulcer bleeding, Thromb Haemost, vol. 110, pp. 1014-24, 2013.
A. Ruigomez, Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Cattaruzzi, C., Troncon, M. G., Agostinis, L., Wallander, M. A., and Johansson, S., Use of cimetidine, omeprazole, and ranitidine in pregnant women and pregnancy outcomes, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 150, pp. 476-81, 1999.
C. Seliger, Meier, C. R., Jick, S. S., Uhl, M., Bogdahn, U., Hau, P., and Leitzmann, M. F., Use of cardiac glycosides and risk of glioma, J Neurooncol, vol. 127, pp. 321-8, 2016.
L. Azoulay, Soldera, S., Yin, H., and Bouganim, N., Use of Calcium Channel Blockers and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Population-based Cohort Study, Epidemiology, vol. 27, pp. 594-601, 2016.
F. de Vries, Souverein, P. C., Cooper, C., Leufkens, H. G., and van Staa, T. P., Use of beta-blockers and the risk of hip/femur fracture in the United Kingdom and The Netherlands, Calcif Tissue Int, vol. 80, pp. 69-75, 2007.
R. G. Schlienger, Kraenzlin, M. E., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Use of beta-blockers and risk of fractures, Jama, vol. 292, pp. 1326-32, 2004.
L. Azoulay, Yin, H., Renoux, C., and Suissa, S., The use of atypical antipsychotics and the risk of breast cancer, Breast Cancer Res Treat, vol. 129, pp. 541-8, 2011.
J. Assayag, Pollak, M. N., and Azoulay, L., The use of aspirin and the risk of mortality in patients with prostate cancer, J Urol, vol. 193, pp. 1220-5, 2015.
C. Schneider, Adamcova, M., Jick, S. S., Schlagenhauf, P., Miller, M. K., Rhein, H. G., and Meier, C. R., Use of anti-malarial drugs and the risk of developing eye disorders, Travel Med Infect Dis, vol. 12, pp. 40-7, 2014.
C. Patch, Charlton, J., Roderick, P. J., and Gulliford, M. C., Use of antihypertensive medications and mortality of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: a population-based study, Am J Kidney Dis, vol. 57, pp. 856-62, 2011.
F. Andersohn, Schade, R., Willich, S. N., and Garbe, E., Use of antiepileptic drugs in epilepsy and the risk of self-harm or suicidal behavior, Neurology, vol. 75, pp. 335-40, 2010.
P. C. Souverein, Webb, D. J., Weil, J. G., van Staa, T. P., and Egberts, A. C., Use of antiepileptic drugs and risk of fractures: case-control study among patients with epilepsy, Neurology, vol. 66, pp. 1318-24, 2006.
M. Bodmer, Becker, C., Meier, C., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Use of antidiabetic agents and the risk of pancreatic cancer: a case-control analysis, Am J Gastroenterol, vol. 107, pp. 620-6, 2012.
A. Alonso, Rodriguez, L. A., Logroscino, G., and Hernan, M. A., Use of antidepressants and the risk of Parkinson's disease: a prospective study, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol. 80, pp. 671-4, 2009.
B. D. Fox, Azoulay, L., Dell'Aniello, S., Langleben, D., Lapi, F., Benisty, J., and Suissa, S., The use of antidepressants and the risk of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, Can J Cardiol, vol. 30, pp. 1633-9, 2014.
I. Douglas, Smeeth, L., and Irvine, D., The use of antidepressants and the risk of haemorrhagic stroke: a nested case control study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 71, pp. 116-20, 2011.
F. Lapi, Azoulay, L., Kezouh, A., Benisty, J., Matok, I., Mugelli, A., and Suissa, S., The use of antidepressants and the risk of chronic atrial fibrillation, J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 55, pp. 423-30, 2015.
N. Dunn, Lane, D., Everitt, H., and Little, P., Use of antibiotics for sore throat and incidence of quinsy, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 57, pp. 45-9, 2007.
L. A. Garcia Rodriguez and Gonzalez-Perez, A., Use of antibiotics and risk of breast cancer, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 161, pp. 616-9, 2005.
R. Denholm, van der Werf, E. T., and Hay, A. D., Use of antibiotics and asthma medication for acute lower respiratory tract infections in people with and without asthma: retrospective cohort study, Respir Res, vol. 21, p. 4, 2020.
M. Sharland, The use of antibacterials in children: a report of the Specialist Advisory Committee on Antimicrobial Resistance (SACAR) Paediatric Subgroup, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol. 60 Suppl 1, pp. i15-26, 2007.
P. C. Souverein, van Staa, T. P., Egberts, A. C., De la Rosette, J. J., Cooper, C., and Leufkens, H. G., Use of alpha-blockers and the risk of hip/femur fractures, J Intern Med, vol. 254, pp. 548-54, 2003.
F. X. Lamy, Saragoussi, D., Johnson, M. E., Guiraud-Diawara, A., Jorgensen, K. T., Loze, J. Y., and Maguire, A., The use of adjunctive antipsychotics to treat depression in UK primary care, Curr Med Res Opin, vol. 33, pp. 891-898, 2017.
C. Rebordosa, Aguado, J., Plana, E., Thomas, S., Frances, A., Lei, A., Garcia-Gil, E., Nuevo, J., Perez-Gutthann, S., and Castellsague, J., Use of aclidinium did not increase the risk of death in a noninterventional cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), United Kingdom, Respir Med, vol. 152, pp. 37-43, 2019.
E. Hak, Mulder, B., Schuiling-Veninga, C. C., de Vries, T. W., and Jick, S. S., Use of acid-suppressive drugs in pregnancy and the risk of childhood asthma: bidirectional crossover study using the general practice research database, Drug Saf, vol. 36, pp. 1097-104, 2013.
G. Hughes, Williams, T., Simms, I., Mercer, C., Fenton, K., and Cassell, J., Use of a primary care database to determine trends in genital chlamydia testing, diagnostic episodes and management in UK general practice, 1990-2004, Sex Transm Infect, vol. 83, pp. 310-3, 2007.
T. P. van Staa, Abenhaim, L., Cooper, C., Zhang, B., and Leufkens, H. G., The use of a large pharmacoepidemiological database to study exposure to oral corticosteroids and risk of fractures: validation of study population and results, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 9, pp. 359-66, 2000.
C. J. Crooks, Card, T. R., and West, J., The Use of a Bayesian Hierarchy to Develop and Validate a Co-Morbidity Score to Predict Mortality for Linked Primary and Secondary Care Data from the NHS in England, PLoS One, vol. 11, p. e0165507, 2016.
A. Hart, Ng, S. C., Watkins, J., Paridaens, K., Edwards, J. O., Fullarton, J. R., Sonderegger, Y. L. Y., Ghatnekar, O., and Ghosh, S., The use of 5-aminosalicylates in Crohn's disease: a retrospective study using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Ann Gastroenterol, vol. 33, pp. 500-507, 2020.
J. D. Orlander, Jick, S. S., Dean, A. D., and Jick, H., Urinary tract infections and estrogen use in older women, J Am Geriatr Soc, vol. 40, pp. 817-20, 1992.
C. F. Kuo, Chou, I. J., See, L. C., Chen, J. S., Yu, K. H., Luo, S. F., Hsieh, A. H., Zhang, W., and Doherty, M., Urate-lowering treatment and risk of total joint replacement in patients with gout, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 57, pp. 2129-2139, 2018.
S. Rajaram, Steffey, A., Blak, B., Hickman, M., Christensen, H., and Caspard, H., Uptake of childhood influenza vaccine from 2012-2013 to 2014-2015 in the UK and the implications for high-risk children: a retrospective observational cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e010625, 2016.
W. P. Bowe, Hoffstad, O., and Margolis, D. J., Upper respiratory tract infection in household contacts of acne patients, Dermatology, vol. 215, pp. 213-8, 2007.
A. Gonzalez-Perez and Rodriguez, L. A., Upper gastrointestinal complications among users of paracetamol, Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol, vol. 98, pp. 297-303, 2006.
T. Van Staa, Abenhaim, L., and Cooper, C., Upper gastrointestinal adverse events and cyclical etidronate, Am J Med, vol. 103, pp. 462-7, 1997.
M. A. Wallander, Johansson, S., Ruigomez, A., and Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Unspecified abdominal pain in primary care: the role of gastrointestinal morbidity, Int J Clin Pract, vol. 61, pp. 1663-70, 2007.
F. Ahmadizar, Souverein, P., de Boer, A., and van der Zee, A. H. Maitlan, Undertreatment of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: long-term follow-up on time trends in the occurrence of cardiovascular disease, risk factors and medications use, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 84, pp. 776-785, 2018.
N. A. Francis, Hood, K., Lyons, R., and Butler, C. C., Understanding flucloxacillin prescribing trends and treatment non-response in UK primary care: a Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) study, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol. 71, pp. 2037-46, 2016.
D. Yu, Jordan, K. P., and Peat, G., Underrecording of osteoarthritis in United Kingdom primary care electronic health record data, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 1195-1201, 2018.
L. McDonald, Sammon, C. J., Samnaliev, M., and Ramagopalan, S., Under-recording of hospital bleeding events in UK primary care: a linked Clinical Practice Research Datalink and Hospital Episode Statistics study, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 1155-1168, 2018.
A. Pate, Emsley, R., Ashcroft, D. M., Brown, B., and Van Staa, T., The uncertainty with using risk prediction models for individual decision making: an exemplar cohort study examining the prediction of cardiovascular disease in English primary care, BMC Med, vol. 17, p. 134, 2019.
S. Lee, Shafe, A. C., and Cowie, M. R., UK stroke incidence, mortality and cardiovascular risk management 1999-2008: time-trend analysis from the General Practice Research Database, BMJ Open, vol. 1, p. e000269, 2011.
S. Denaxas, Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Direk, K., Fitzpatrick, N. K., Fatemifar, G., Banerjee, A., Dobson, R. J. B., Howe, L. J., Kuan, V., Lumbers, R. T., Pasea, L., Patel, R. S., Shah, A. D., Hingorani, A. D., Sudlow, C., and Hemingway, H., UK phenomics platform for developing and validating electronic health record phenotypes: CALIBER, J Am Med Inform Assoc, 2019.
[Page last reviewed 4 February 2021]