Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 April 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 226 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2770 results:
Author Title [ Type(Asc)] Year
Journal Article
T. Van Staa, Abenhaim, L., and Cooper, C., Upper gastrointestinal adverse events and cyclical etidronate, Am J Med, vol. 103, pp. 462-7, 1997.
M. A. Wallander, Johansson, S., Ruigomez, A., and Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Unspecified abdominal pain in primary care: the role of gastrointestinal morbidity, Int J Clin Pract, vol. 61, pp. 1663-70, 2007.
F. Ahmadizar, Souverein, P., de Boer, A., and van der Zee, A. H. Maitlan, Undertreatment of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: long-term follow-up on time trends in the occurrence of cardiovascular disease, risk factors and medications use, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 84, pp. 776-785, 2018.
N. A. Francis, Hood, K., Lyons, R., and Butler, C. C., Understanding flucloxacillin prescribing trends and treatment non-response in UK primary care: a Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) study, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol. 71, pp. 2037-46, 2016.
D. Yu, Jordan, K. P., and Peat, G., Underrecording of osteoarthritis in United Kingdom primary care electronic health record data, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 1195-1201, 2018.
L. McDonald, Sammon, C. J., Samnaliev, M., and Ramagopalan, S., Under-recording of hospital bleeding events in UK primary care: a linked Clinical Practice Research Datalink and Hospital Episode Statistics study, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 1155-1168, 2018.
A. Pate, Emsley, R., Ashcroft, D. M., Brown, B., and Van Staa, T., The uncertainty with using risk prediction models for individual decision making: an exemplar cohort study examining the prediction of cardiovascular disease in English primary care, BMC Med, vol. 17, p. 134, 2019.
S. Lee, Shafe, A. C., and Cowie, M. R., UK stroke incidence, mortality and cardiovascular risk management 1999-2008: time-trend analysis from the General Practice Research Database, BMJ Open, vol. 1, p. e000269, 2011.
J. L. Walker, Grint, D. J., Strongman, H., Eggo, R. M., Peppa, M., Minassian, C., Mansfield, K. E., Rentsch, C. T., Douglas, I. J., Mathur, R., Wong, A. Y. S., Quint, J. K., Andrews, N., Bernal, J. L., Scott, J. A., Ramsay, M., Smeeth, L., and McDonald, H. I., UK prevalence of underlying conditions which increase the risk of severe COVID-19 disease: a point prevalence study using electronic health records, BMC Public Health, vol. 21, p. 484, 2021.
S. Denaxas, Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Direk, K., Fitzpatrick, N. K., Fatemifar, G., Banerjee, A., Dobson, R. J. B., Howe, L. J., Kuan, V., Lumbers, R. T., Pasea, L., Patel, R. S., Shah, A. D., Hingorani, A. D., Sudlow, C., and Hemingway, H., UK phenomics platform for developing and validating electronic health record phenotypes: CALIBER, J Am Med Inform Assoc, 2019.
N. M. Hawkins, Scholes, S., Bajekal, M., Love, H., O'Flaherty, M., Raine, R., and Capewell, S., The UK National Health Service: delivering equitable treatment across the spectrum of coronary disease, Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes, vol. 6, pp. 208-16, 2013.
R. Joshi, Venkatesan, S., and Myles, P. R., A UK general practice population cohort study investigating the association between lipid lowering drugs and 30-day mortality following medically attended acute respiratory illness, PeerJ, vol. 4, p. e1902, 2016.
R. Lawrenson, Wyndaele, J. J., Vlachonikolis, I., Farmer, C., and Glickman, S., A UK general practice database study of prevalence and mortality of people with neural tube defects, Clin Rehabil, vol. 14, pp. 627-30, 2000.
N. Frey, Hugle, T., Jick, S. S., Meier, C. R., and Spoendlin, J., Type II diabetes mellitus and incident osteoarthritis of the hand: a population-based case-control analysis, Osteoarthritis Cartilage, vol. 24, pp. 1535-40, 2016.
C. Group on H. Cancer, Type and timing of menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis of the worldwide epidemiological evidence, Lancet, vol. 394, pp. 1159-1168, 2019.
E. Herrett, George, J., Denaxas, S., Bhaskaran, K., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., and Smeeth, L., Type and timing of heralding in ST-elevation and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction: an analysis of prospectively collected electronic healthcare records linked to the national registry of acute coronary syndromes, Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care, vol. 2, pp. 235-45, 2013.
Y. X. Yang, Hennessy, S., and Lewis, J. D., Type 2 diabetes mellitus and the risk of colorectal cancer, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, vol. 3, pp. 587-94, 2005.
L. Bensimon, Yin, H., Suissa, S., Pollak, M. N., and Azoulay, L., Type 2 diabetes and the risk of mortality among patients with prostate cancer, Cancer Causes Control, vol. 25, pp. 329-38, 2014.
P. N. Taylor, Minassian, C., Rehman, A., Iqbal, A., Draman, M. S., Hamilton, W., Dunlop, D., Robinson, A., Vaidya, B., Lazarus, J. H., Thomas, S., Dayan, C. M., and Okosieme, O. E., TSH levels and risk of miscarriage in women on long-term levothyroxine: a community-based study, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, vol. 99, pp. 3895-902, 2014.
G. C. Hall, Brown, M. M., Mo, J., and MacRae, K. D., Triptans in migraine: the risks of stroke, cardiovascular disease, and death in practice, Neurology, vol. 62, pp. 563-8, 2004.
E. Crellin, Mansfield, K. E., Leyrat, C., Nitsch, D., Douglas, I. J., Root, A., Williamson, E., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L. A., Trimethoprim use for urinary tract infection and risk of adverse outcomes in older patients: cohort study, Bmj, vol. 360, p. k341, 2018.
A. J. Walker, Card, T., Bates, T. E., and Muir, K., Tricyclic antidepressants and the incidence of certain cancers: a study using the GPRD, Br J Cancer, vol. 104, pp. 193-7, 2011.
A. K. Imkampe and Gulliford, M. C., Trends in Type 1 diabetes incidence in the UK in 0- to 14-year-olds and in 15- to 34-year-olds, 1991-2008, Diabet Med, vol. 28, pp. 811-4, 2011.
S. Price, Spencer, A., Zhang, X., Ball, S., Lyratzopoulos, G., Mujica-Mota, R., Stapley, S., Ukoumunne, O. C., and Hamilton, W., Trends in time to cancer diagnosis around the period of changing national guidance on referral of symptomatic patients: A serial cross-sectional study using UK electronic healthcare records from 2006-17, Cancer Epidemiol, vol. 69, p. 101805, 2020.
K. Bailey, Ellis, C., and Majeed, A., Trends in the treatment of osteoporosis and types of drug treatments prescribed in general practice in England and Wales, 1994 to 1998, Health Stat Q, pp. 5-13, 2002.
C. Martinez, Jones, R. W., and Rietbrock, S., Trends in the prevalence of antipsychotic drug use among patients with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias including those treated with antidementia drugs in the community in the UK: a cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 3, 2013.
C. L. Burton, Chen, Y., Chesterton, L. S., and van der Windt, D. A., Trends in the prevalence, incidence and surgical management of carpal tunnel syndrome between 1993 and 2013: an observational analysis of UK primary care records, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e020166, 2018.
A. Majeed, Moser, K., and Carroll, K., Trends in the prevalence and management of atrial fibrillation in general practice in England and Wales, 1994-1998: analysis of data from the general practice research database, Heart, vol. 86, pp. 284-8, 2001.
S. Y. Loo, Dell'Aniello, S., Huiart, L., and Renoux, C., Trends in the prescription of novel oral anticoagulants in UK primary care, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 83, pp. 2096-2106, 2017.
K. B. Filion, Joseph, L., Boivin, J. F., Suissa, S., and Brophy, J. M., Trends in the prescription of anti-diabetic medications in the United Kingdom: a population-based analysis, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 18, pp. 973-6, 2009.
H. T. Ayele, Reynier, P., Azoulay, L., Platt, R. W., Cabaussel, J., Benayoun, S., and Filion, K. B., Trends in the pharmacological treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in the UK from 1998 to 2016: a population-based cohort study, World J Urol, 2020.
S. M. Collin, Bakken, I. J., Nazareth, I., Crawley, E., and White, P. D., Trends in the incidence of chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia in the UK, 2001-2013: a Clinical Practice Research Datalink study, J R Soc Med, vol. 110, pp. 231-244, 2017.
J. L. Walker, Andrews, N. J., Mathur, R., Smeeth, L., and Thomas, S. L., Trends in the burden of varicella in UK general practice, Epidemiol Infect, vol. 145, pp. 2678-2682, 2017.
C. J. Taylor, Ordonez-Mena, J. M., Roalfe, A. K., Lay-Flurrie, S., Jones, N. R., Marshall, T., and Hobbs, F. D. R., Trends in survival after a diagnosis of heart failure in the United Kingdom 2000-2017: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 364, p. l223, 2019.
J. A. Cassell, Mercer, C. H., Sutcliffe, L., Petersen, I., Islam, A., Brook, M. G., Ross, J. D., Kinghorn, G. R., Simms, I., Hughes, G., Majeed, A., Stephenson, J. M., Johnson, A. M., and Hayward, A. C., Trends in sexually transmitted infections in general practice 1990-2000: population based study using data from the UK general practice research database, Bmj, vol. 332, pp. 332-4, 2006.
L. Szatkowski, Vaz, L. R., Fiaschi, L., Tata, L., and Coleman, T., Trends in prescribing of nicotine replacement therapy to pregnant women in primary care in England, Nicotine Tob Res, 2021.
J. Pearson-Stuttard, Bennett, J., Cheng, Y. J., Vamos, E. P., Cross, A. J., Ezzati, M., and Gregg, E. W., Trends in predominant causes of death in individuals with and without diabetes in England from 2001 to 2018: an epidemiological analysis of linked primary care records, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, vol. 9, pp. 165-173, 2021.
R. Y. van der Velde, Wyers, C. E., Teesselink, E., Geusens, P., van den Bergh, J. P. W., de Vries, F., Cooper, C., Harvey, N. C., and van Staa, T. P., Trends in oral anti-osteoporosis drug prescription in the United Kingdom between 1990 and 2012: Variation by age, sex, geographic location and ethnicity, Bone, vol. 94, pp. 50-55, 2017.
A. Taqi, Otete, H., and Knaggs, R. D., Trends in opioid prescribing in primary care patients with knee osteoarthritis: A population based observational study, Value in Health, vol. 20, pp. A540-A541, 2017.
A. Rahman, Kane, J., Montastruc, F., and Renoux, C., Trends in new prescription of gabapentinoids and of coprescription with opioids in the 4 nations of the UK, 1993-2017, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2021.
O. A. Oshagbemi, Keene, S. J., Driessen, J. H. M., Jordan, R., Wouters, E. F. M., de Boer, A., de Vries, F., and Franssen, F. M. E., Trends in moderate and severe exacerbations among COPD patients in the UK from 2005 to 2013, Respir Med, vol. 144, pp. 1-6, 2018.
J. Bedson, Chen, Y., Hayward, R. A., Ashworth, J., Walters, K., Dunn, K. M., and Jordan, K. P., Trends in long-term opioid prescribing in primary care patients with musculoskeletal conditions: an observational database study, Pain, vol. 157, pp. 1525-31, 2016.
B. Feakins, Oke, J., McFadden, E., Aronson, J., Lasserson, D., O'Callaghan, C., Taylor, C., Hill, N., Stevens, R., and Perera, R., Trends in kidney function testing in UK primary care since the introduction of the quality and outcomes framework: a retrospective cohort study using CPRD, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e028062, 2019.
S. Swain, Sarmanova, A., Mallen, C., Kuo, C. F., Coupland, C., Doherty, M., and Zhang, W., Trends in incidence and prevalence of osteoarthritis in the United Kingdom: findings from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2020.
A. M. Pfeil, Imfeld, P., Pettengell, R., Jick, S. S., Szucs, T. D., Meier, C. R., and Schwenkglenks, M., Trends in incidence and medical resource utilisation in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: insights from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), Ann Hematol, vol. 94, pp. 421-9, 2015.
V. W. Zhong, Juhaeri, J., and Mayer-Davis, E. J., Trends in Hospital Admission for Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Adults With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes in England, 1998-2013: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Diabetes Care, vol. 41, pp. 1870-1877, 2018.
M. Gompels, Michael, S., Davies, C., Jones, T., Macleod, J., and May, M., Trends in HIV testing in the UK primary care setting: a 15-year retrospective cohort study from 2000 to 2015, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e027744, 2019.
H. E. Evans, Mercer, C. H., Rait, G., Hamill, M., Delpech, V., Hughes, G., Brook, M. G., Williams, T., Johnson, A. M., Singh, S., Petersen, I., Chadborn, T., and Cassell, J. A., Trends in HIV testing and recording of HIV status in the UK primary care setting: a retrospective cohort study 1995-2005, Sex Transm Infect, vol. 85, pp. 520-6, 2009.
J. Ruzangi, Blair, M., Cecil, E., Greenfield, G., Bottle, A., Hargreaves, D. S., and Saxena, S., Trends in healthcare use in children aged less than 15 years: a population-based cohort study in England from 2007 to 2017, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e033761, 2020.
T. Appleyard, Ashworth, J., Bedson, J., Yu, D., and Peat, G., Trends in gabapentinoid prescribing in patients with osteoarthritis: a United Kingdom national cohort study in primary care, Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2019.
[Page last reviewed 6 April 2021]