Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 August 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 207 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2566 results:
Author [ Title(Desc)] Type Year
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C. S. de Vries, Bromley, S. E., Thomas, H., and Farmer, R. D., Tibolone and endometrial cancer: a cohort and nested case-control study in the UK, Drug Saf, vol. 28, pp. 241-9, 2005.
S. C. Chung, Pujades-Rodriguez, M., Duyx, B., Denaxas, S. C., Pasea, L., Hingorani, A., Timmis, A., Williams, B., and Hemingway, H., Time spent at blood pressure target and the risk of death and cardiovascular diseases, PLoS One, vol. 13, p. e0202359, 2018.
U. Desai, Kirson, N. Y., Kim, J., Khunti, K., King, S., Trieschman, E., Hellstern, M., Hunt, P. R., and Mukherjee, J., Time to Treatment Intensification After Monotherapy Failure and Its Association With Subsequent Glycemic Control Among 93,515 Patients With Type 2 Diabetes, Diabetes Care, vol. 41, pp. 2096-2104, 2018.
H. J. Curtis, Dennis, J. M., Shields, B. M., Walker, A. J., Bacon, S., Hattersley, A. T., Jones, A. G., and Goldacre, B., Time trends and geographical variation in prescribing of drugs for diabetes in England from 1998 to 2017, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 20, pp. 2159-2168, 2018.
L. Currin, Schmidt, U., Treasure, J., and Jick, H., Time trends in eating disorder incidence, Br J Psychiatry, vol. 186, pp. 132-5, 2005.
C. Hodgson and Ellis, C., Time trends in GP outpatient referrals., Health Statistics Quartely, vol. 10, pp. 14-9, 2001.
J. M. Dennis, Henley, W. E., McGovern, A. P., Farmer, A. J., Sattar, N., Holman, R. R., Pearson, E. R., Hattersley, A. T., Shields, B. M., and Jones, A. G., Time trends in prescribing of type 2 diabetes drugs, glycemic response and risk factors: a retrospective analysis of primary care data, 2010-2017, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2019.
S. M. Grandi, Reynier, P., Platt, R. W., Basso, O., and Filion, K. B., The timing of onset of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and the risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease, Int J Cardiol, vol. 270, pp. 273-275, 2018.
J. A. Hirst, Farmer, A. J., Smith, M. C., and Stevens, R. J., Timings for HbA1c testing in people with diabetes are associated with incentive payments: an analysis of UK primary care data, Diabet Med, 2018.
E. Koshy, Watt, H., Curcin, V., Bottle, A., Sharland, M., and Saxena, S., Tonsillectomy among children with low baseline acute throat infection consultation rates in UK general practices: a cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 5, p. e006686, 2015.
M. Lawrence, Coulter, A., and Jones, L., A total audit of preventive procedures in 45 practices caring for 430,000 patients, Bmj, vol. 300, pp. 1501-3, 1990.
D. J. Sleator, Towards accurate prescribing analysis in general practice: accounting for the effects of practice demography, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 43, pp. 102-6, 1993.
C. J. Czoski Murray, Kingsbury, S. R., Arden, N. K., Hewison, J., Judge, A., Matu, J., O'Shea, J., Pinedo-Villanueva, R., Smith, L. K., Smith, C., Thomas, C. M., West, R. M., Wright, J. M., Conaghan, P. G., and Stone, M. H., Towards UK poSt Arthroplasty Follow-up rEcommendations (UK SAFE): protocol for an evaluation of the requirements for arthroplasty follow-up, and the production of consensus-based recommendations, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e031351, 2019.
J. A. Delaney, Daskalopoulou, S. S., and Suissa, S., Traditional versus marginal structural models to estimate the effectiveness of beta-blocker use on mortality after myocardial infarction, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 18, pp. 1-6, 2009.
I. M. Carey, Anderson, H. R., Atkinson, R. W., Beevers, S., Cook, D. G., Dajnak, D., Gulliver, J., and Kelly, F. J., Traffic pollution and the incidence of cardiorespiratory outcomes in an adult cohort in London, Occup Environ Med, vol. 73, pp. 849-856, 2016.
P. Planell-Morell, Bajekal, M., Denaxas, S., Raine, R., and Alexander, D. C., Trajectories of Disease Accumulation Using Electronic Health Records, Stud Health Technol Inform, vol. 270, pp. 469-473, 2020.
J. Charlton, Ravindrarajah, R., Hamada, S., Jackson, S. H., and Gulliford, M. C., Trajectory of Total Cholesterol in the Last Years of Life Over Age 80 Years: Cohort Study of 99,758 Participants, J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, vol. 73, pp. 1083-1089, 2018.
J. P. Fournier, Yin, H., Nessim, S. J., Montastruc, J. L., and Azoulay, L., Tramadol for noncancer pain and the risk of hyponatremia, Am J Med, vol. 128, pp. 418-25.e5, 2015.
J. P. Fournier, Azoulay, L., Yin, H., Montastruc, J. L., and Suissa, S., Tramadol use and the risk of hospitalization for hypoglycemia in patients with noncancer pain, JAMA Intern Med, vol. 175, pp. 186-93, 2015.
C. Renoux, Dell'Aniello, S., Garbe, E., and Suissa, S., Transdermal and oral hormone replacement therapy and the risk of stroke: a nested case-control study, Bmj, vol. 340, p. c2519, 2010.
S. Tomkins, Chapman, C., Myland, M., Tham, R., de Nobrega, R., Jackson, B., and Keshav, S., Treating iron deficiency in patients with gastrointestinal disease: Risk of re-attendance in secondary care, PLoS One, vol. 12, p. e0189952, 2017.
J. Gordon, McEwan, P., Idris, I., Evans, M., and Puelles, J., Treatment choice, medication adherence and glycemic efficacy in people with type 2 diabetes: a UK clinical practice database study, BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, vol. 6, p. e000512, 2018.
K. E. Wurst, Punekar, Y. S., and Shukla, A., Treatment evolution after COPD diagnosis in the UK primary care setting, PLoS One, vol. 9, p. e105296, 2014.
J. L. Rees, Shah, A., Edwards, K., Sanchez-Santos, M. T., Robinson, D. E., Delmestri, A., Carr, A., Arden, N., Lamb, S. E., Rangan, A., Judge, A., Pinedo-Villanueva, R., Holt, T., Hopewell, S., Prieto-Alhambra, D., and Collins, G., Treatment of first-time traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation: the UK TASH-D cohort study, Health Technol Assess, vol. 23, pp. 1-104, 2019.
M. R. MacDonald, Eurich, D. T., Majumdar, S. R., Lewsey, J. D., Bhagra, S., Jhund, P. S., Petrie, M. C., McMurray, J. J., Petrie, J. R., and McAlister, F. A., Treatment of type 2 diabetes and outcomes in patients with heart failure: a nested case-control study from the U.K. General Practice Research Database, Diabetes Care, vol. 33, pp. 1213-8, 2010.
J. A. Hodgkinson, Taylor, C. J., and Hobbs, F. D., Treatment pathways for patients with atrial fibrillation, Int J Clin Pract, vol. 66, pp. 44-52, 2012.
S. Johansson, Wallander, M. A., Ruigomez, A., and Garcia, R., Treatment patterns among newly diagnosed heart failure patients in general practice, Eur J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 57, pp. 813-7, 2002.
D. C. Gibbons, Aggarwal, B., Fairburn-Beech, J., Hinds, D., Fletcher, M., Bosnic-Anticevich, S., and Price, D., Treatment patterns among non-active users of maintenance asthma medication in the United Kingdom: a retrospective cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, J Asthma, pp. 1-12, 2020.
B. L. Nordstrom, Collins, J. M., Donaldson, R., Engelman, W. A., Tockhorn, A., Zhu, Y., and Zhao, Z., Treatment patterns and lipid levels among patients with high-risk atherosclerotic CVD in the UK, The British Journal of Cardiology, 2015.
D. Dedman, Coton, S. J., Ghosh, R. E., Meeraus, W., Crim, C., Harvey, C., Amelio, J., and Landis, S. H., Treatment Patterns of New Users of Fluticasone Furoate/Vilanterol in Asthma and COPD in UK Primary Care: Retrospective Cohort Study, Pulmonary Therapy, vol. 5, pp. 81-95, 2019.
A. Lafuma, Salmon, J. F., Robert, J., and Berdeaux, G., Treatment persistence and cost-effectiveness of latanoprost/latanoprost-timolol, bimatoprost/bimatoprost-timolol, and travoprost/travoprost-timolol in glaucoma: an analysis based on the United Kingdom general practitioner research database, Clin Ophthalmol, vol. 5, pp. 361-7, 2011.
I. Idris, Peng, X., He, X., Liu, D., Balogh, E., Kaushik, P., and van Brunt, K., The Trend of High-Dose Insulin Usage Among Patients with Diabetes in the UK: A Retrospective Study, Diabetes Ther, vol. 9, pp. 2245-2257, 2018.
E. Burn, Edwards, C. J., Murray, D. W., Silman, A., Cooper, C., Arden, N. K., Pinedo-Villanueva, R., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Trends and determinants of length of stay and hospital reimbursement following knee and hip replacement: evidence from linked primary care and NHS hospital records from 1997 to 2014, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e019146, 2018.
S. J. Sinnott, Smeeth, L., Williamson, E., and Douglas, I. J., Trends for prevalence and incidence of resistant hypertension: population based cohort study in the UK 1995-2015, Bmj, vol. 358, p. j3984, 2017.
M. Frischer, Heatlie, H., Norwood, J., Bashford, J., Millson, D., and Chapman, S., Trends in antibiotic prescribing and associated indications in primary care from 1993 to 1997, J Public Health Med, vol. 23, pp. 69-73, 2001.
G. Powell, Logan, J., Kiri, V., and Borghs, S., Trends in antiepileptic drug treatment and effectiveness in clinical practice in England from 2003 to 2016: a retrospective cohort study using electronic medical records, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e032551, 2019.
J. M. Nicholas, Ridsdale, L., Richardson, M. P., Ashworth, M., and Gulliford, M. C., Trends in antiepileptic drug utilisation in UK primary care 1993-2008: cohort study using the General Practice Research Database, Seizure, vol. 21, pp. 466-70, 2012.
M. C. Gulliford, Charlton, J., and Latinovic, R., Trends in antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy in subjects with type II diabetes: clinical effectiveness or clinical discretion?, J Hum Hypertens, vol. 19, pp. 111-7, 2005.
H. K. Bronsveld, Peeters, P., de Groot, M. C. H., de Boer, A., Schmidt, M. K., and De Bruin, M. L., Trends in breast cancer incidence among women with type-2 diabetes in British general practice, Prim Care Diabetes, vol. 11, pp. 373-382, 2017.
K. Donegan, Fox, N., Black, N., Livingston, G., Banerjee, S., and Burns, A., Trends in diagnosis and treatment for people with dementia in the UK from 2005 to 2015: a longitudinal retrospective cohort study, Lancet Public Health, vol. 2, pp. e149-e156, 2017.
M. Frisher, Martino, O., Crome, I., and Croft, P., Trends in drug misuse recorded in primary care in the UK from 1998 to 2005, J Public Health (Oxf), vol. 31, pp. 69-73, 2009.
T. Appleyard, Ashworth, J., Bedson, J., Yu, D., and Peat, G., Trends in gabapentinoid prescribing in patients with osteoarthritis: a United Kingdom national cohort study in primary care, Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2019.
J. Ruzangi, Blair, M., Cecil, E., Greenfield, G., Bottle, A., Hargreaves, D. S., and Saxena, S., Trends in healthcare use in children aged less than 15 years: a population-based cohort study in England from 2007 to 2017, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e033761, 2020.
H. E. Evans, Mercer, C. H., Rait, G., Hamill, M., Delpech, V., Hughes, G., Brook, M. G., Williams, T., Johnson, A. M., Singh, S., Petersen, I., Chadborn, T., and Cassell, J. A., Trends in HIV testing and recording of HIV status in the UK primary care setting: a retrospective cohort study 1995-2005, Sex Transm Infect, vol. 85, pp. 520-6, 2009.
M. Gompels, Michael, S., Davies, C., Jones, T., Macleod, J., and May, M., Trends in HIV testing in the UK primary care setting: a 15-year retrospective cohort study from 2000 to 2015, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e027744, 2019.
V. W. Zhong, Juhaeri, J., and Mayer-Davis, E. J., Trends in Hospital Admission for Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Adults With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes in England, 1998-2013: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Diabetes Care, vol. 41, pp. 1870-1877, 2018.
A. M. Pfeil, Imfeld, P., Pettengell, R., Jick, S. S., Szucs, T. D., Meier, C. R., and Schwenkglenks, M., Trends in incidence and medical resource utilisation in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: insights from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), Ann Hematol, vol. 94, pp. 421-9, 2015.
S. Swain, Sarmanova, A., Mallen, C., Kuo, C. F., Coupland, C., Doherty, M., and Zhang, W., Trends in incidence and prevalence of osteoarthritis in the United Kingdom: findings from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2020.
B. Feakins, Oke, J., McFadden, E., Aronson, J., Lasserson, D., O'Callaghan, C., Taylor, C., Hill, N., Stevens, R., and Perera, R., Trends in kidney function testing in UK primary care since the introduction of the quality and outcomes framework: a retrospective cohort study using CPRD, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e028062, 2019.
J. Bedson, Chen, Y., Hayward, R. A., Ashworth, J., Walters, K., Dunn, K. M., and Jordan, K. P., Trends in long-term opioid prescribing in primary care patients with musculoskeletal conditions: an observational database study, Pain, vol. 157, pp. 1525-31, 2016.
[Page last reviewed 5 August 2020]