Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 August 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 207 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2566 results:
Author Title [ Type(Asc)] Year
Journal Article
P. Planell-Morell, Bajekal, M., Denaxas, S., Raine, R., and Alexander, D. C., Trajectories of Disease Accumulation Using Electronic Health Records, Stud Health Technol Inform, vol. 270, pp. 469-473, 2020.
I. M. Carey, Anderson, H. R., Atkinson, R. W., Beevers, S., Cook, D. G., Dajnak, D., Gulliver, J., and Kelly, F. J., Traffic pollution and the incidence of cardiorespiratory outcomes in an adult cohort in London, Occup Environ Med, vol. 73, pp. 849-856, 2016.
J. A. Delaney, Daskalopoulou, S. S., and Suissa, S., Traditional versus marginal structural models to estimate the effectiveness of beta-blocker use on mortality after myocardial infarction, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 18, pp. 1-6, 2009.
C. J. Czoski Murray, Kingsbury, S. R., Arden, N. K., Hewison, J., Judge, A., Matu, J., O'Shea, J., Pinedo-Villanueva, R., Smith, L. K., Smith, C., Thomas, C. M., West, R. M., Wright, J. M., Conaghan, P. G., and Stone, M. H., Towards UK poSt Arthroplasty Follow-up rEcommendations (UK SAFE): protocol for an evaluation of the requirements for arthroplasty follow-up, and the production of consensus-based recommendations, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e031351, 2019.
D. J. Sleator, Towards accurate prescribing analysis in general practice: accounting for the effects of practice demography, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 43, pp. 102-6, 1993.
M. Lawrence, Coulter, A., and Jones, L., A total audit of preventive procedures in 45 practices caring for 430,000 patients, Bmj, vol. 300, pp. 1501-3, 1990.
E. Koshy, Watt, H., Curcin, V., Bottle, A., Sharland, M., and Saxena, S., Tonsillectomy among children with low baseline acute throat infection consultation rates in UK general practices: a cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 5, p. e006686, 2015.
J. A. Hirst, Farmer, A. J., Smith, M. C., and Stevens, R. J., Timings for HbA1c testing in people with diabetes are associated with incentive payments: an analysis of UK primary care data, Diabet Med, 2018.
S. M. Grandi, Reynier, P., Platt, R. W., Basso, O., and Filion, K. B., The timing of onset of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and the risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease, Int J Cardiol, vol. 270, pp. 273-275, 2018.
J. M. Dennis, Henley, W. E., McGovern, A. P., Farmer, A. J., Sattar, N., Holman, R. R., Pearson, E. R., Hattersley, A. T., Shields, B. M., and Jones, A. G., Time trends in prescribing of type 2 diabetes drugs, glycemic response and risk factors: a retrospective analysis of primary care data, 2010-2017, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2019.
C. Hodgson and Ellis, C., Time trends in GP outpatient referrals., Health Statistics Quartely, vol. 10, pp. 14-9, 2001.
L. Currin, Schmidt, U., Treasure, J., and Jick, H., Time trends in eating disorder incidence, Br J Psychiatry, vol. 186, pp. 132-5, 2005.
H. J. Curtis, Dennis, J. M., Shields, B. M., Walker, A. J., Bacon, S., Hattersley, A. T., Jones, A. G., and Goldacre, B., Time trends and geographical variation in prescribing of drugs for diabetes in England from 1998 to 2017, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 20, pp. 2159-2168, 2018.
U. Desai, Kirson, N. Y., Kim, J., Khunti, K., King, S., Trieschman, E., Hellstern, M., Hunt, P. R., and Mukherjee, J., Time to Treatment Intensification After Monotherapy Failure and Its Association With Subsequent Glycemic Control Among 93,515 Patients With Type 2 Diabetes, Diabetes Care, vol. 41, pp. 2096-2104, 2018.
S. C. Chung, Pujades-Rodriguez, M., Duyx, B., Denaxas, S. C., Pasea, L., Hingorani, A., Timmis, A., Williams, B., and Hemingway, H., Time spent at blood pressure target and the risk of death and cardiovascular diseases, PLoS One, vol. 13, p. e0202359, 2018.
C. S. de Vries, Bromley, S. E., Thomas, H., and Farmer, R. D., Tibolone and endometrial cancer: a cohort and nested case-control study in the UK, Drug Saf, vol. 28, pp. 241-9, 2005.
S. Hajat, Goubet, S. A., and Haines, A., Thunderstorm-associated asthma: the effect on GP consultations, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 47, pp. 639-41, 1997.
A. C. Scowcroft, Lee, S., and Mant, J., Thromboprophylaxis of elderly patients with AF in the UK: an analysis using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) 2000-2009, Heart, vol. 99, pp. 127-32, 2013.
A. Sarpatwari, Bennett, D., Logie, J. W., Shukla, A., Beach, K. J., Newland, A. C., Sanderson, S., and Provan, D., Thromboembolic events among adult patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia in the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database, Haematologica, vol. 95, pp. 1167-75, 2010.
A. D. Shah, Nicholas, O., Timmis, A. D., Feder, G., Abrams, K. R., Chen, R., Hingorani, A. D., and Hemingway, H., Threshold haemoglobin levels and the prognosis of stable coronary disease: two new cohorts and a systematic review and meta-analysis, PLoS Med, vol. 8, p. e1000439, 2011.
C. Martinez, Katholing, A., Folkerts, K., and Rietbrock, S., Thirteen-year trend in the persistence with vitamin K antagonists for venous thromboembolism in the UK: a cohort study, Curr Med Res Opin, vol. 34, pp. 1985-1990, 2018.
N. Andrews, Miller, E., Grant, A., Stowe, J., Osborne, V., and Taylor, B., Thimerosal exposure in infants and developmental disorders: a retrospective cohort study in the United kingdom does not support a causal association, Pediatrics, vol. 114, pp. 584-91, 2004.
L. Azoulay, Schneider-Lindner, V., Dell'Aniello, S., Filion, K. B., and Suissa, S., Thiazolidinediones and the risk of incident strokes in patients with type 2 diabetes: a nested case-control study, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 19, pp. 343-50, 2010.
K. B. Filion, Joseph, L., Boivin, J. F., Suissa, S., and Brophy, J. M., Thiazolidinediones and the risk of incident congestive heart failure among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 20, pp. 785-96, 2011.
A. J. Apter, Kinman, J. L., Bilker, W. B., Herlim, M., Margolis, D. J., Lautenbach, E., Hennessy, S., and Strom, B. L., Is there cross-reactivity between penicillins and cephalosporins?, Am J Med, vol. 119, pp. 354.e11-9, 2006.
C. Martinez, Katholing, A., Wallenhorst, C., and Freedman, S. B., Therapy persistence in newly diagnosed non-valvular atrial fibrillation treated with warfarin or NOAC. A cohort study, Thromb Haemost, vol. 115, pp. 31-9, 2016.
E. Herrett, Williamson, E., Van Staa, T., Ranopa, M., Free, C., Chadborn, T., Goldacre, B., and Smeeth, L., Text messaging reminders for influenza vaccine in primary care: a cluster randomised controlled trial (TXT4FLUJAB), BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e010069, 2016.
C. Martinez, Suissa, S., Rietbrock, S., Katholing, A., Freedman, B., Cohen, A. T., and Handelsman, D. J., Testosterone treatment and risk of venous thromboembolism: population based case-control study, Bmj, vol. 355, p. i5968, 2016.
C. Santella, Renoux, C., Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., and Azoulay, L., Testosterone Replacement Therapy and the Risk of Prostate Cancer in Men with Late-Onset Hypogonadism, Am J Epidemiol, 2019.
M. W. Myers and Jick, H., Terfenadine and risk of acute liver disease, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 46, pp. 251-3, 1998.
D. Spanopoulos, Okhai, H., Zaccardi, F., Tebboth, A., Barrett, B., Busse, M., Webb, J., and Khunti, K., Temporal variation of renal function in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a retrospective UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink cohort study, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2019.
K. Alexandropoulou, van Vlymen, J., Reid, F., Poullis, A., and Kang, J. Y., Temporal trends of Barrett's oesophagus and gastro-oesophageal reflux and related oesophageal cancer over a 10-year period in England and Wales and associated proton pump inhibitor and H2RA prescriptions: a GPRD study, Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol, vol. 25, pp. 15-21, 2013.
J. W. O'Sullivan, Stevens, S., Hobbs, F. D. R., Salisbury, C., Little, P., Goldacre, B., Bankhead, C., Aronson, J. K., Perera, R., and Heneghan, C., Temporal trends in use of tests in UK primary care, 2000-15: retrospective analysis of 250 million tests, Bmj, vol. 363, p. k4666, 2018.
E. L. Axson, Sundaram, V., Bloom, C. I., Bottle, A., Cowie, M. R., and Quint, J. K., Temporal Trends in the Incidence of Heart Failure among Patients with COPD and Its Association with Mortality, Ann Am Thorac Soc, 2020.
M. B. Toledano, Hansell, A. L., Jarup, L., Quinn, M., Jick, S., and Elliott, P., Temporal trends in orchidopexy, Great Britain, 1992-1998, Environ Health Perspect, vol. 111, pp. 129-32, 2003.
D. A. Lane, Skjoth, F., Lip, G. Y. H., Larsen, T. B., and Kotecha, D., Temporal Trends in Incidence, Prevalence, and Mortality of Atrial Fibrillation in Primary Care, J Am Heart Assoc, vol. 6, 2017.
D. J. Culliford, Maskell, J., Beard, D. J., Murray, D. W., Price, A. J., and Arden, N. K., Temporal trends in hip and knee replacement in the United Kingdom: 1991 to 2006, J Bone Joint Surg Br, vol. 92, pp. 130-5, 2010.
J. Sarginson, Webb, R. T., Stocks, S. J., Esmail, A., Garg, S., and Ashcroft, D. M., Temporal trends in antidepressant prescribing to children in UK primary care, 2000-2015, J Affect Disord, vol. 210, pp. 312-318, 2017.
N. Conrad, Judge, A., Canoy, D., Tran, J., Pinho-Gomes, A. C., Millett, E. R. C., Salimi-Khorshidi, G., Cleland, J. G., McMurray, J. J. V., and Rahimi, K., Temporal Trends and Patterns in Mortality After Incident Heart Failure: A Longitudinal Analysis of 86000 Individuals, JAMA Cardiol, 2019.
N. Conrad, Judge, A., Tran, J., Mohseni, H., Hedgecott, D., Crespillo, A. P., Allison, M., Hemingway, H., Cleland, J. G., McMurray, J. J. V., and Rahimi, K., Temporal trends and patterns in heart failure incidence: a population-based study of 4 million individuals, Lancet, vol. 391, pp. 572-580, 2018.
J. Busby, Schroeder, K., Woltersdorf, W., Sterne, J. A., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Hay, A., and Hollingworth, W., Temporal growth and geographic variation in the use of laboratory tests by NHS general practices: using routine data to identify research priorities, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 63, pp. e256-66, 2013.
L. A. Page, Hajat, S., Kovats, R. S., and Howard, L. M., Temperature-related deaths in people with psychosis, dementia and substance misuse, Br J Psychiatry, vol. 200, pp. 485-90, 2012.
M. Pang, Schuster, T., Filion, K. B., Eberg, M., and Platt, R. W., Targeted Maximum Likelihood Estimation for Pharmacoepidemiologic Research, Epidemiology, vol. 27, pp. 570-7, 2016.
J. Zhu and Gallego, B., Targeted estimation of heterogeneous treatment effect in observational survival analysis, J Biomed Inform, vol. 107, p. 103474, 2020.
J. Zhu and Gallego, B., Targeted estimation of heterogeneous treatment effect in observational survival analysis, J Biomed Inform, vol. 107, p. 103474, 2020.
B. D. Bradbury, Lash, T. L., Kaye, J. A., and Jick, S. S., Tamoxifen-treated breast carcinoma patients and the risk of acute myocardial infarction and newly-diagnosed angina, Cancer, vol. 103, pp. 1114-21, 2005.
C. R. Meier and Jick, H., Tamoxifen and risk of idiopathic venous thromboembolism, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 45, pp. 608-12, 1998.
B. D. Bradbury, Lash, T. L., Kaye, J. A., and Jick, S. S., Tamoxifen and cataracts: a null association, Breast Cancer Res Treat, vol. 87, pp. 189-96, 2004.
R. Ravindrarajah, Hazra, N. C., Hamada, S., Charlton, J., Jackson, S. H. D., Dregan, A., and Gulliford, M. C., Systolic Blood Pressure Trajectory, Frailty, and All-Cause Mortality >80 Years of Age: Cohort Study Using Electronic Health Records, Circulation, vol. 135, pp. 2357-2368, 2017.
A. L. Nightingale, Farmer, R. D., and de Vries, C. S., Systemic lupus erythematosus prevalence in the UK: methodological issues when using the General Practice Research Database to estimate frequency of chronic relapsing-remitting disease, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 16, pp. 144-51, 2007.
[Page last reviewed 5 August 2020]