Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 April 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 226 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2770 results:
[ Author(Desc)] Title Type Year
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 
K. G. Brodovicz, Kou, T. D., Alexander, C. M., O'Neill, E. A., Engel, S. S., Girman, C. J., and Goldstein, B. J., Impact of diabetes duration and chronic pancreatitis on the association between type 2 diabetes and pancreatic cancer risk, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 14, pp. 1123-8, 2012.
S. E. Bromley, de Vries, C. S., and Farmer, R. D., Utilisation of hormone replacement therapy in the United Kingdom. A descriptive study using the general practice research database, Bjog, vol. 111, pp. 369-76, 2004.
S. E. Bromley, Matthews, A., Smeeth, L., Stanway, S., and Bhaskaran, K., Risk of dementia among postmenopausal breast cancer survivors treated with aromatase inhibitors versus tamoxifen: a cohort study using primary care data from the UK, J Cancer Surviv, vol. 13, pp. 632-640, 2019.
H. K. Bronsveld, Peeters, P., de Groot, M. C. H., de Boer, A., Schmidt, M. K., and De Bruin, M. L., Trends in breast cancer incidence among women with type-2 diabetes in British general practice, Prim Care Diabetes, vol. 11, pp. 373-382, 2017.
M. J. Brookes, Waller, J., Cappelleri, J. C., Modesto, I., DiBonaventura, M. D., Bohm, N., Mokgokong, R., Massey, O., Wood, R., and Bargo, D., Living with Ulcerative Colitis Study (LUCY) in England: a retrospective study evaluating healthcare resource utilisation and direct healthcare costs of postoperative care in ulcerative colitis, BMJ Open Gastroenterol, vol. 7, 2020.
A. Brown, Kirichek, O., Balkwill, A., Reeves, G., Beral, V., Sudlow, C., Gallacher, J., and Green, J., Comparison of dementia recorded in routinely collected hospital admission data in England with dementia recorded in primary care, Emerg Themes Epidemiol, vol. 13, p. 11, 2016.
J. P. Brown, Tazare, J. R., Williamson, E., Mansfield, K. E., Evans, S. J., Tomlinson, L. A., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., Wing, K., and Douglas, I. J., Proton pump inhibitors and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2021.
J. Browne, Edwards, D. A., Rhodes, K. M., Brimicombe, D. J., and Payne, R. A., Association of comorbidity and health service usage among patients with dementia in the UK: a population-based study, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e012546, 2017.
J. R. Brownrigg, Hughes, C. O., Burleigh, D., Karthikesalingam, A., Patterson, B. O., Holt, P. J., Thompson, M. M., de Lusignan, S., Ray, K. K., and Hinchliffe, R. J., Microvascular disease and risk of cardiovascular events among individuals with type 2 diabetes: a population-level cohort study, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, vol. 4, pp. 588-97, 2016.
S. G. Bruderer, Bodmer, M., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Association of hormone therapy and incident gout: population-based case-control study, Menopause, vol. 22, pp. 1335-42, 2015.
S. G. Bruderer, Bodmer, M., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with a decreased risk of incident gout: a population-based case-control study, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 74, pp. 1651-8, 2015.
S. G. Bruderer, Bodmer, M., Jick, S. S., Bader, G., Schlienger, R. G., and Meier, C. R., Incidence of and risk factors for severe hypoglycaemia in treated type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in the UK–a nested case-control analysis, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 16, pp. 801-11, 2014.
S. G. Bruderer, Bodmer, D., Stohler, N. A., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Population-Based Study on the Epidemiology of Meniere's Disease, Audiol Neurootol, vol. 22, pp. 74-82, 2017.
S. G. Bruderer, Meier, C. R., Jick, S. S., and Bodmer, M., The association between thyroid disorders and incident gout: population-based case-control study, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 9, pp. 205-215, 2017.
S. Bruderer, Bodmer, M., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Use of diuretics and risk of incident gout: a population-based case-control study, Arthritis Rheumatol, vol. 66, pp. 185-96, 2014.
V. C. Brunetti, Reynier, P., Azoulay, L., Yu, O. H. Y., Ernst, P., Platt, R. W., and Filion, K. B., SGLT-2 inhibitors and the risk of hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia: A population-based cohort study, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2021.
P. Bryan, Seabroke, S., Wong, J., Donegan, K., Webb, E., Goldsmith, C., Vipond, C., and Feavers, I., Safety of multicomponent meningococcal group B vaccine (4CMenB) in routine infant immunisation in the UK: a prospective surveillance study, Lancet Child Adolesc Health, vol. 2, pp. 395-403, 2018.
R. Buhl, Heaney, L. G., Loefroth, E., Larbig, M., Kostikas, K., Conti, V., and Cao, H., One-year follow up of asthmatic patients newly initiated on treatment with medium- or high-dose inhaled corticosteroid-long-acting beta2-agonist in UK primary care settings, Respir Med, vol. 162, p. 105859, 2019.
I. E. Bultink, Harvey, N. C., Lalmohamed, A., Cooper, C., Lems, W. F., van Staa, T. P., and de Vries, F., Elevated risk of clinical fractures and associated risk factors in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus versus matched controls: a population-based study in the United Kingdom, Osteoporos Int, vol. 25, pp. 1275-83, 2014.
I. E. M. Bultink, de Vries, F., van Vollenhoven, R. F., and Lalmohamed, A., Mortality, causes of death and influence of medication use in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus vs matched controls, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2020.
T. Burkard, Hugle, T., Layton, J. B., Glynn, R. J., Bloechliger, M., Frey, N., Jick, S. S., Meier, C. R., and Spoendlin, J., Risk of Incident Osteoarthritis of the Hand in Statin Initiators: A Sequential Cohort Study, Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken), vol. 70, pp. 1795-1805, 2018.
T. Burkard, Moser, M., Rauch, M., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Utilization pattern of hormone therapy in UK general practice between 1996 and 2015: a descriptive study, Menopause, 2019.
T. Burkard, Rauch, M., Spoendlin, J., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Risk of hand osteoarthritis in new users of hormone replacement therapy: A nested case-control analysis, Maturitas, vol. 132, pp. 17-23, 2020.
T. Burkard, Rauch, M., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Validity of bariatric surgery codes in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) GOLD compared with Hospital Episodes Statistics, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2021.
T. A. Burke, Sturkenboom, M. C., Lu, S. E., Wentworth, C. E., Lin, Y., and Rhoads, G. G., Discontinuation of antihypertensive drugs among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients in UK general practice, J Hypertens, vol. 24, pp. 1193-200, 2006.
T. A. Burke, Sturkenboom, M. C., Ohman-Strickland, P. A., Wentworth, C. E., and Rhoads, G. G., The effect of antihypertensive drugs and drug combinations on the incidence of new-onset type-2 diabetes mellitus, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 16, pp. 979-87, 2007.
E. Burn, Edwards, C. J., Murray, D. W., Silman, A., Cooper, C., Arden, N. K., Pinedo-Villanueva, R., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Trends and determinants of length of stay and hospital reimbursement following knee and hip replacement: evidence from linked primary care and NHS hospital records from 1997 to 2014, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e019146, 2018.
E. Burn, Edwards, C. J., Murray, D. W., Silman, A., Cooper, C., Arden, N. K., Prieto-Alhambra, D., and Pinedo-Villanueva, R., The impact of bmi and smoking on risk of revision following knee and hip replacement surgery: evidence from routinely collected data, Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2019.
J. M. Burnham, Shults, J., Weinstein, R., Lewis, J. D., and Leonard, M. B., Childhood onset arthritis is associated with an increased risk of fracture: a population based study using the General Practice Research Database, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 65, pp. 1074-9, 2006.
C. L. Burton, Chen, Y., Chesterton, L. S., and van der Windt, D. A., Trends in the prevalence, incidence and surgical management of carpal tunnel syndrome between 1993 and 2013: an observational analysis of UK primary care records, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e020166, 2018.
C. L. Burton, Chesterton, L. S., Chen, Y., and van der Windt, D. A., Predicting surgical intervention in patients presenting with carpal tunnel syndrome in primary care, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 739-748, 2018.
J. Busby, Mills, K., Zhang, S. D., Liberante, F. G., and Cardwell, C. R., Postdiagnostic Calcium Channel Blocker Use and Breast Cancer Mortality: A Population-based Cohort Study, Epidemiology, vol. 29, pp. 407-413, 2018.
J. Busby, McMenamin, U., Spence, A., Johnston, B. T., Hughes, C., and Cardwell, C. R., Angiotensin receptor blocker use and gastro-oesophageal cancer survival: a population-based cohort study, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 47, pp. 279-288, 2018.
J. Busby, Mills, K., Zhang, S. D., Liberante, F. G., and Cardwell, C. R., Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use and breast cancer survival: a population-based cohort study, Breast Cancer Res, vol. 20, p. 4, 2018.
J. Busby, Murray, L., Mills, K., Zhang, S. D., Liberante, F., and Cardwell, C. R., A combined connectivity mapping and pharmacoepidemiology approach to identify existing medications with breast cancer causing or preventing properties, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 27, pp. 78-86, 2018.
J. Busby, Schroeder, K., Woltersdorf, W., Sterne, J. A., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Hay, A., and Hollingworth, W., Temporal growth and geographic variation in the use of laboratory tests by NHS general practices: using routine data to identify research priorities, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 63, pp. e256-66, 2013.
A. But, De Bruin, M. L., Bazelier, M. T., Hjellvik, V., Andersen, M., Auvinen, A., Starup-Linde, J., Schmidt, M. K., Furu, K., de Vries, F., Karlstad, O., Ekstrom, N., and Haukka, J., Cancer risk among insulin users: comparing analogues with human insulin in the CARING five-country cohort study, Diabetologia, vol. 60, pp. 1691-1703, 2017.
S. Byford, Barrett, B., Despiegel, N., and Wade, A., Impact of treatment success on health service use and cost in depression: longitudinal database analysis, Pharmacoeconomics, vol. 29, pp. 157-70, 2011.
C. S. Cabrera, Lee, A. S., Olsson, M., Schnecke, V., Westman, K., Lind, M., Greasley, P. J., and Skrtic, S., Impact of CKD Progression on Cardiovascular Disease Risk in a Contemporary UK Cohort of Individuals With Diabetes, Kidney Int Rep, vol. 5, pp. 1651-1660, 2020.
B. Cai, Xu, W., Bortnichak, E., and Watson, D. J., An algorithm to identify medical practices common to both the General Practice Research Database and The Health Improvement Network database, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 21, pp. 770-774, 2012.
M. Cainzos-Achirica, Varas-Lorenzo, C., Pottegard, A., Asmar, J., Plana, E., Rasmussen, L., Bizouard, G., Forns, J., Hellfritzsch, M., Zint, K., Perez-Gutthann, S., and Pladevall-Vila, M., Methodological challenges when evaluating potential off-label prescribing of drugs using electronic health care databases: A case study of dabigatran etexilate in Europe, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 27, pp. 713-723, 2018.
V. Cairns, Wallenhorst, C., Rietbrock, S., and Martinez, C., Incidence of Lyme disease in the UK: a population-based cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e025916, 2019.
R. R. Camejo, McGrath, C., Miraldo, M., and Rutten, F., The determinants of cost-effectiveness potential: an historical perspective on lipid-lowering therapies, Pharmacoeconomics, vol. 31, pp. 445-54, 2013.
R. R. Camejo, McGrath, C., Herings, R., Starkie, H., and Rutten, F., Assessing the determinants of the potential for cost-effectiveness over time: the empirical case of COPD, Value Health, vol. 16, pp. 426-33, 2013.
C. Canavan, West, J., and Card, T., Calculating Total Health Service Utilisation and Costs from Routinely Collected Electronic Health Records Using the Example of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome Before and After Their First Gastroenterology Appointment, Pharmacoeconomics, vol. 34, pp. 181-94, 2016.
C. Group on H. Cancer, Type and timing of menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis of the worldwide epidemiological evidence, Lancet, vol. 394, pp. 1159-1168, 2019.
X. Cao, Ejzykowicz, F., Ramey, D. R., Sajjan, S., Ambegaonkar, B. M., Mavros, P., and Tunceli, K., Impact of Switching From High-Efficacy Lipid-Lowering Therapies to Generic Simvastatin on LDL-C Levels and LDL-C Goal Attainment Among High-Risk Primary and Secondary Prevention Populations in the United Kingdom, Clin Ther, vol. 37, pp. 804-15, 2015.
T. X. D. Cao, Fraga, L. F. C., Fergusson, E., Michaud, J., Dell'Aniello, S., Yin, H., Rej, S., Azoulay, L., and Renoux, C., Prescribing Trends of Antidepressants and Psychotropic Coprescription for Youths in UK Primary Care, 2000-2018, J Affect Disord, vol. 287, pp. 19-25, 2021.
D. M. Carbonari, Saine, M. E., Newcomb, C. W., Blak, B., Roy, J. A., Haynes, K., Wood, J., Gallagher, A. M., Bhullar, H., Cardillo, S., Hennessy, S., Strom, B. L., and , Use of demographic and pharmacy data to identify patients included within both the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and The Health Improvement Network (THIN), Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 24, pp. 999-1003, 2015.
T. Card, Hubbard, R., and Logan, R. F., Mortality in inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based cohort study, Gastroenterology, vol. 125, pp. 1583-90, 2003.
[Page last reviewed 6 April 2021]