Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 August 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 207 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2566 results:
Author [ Title(Desc)] Type Year
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E. Wright, Schofield, P. T., Seed, P., and Molokhia, M., Bisphosphonates and risk of upper gastrointestinal cancer–a case control study using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD), PLoS One, vol. 7, p. e47616, 2012.
C. Ang, Doyle, E., and Branch, A., Bisphosphonates as potential adjuvants for patients with cancers of the digestive system, World J Gastroenterol, vol. 22, pp. 906-16, 2016.
K. Donegan, Beau-Lejdstrom, R., King, B., Seabroke, S., Thomson, A., and Bryan, P., Bivalent human papillomavirus vaccine and the risk of fatigue syndromes in girls in the UK, Vaccine, vol. 31, pp. 4961-7, 2013.
N. Ismail, Jordan, K. P., Kadam, U. T., Edwards, J. J., Kinnaird, T., and Mamas, M. A., Bleeding After Hospital Discharge Following Acute Coronary Syndrome: Incidence, Types, Timing, and Predictors, J Am Heart Assoc, vol. 8, p. e013679, 2019.
O. A. Oshagbemi, Franssen, F. M. E., van Kraaij, S., Braeken, D. C. W., Wouters, E. F. M., van der Zee, A. H. Maitlan, Driessen, J. H. M., and de Vries, F., Blood Eosinophil Counts, Withdrawal of Inhaled Corticosteroids and Risk of COPD Exacerbations and Mortality in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), Copd, pp. 1-8, 2019.
O. A. Oshagbemi, Franssen, F. M. E., Braeken, D. C. W., Henskens, Y., Wouters, E. F. M., van der Zee, A. H. Maitlan, Burden, A. M., and de Vries, F., Blood eosinophilia, use of inhaled corticosteroids, and risk of COPD exacerbations and mortality, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 27, pp. 1191-1199, 2018.
C. A. Emdin, Rothwell, P. M., Salimi-Khorshidi, G., Kiran, A., Conrad, N., Callender, T., Mehta, Z., Pendlebury, S. T., Anderson, S. G., Mohseni, H., Woodward, M., and Rahimi, K., Blood Pressure and Risk of Vascular Dementia: Evidence From a Primary Care Registry and a Cohort Study of Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke, Stroke, vol. 47, pp. 1429-35, 2016.
J. A. H. Masoli, Delgado, J., Pilling, L., Strain, D., and Melzer, D., Blood pressure in frail older adults: associations with cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality, Age Ageing, 2020.
J. Delgado, Bowman, K., Ble, A., Masoli, J., Han, Y., Henley, W., Welsh, S., Kuchel, G. A., Ferrucci, L., and Melzer, D., Blood Pressure Trajectories in the 20 Years Before Death, JAMA Intern Med, vol. 178, pp. 93-99, 2018.
N. Qizilbash, Gregson, J., Johnson, M. E., Pearce, N., Douglas, I., Wing, K., Evans, S. J. W., and Pocock, S. J., BMI and risk of dementia in two million people over two decades: a retrospective cohort study, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, vol. 3, pp. 431-436, 2015.
H. Strongman, Brown, A., Smeeth, L., and Bhaskaran, K., Body mass index and Hodgkin's lymphoma: UK population-based cohort study of 5.8 million individuals, Br J Cancer, 2019.
W. A. Blumentals, Nevitt, A., Peng, M. M., and Toovey, S., Body mass index and the incidence of influenza-associated pneumonia in a UK primary care cohort, Influenza Other Respir Viruses, vol. 6, pp. 28-36, 2012.
S. Kent, Jebb, S. A., Gray, A., Green, J., Reeves, G., Beral, V., Mihaylova, B., and Cairns, B. J., Body mass index and use and costs of primary care services among women aged 55-79 years in England: a cohort and linked data study, Int J Obes (Lond), 2018.
K. Bhaskaran, Douglas, I., Forbes, H., dos-Santos-Silva, I., Leon, D. A., and Smeeth, L., Body-mass index and risk of 22 specific cancers: a population-based cohort study of 5.24 million UK adults, Lancet, vol. 384, pp. 755-65, 2014.
W. G. Herrington, Smith, M., Bankhead, C., Matsushita, K., Stevens, S., Holt, T., Hobbs, F. D., Coresh, J., and Woodward, M., Body-mass index and risk of advanced chronic kidney disease: Prospective analyses from a primary care cohort of 1.4 million adults in England, PLoS One, vol. 12, p. e0173515, 2017.
J. H. Driessen, Henry, R. M., van Onzenoort, H. A., Lalmohamed, A., Burden, A. M., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Neef, C., Leufkens, H. G., and de Vries, F., Bone fracture risk is not associated with the use of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists: a population-based cohort analysis, Calcif Tissue Int, vol. 97, pp. 104-12, 2015.
R. I. Furlano, Bloechliger, M., Jick, H., and Meier, C. R., Bone fractures in children with autistic spectrum disorder, J Dev Behav Pediatr, vol. 35, pp. 353-9, 2014.
A. Gonzalez-Perez, Ronquist, G., and Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Breast cancer incidence and use of antihypertensive medication in women, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 13, pp. 581-5, 2004.
A. Gonzalez-Perez and Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Breast cancer risk among users of antidepressant medications, Epidemiology, vol. 16, pp. 101-5, 2005.
V. Abbing-Karahagopian, Kurz, X., de Vries, F., van Staa, T. P., Alvarez, Y., Hesse, U., Hasford, J., Dijk, L., de Abajo, F. J., Weil, J. G., Grimaldi-Bensouda, L., Egberts, A. C., Reynolds, R. F., and Klungel, O. H., Bridging differences in outcomes of pharmacoepidemiological studies: design and first results of the PROTECT project, Curr Clin Pharmacol, vol. 9, pp. 130-8, 2014.
V. Navaratnam, Millett, E. R., Hurst, J. R., Thomas, S. L., Smeeth, L., Hubbard, R. B., Brown, J., and Quint, J. K., Bronchiectasis and the risk of cardiovascular disease: a population-based study, Thorax, vol. 72, pp. 161-166, 2017.
S. Langham, Wright, A., Shaw, H., Bryson, S., and O'Leary, S., Budget impact analysis of oral glycopyrronium bromide (Sialanar™) for the symptomatic treatment of severe sialorrhoea (Drooling) in the UK setting, Value in Health, vol. 20, p. A720, 2017.
M. Gokhale, Hattori, T., Evitt, L., Lenney, W., Nordstrom, B., Collins, J., Schultze, A., and Van Dyke, M. K., Burden of asthma exacerbations and health care utilization in pediatric patients with asthma in the US and England, Immun Inflamm Dis, 2020.
F. Rees, Doherty, M., Grainge, M., Lanyon, P., Davenport, G., and Zhang, W., Burden of Comorbidity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in the UK, 1999-2012, Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken), vol. 68, pp. 819-27, 2016.
I. Matthews, Duong, M., Parsons, V. L., Nozad, B., Qizilbash, N., Patel, Y., and Guimicheva, B., Burden of disease from shingles and post-herpetic neuralgia in the over 80 year olds in the UK, PLoS One, vol. 15, p. e0229224, 2020.
E. A. Yanni, Ferreira, G., Guennec, M., Y. Hahi, E., A. Ghachi, E., Haguinet, F., Espie, E., and Bianco, V., Burden of herpes zoster in 16 selected immunocompromised populations in England: a cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink 2000-2012, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e020528, 2018.
R. D. Pockett, Watkins, J., McEwan, P., and Meier, G., Burden of Illness in UK Subjects with Reported Respiratory Infections Vaccinated or Unvaccinated against Influenza: A Retrospective Observational Study, PLoS One, vol. 10, p. e0134928, 2015.
L. Grimaldi-Bensouda, Klungel, O., Kurz, X., de Groot, M. C., Afonso, A. S. Maciel, De Bruin, M. L., Reynolds, R., and Rossignol, M., Calcium channel blockers and cancer: a risk analysis using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e009147, 2016.
H. Jick, Calcium-channel blockers and risk of cancer, Lancet, vol. 349, pp. 1699-700, 1997.
C. Canavan, West, J., and Card, T., Calculating Total Health Service Utilisation and Costs from Routinely Collected Electronic Health Records Using the Example of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome Before and After Their First Gastroenterology Appointment, Pharmacoeconomics, vol. 34, pp. 181-94, 2016.
D. A. Springate, Ashcroft, D. M., Kontopantelis, E., Doran, T., Ryan, R., and Reeves, D., Can analyses of electronic patient records be independently and externally validated? Study 2–the effect of beta-adrenoceptor blocker therapy on cancer survival: a retrospective cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 5, p. e007299, 2015.
D. Reeves, Springate, D. A., Ashcroft, D. M., Ryan, R., Doran, T., Morris, R., Olier, I., and Kontopantelis, E., Can analyses of electronic patient records be independently and externally validated? The effect of statins on the mortality of patients with ischaemic heart disease: a cohort study with nested case-control analysis, BMJ Open, vol. 4, p. e004952, 2014.
S. H. Landis, Wurst, K., Le, H. V., Bonar, K., and Punekar, Y. S., Can Assessment of Disease Burden Prior to Changes in Initial COPD Maintenance Treatment Provide Insight into Remaining Unmet Needs? A Retrospective Database Study in UK Primary Care, Copd, vol. 14, pp. 80-85, 2017.
V. M. Walker, Davies, N. M., Jones, T., Kehoe, P. G., and Martin, R. M., Can commonly prescribed drugs be repurposed for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases? Protocol for an observational cohort study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e012044, 2016.
E. S. Petherick, Pickett, K. E., and Cullum, N. A., Can different primary care databases produce comparable estimates of burden of disease: results of a study exploring venous leg ulceration, Fam Pract, vol. 32, pp. 374-80, 2015.
F. A. Pearce, Hubbard, R. B., Grainge, M. J., Watts, R. A., Abhishek, A., and Lanyon, P. C., Can granulomatosis with polyangiitis be diagnosed earlier in primary care? A case-control study, Qjm, vol. 111, pp. 39-45, 2018.
S. F. Weng, Reps, J., Kai, J., Garibaldi, J. M., and Qureshi, N., Can machine-learning improve cardiovascular risk prediction using routine clinical data?, PLoS One, vol. 12, p. e0174944, 2017.
C. A. Bannister, Holden, S. E., Jenkins-Jones, S., Morgan, C. L., Halcox, J. P., Schernthaner, G., Mukherjee, J., and Currie, C. J., Can people with type 2 diabetes live longer than those without? A comparison of mortality in people initiated with metformin or sulphonylurea monotherapy and matched, non-diabetic controls, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 16, pp. 1165-73, 2014.
A. Macfarlane, Hockley, C., McCandlish, R., and McNiece, R., Can the General Practice Research Database be used to monitor the health of babies and their mothers?, Health Stat Q, pp. 5-15, 2002.
A. Judge, Wallace, G., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Arden, N. K., and Edwards, C. J., Can the publication of guidelines change the management of early rheumatoid arthritis? An interrupted time series analysis from the United Kingdom, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 54, pp. 2244-8, 2015.
E. Ford, Rooney, P., Hurley, P., Oliver, S., Bremner, S., and Cassell, J., Can the Use of Bayesian Analysis Methods Correct for Incompleteness in Electronic Health Records Diagnosis Data? Development of a Novel Method Using Simulated and Real-Life Clinical Data, Front Public Health, vol. 8, p. 54, 2020.
S. Muller, Hider, S. L., Belcher, J., Helliwell, T., and Mallen, C. D., Is cancer associated with polymyalgia rheumatica? A cohort study in the General Practice Research Database, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 73, pp. 1769-73, 2014.
C. Tsang, Bottle, A., Majeed, A., and Aylin, P., Cancer diagnosed by emergency admission in England: an observational study using the general practice research database, BMC Health Serv Res, vol. 13, p. 308, 2013.
J. A. Kaye, Margulis, A. V., Fortuny, J., McQuay, L. J., Plana, E., Bartsch, J. L., Bui, C. L., Perez-Gutthann, S., and Arana, A., Cancer Incidence after Initiation of Antimuscarinic Medications for Overactive Bladder in the United Kingdom: Evidence for Protopathic Bias, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 37, pp. 673-683, 2017.
L. T. Mounce, Hamilton, W., and Bailey, S. E., Cancer incidence following a high-normal platelet count: cohort study using electronic healthcare records from English primary care, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
E. Ankus, Price, S. J., Ukoumunne, O. C., Hamilton, W., and Bailey, S. E. R., Cancer incidence in patients with a high normal platelet count: a cohort study using primary care data, Fam Pract, vol. 35, pp. 671-675, 2018.
R. Boggon, van Staa, T. P., Chapman, M., Gallagher, A. M., Hammad, T. A., and Richards, M. A., Cancer recording and mortality in the General Practice Research Database and linked cancer registries, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 22, pp. 168-75, 2013.
R. Williams, van Staa, T. P., Gallagher, A. M., Hammad, T., Leufkens, H. G. M., and de Vries, F., Cancer recording in patients with and without type 2 diabetes in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink primary care data and linked hospital admission data: a cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e020827, 2018.
A. But, De Bruin, M. L., Bazelier, M. T., Hjellvik, V., Andersen, M., Auvinen, A., Starup-Linde, J., Schmidt, M. K., Furu, K., de Vries, F., Karlstad, O., Ekstrom, N., and Haukka, J., Cancer risk among insulin users: comparing analogues with human insulin in the CARING five-country cohort study, Diabetologia, vol. 60, pp. 1691-1703, 2017.
C. Becker, Brobert, G. P., Johansson, S., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Cancer risk in association with Parkinson disease: a population-based study, Parkinsonism Relat Disord, vol. 16, pp. 186-90, 2010.
[Page last reviewed 5 August 2020]