Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 7 September 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 209 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2588 results:
Author [ Title(Asc)] Type Year
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 
R. Ravindrarajah, Hazra, N. C., Hamada, S., Charlton, J., Jackson, S. H. D., Dregan, A., and Gulliford, M. C., Systolic Blood Pressure Trajectory, Frailty, and All-Cause Mortality >80 Years of Age: Cohort Study Using Electronic Health Records, Circulation, vol. 135, pp. 2357-2368, 2017.
A. L. Nightingale, Farmer, R. D., and de Vries, C. S., Systemic lupus erythematosus prevalence in the UK: methodological issues when using the General Practice Research Database to estimate frequency of chronic relapsing-remitting disease, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 16, pp. 144-51, 2007.
H. El-Serag, Hill, C., and Jones, R., Systematic review: the epidemiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in primary care, using the UK General Practice Research Database, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 29, pp. 470-80, 2009.
E. A. Shephard, Neal, R. D., Rose, P. W., Walter, F. M., and Hamilton, W., Symptoms of adult chronic and acute leukaemia before diagnosis: large primary care case-control studies using electronic records, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 66, pp. e182-8, 2016.
D. Price, Thomas, V., von Ziegenweidt, J., Gould, S., Hutton, C., and King, C., Switching patients from other inhaled corticosteroid devices to the Easyhaler((R)): historical, matched-cohort study of real-life asthma patients, J Asthma Allergy, vol. 7, pp. 31-51, 2014.
M. Frisher, Heatlie, H., Chapman, S., Bashford, J., and Norwood, J., Switching between metered dose inhalers (MDIs) and dry powder inhalers (DPIs) in airways disease: An analysis of agespecific rates using the general practice research database., Journal of Applied Therapeutic Research, vol. 2, pp. 253-259, 1999.
L. Li, Roddam, A., Ferguson, S., Feudjo-Tepie, M., Taylor, A., and Jick, S., Switch patterns of osteoporosis medication and its impact on persistence among postmenopausal women in the U.K. General Practice Research Database, Menopause, vol. 21, pp. 1106-13, 2014.
G. Amirthalingam, Campbell, H., Ribeiro, S., Fry, N. K., Ramsay, M., Miller, E., and Andrews, N., Sustained Effectiveness of the Maternal Pertussis Immunization Program in England 3 Years Following Introduction, Clin Infect Dis, vol. 63, pp. S236-s243, 2016.
A. J. Walker, Grainge, M., Bates, T. E., and Card, T. R., Survival of glioma and colorectal cancer patients using tricyclic antidepressants post-diagnosis, Cancer Causes Control, vol. 23, pp. 1959-64, 2012.
J. B. Soriano, Vestbo, J., Pride, N. B., Kiri, V., Maden, C., and Maier, W. C., Survival in COPD patients after regular use of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol in general practice, Eur Respir J, vol. 20, pp. 819-25, 2002.
C. J. Currie, Peters, J. R., Tynan, A., Evans, M., Heine, R. J., Bracco, O. L., Zagar, T., and Poole, C. D., Survival as a function of HbA(1c) in people with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study, Lancet, vol. 375, pp. 481-9, 2010.
R. M. Joseph, Soames, J., Wright, M., Sultana, K., van Staa, T. P., and Dixon, W. G., Supplementing electronic health records through sample collection and patient diaries: A study set within a primary care research database, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 27, pp. 239-242, 2018.
A. Douros, Dell'Aniello, S., Yu, O. H. Y., Filion, K. B., Azoulay, L., and Suissa, S., Sulfonylureas as second line drugs in type 2 diabetes and the risk of cardiovascular and hypoglycaemic events: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 362, p. k2693, 2018.
O. Yu, Azoulay, L., Yin, H., Filion, K. B., and Suissa, S., Sulfonylureas as Initial Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes and the Risk of Severe Hypoglycemia, Am J Med, vol. 131, pp. 317.e11-317.e22, 2018.
K. B. Filion, Douros, A., Azoulay, L., Yin, H., Yu, O. H., and Suissa, S., Sulfonylureas as initial treatment for type 2 diabetes and the risk of adverse cardiovascular events: A population-based cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2019.
K. Windfuhr, While, D., Kapur, N., Ashcroft, D. M., Kontopantelis, E., Carr, M. J., Shaw, J., Appleby, L., and Webb, R. T., Suicide risk linked with clinical consultation frequency, psychiatric diagnoses and psychotropic medication prescribing in a national study of primary-care patients, Psychol Med, vol. 46, pp. 3407-3417, 2016.
R. T. Webb, Kontopantelis, E., Doran, T., Qin, P., Creed, F., and Kapur, N., Suicide risk in primary care patients with major physical diseases: a case-control study, Arch Gen Psychiatry, vol. 69, pp. 256-64, 2012.
M. Doyle, While, D., Mok, P. L., Windfuhr, K., Ashcroft, D. M., Kontopantelis, E., Chew-Graham, C. A., Appleby, L., Shaw, J., and Webb, R. T., Suicide risk in primary care patients diagnosed with a personality disorder: a nested case control study, BMC Fam Pract, vol. 17, p. 106, 2016.
D. Osborn, Levy, G., Nazareth, I., and King, M., Suicide and severe mental illnesses. Cohort study within the UK general practice research database, Schizophr Res, vol. 99, pp. 134-8, 2008.
L. E. Derby, Tennis, P., and Jick, H., Sudden unexplained death among subjects with refractory epilepsy, Epilepsia, vol. 37, pp. 931-5, 1996.
A. Banerjee, Allan, V., Denaxas, S., Shah, A., Kotecha, D., Lambiase, P. D., Jacob, J., Lund, L. H., and Hemingway, H., Subtypes of atrial fibrillation with concomitant valvular heart disease derived from electronic health records: phenotypes, population prevalence, trends and prognosis, Europace, 2019.
M. Frisher, Crome, I., Macleod, J., Millson, D., and Croft, P., Substance misuse and psychiatric illness: prospective observational study using the general practice research database, J Epidemiol Community Health, vol. 59, pp. 847-50, 2005.
T. R. Mikuls, Farrar, J. T., Bilker, W. B., Fernandes, S., and Saag, K. G., Suboptimal physician adherence to quality indicators for the management of gout and asymptomatic hyperuricaemia: results from the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD), Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 44, pp. 1038-42, 2005.
E. M. van Soest, Valkhoff, V. E., Mazzaglia, G., Schade, R., Molokhia, M., Goldstein, J. L., Hernandez-Diaz, S., Trifiro, G., Dieleman, J. P., Kuipers, E. J., and Sturkenboom, M. C., Suboptimal gastroprotective coverage of NSAID use and the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers: an observational study using three European databases, Gut, vol. 60, pp. 1650-9, 2011.
R. K. Akyea, Kai, J., Qureshi, N., Iyen, B., and Weng, S. F., Sub-optimal cholesterol response to initiation of statins and future risk of cardiovascular disease, Heart, 2019.
N. A. Stohler, Reinau, D., Jick, S. S., Bodmer, D., and Meier, C. R., A study on the epidemiology of tinnitus in the United Kingdom, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 11, pp. 855-871, 2019.
J. Spoendlin, Voegel, J. J., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., A study on the epidemiology of rosacea in the U.K, Br J Dermatol, vol. 167, pp. 598-605, 2012.
S. S. Jick, Vasilakis, C., Martinez, C., and Jick, H., A study of the relation of exposure to quinolones and suicidal behaviour, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 45, pp. 77-81, 1998.
R. D. Mann, Lis, Y., Chukwujindu, J., and Chanter, D. O., A study of the association between hormone replacement therapy, smoking and the occurrence of myocardial infarction in women, J Clin Epidemiol, vol. 47, pp. 307-12, 1994.
S. Norton, Koduri, G., Nikiphorou, E., Dixey, J., Williams, P., and Young, A., A study of baseline prevalence and cumulative incidence of comorbidity and extra-articular manifestations in RA and their impact on outcome, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 52, pp. 99-110, 2013.
T. P. van Staa and Sprafka, J. M., Study of adverse outcomes in women using testosterone therapy, Maturitas, vol. 62, pp. 76-80, 2009.
A. Pate, Barrowman, M., Webb, D., Pimenta, J. M., Davis, K. J., Williams, R., Van Staa, T., and Sperrin, M., Study investigating the generalisability of a COPD trial based in primary care (Salford Lung Study) and the presence of a Hawthorne effect, BMJ Open Respir Res, vol. 5, p. e000339, 2018.
J. Fortuny, Gilsenan, A., Cainzos-Achirica, M., Cantero, O. F., Flynn, R. W. V., Garcia-Rodriguez, L., Kollhorst, B., Karlsson, P., Linner, L., MacDonald, T. M., Plana, E., Ruigomez, A., Schink, T., Ziemiecki, R., and Andrews, E. B., Study Design and Cohort Comparability in a Study of Major Cardiovascular Events in New Users of Prucalopride Versus Polyethylene Glycol 3350, Drug Saf, 2019.
J. R. Hardy, Holford, T. R., Hall, G. C., and Bracken, M. B., Strategies for identifying pregnancies in the automated medical records of the General Practice Research Database, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 13, pp. 749-59, 2004.
P. Bidulka, Fu, E. L., Leyrat, C., Kalogirou, F., McAllister, K. S. L., Kingdon, E. J., Mansfield, K. E., Iwagami, M., Smeeth, L., Clase, C. M., Bhaskaran, K., van Diepen, M., Carrero, J. J., Nitsch, D., and Tomlinson, L. A., Stopping renin-angiotensin system blockers after acute kidney injury and risk of adverse outcomes: parallel population-based cohort studies in English and Swedish routine care, BMC Med, vol. 18, p. 195, 2020.
N. Frey, Bodmer, M., Bircher, A., Jick, S. S., Meier, C. R., and Spoendlin, J., Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in Association with Commonly Prescribed Drugs in Outpatient Care Other than Anti-Epileptic Drugs and Antibiotics: A Population-Based Case-Control Study, Drug Saf, vol. 42, pp. 55-66, 2019.
S. Hernandez-Diaz and Rodriguez, L. A., Steroids and risk of upper gastrointestinal complications, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 153, pp. 1089-93, 2001.
V. Chhaya, Saxena, S., Cecil, E., Subramanian, V., Curcin, V., Majeed, A., and Pollok, R. C., Steroid dependency and trends in prescribing for inflammatory bowel disease - a 20-year national population-based study, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 44, pp. 482-94, 2016.
A. McGrogan, Snowball, J., and Charlton, R. A., Statins during pregnancy: a cohort study using the General Practice Research Database to investigate pregnancy loss, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 26, pp. 843-852, 2017.
A. F. Macedo, Douglas, I., Smeeth, L., Forbes, H., and Ebrahim, S., Statins and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: cohort study using the UK clinical practice pesearch datalink, BMC Cardiovasc Disord, vol. 14, p. 85, 2014.
R. G. Schlienger, Fedson, D. S., Jick, S. S., Jick, H., and Meier, C. R., Statins and the risk of pneumonia: a population-based, nested case-control study, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 27, pp. 325-32, 2007.
C. C. Yang, Jick, S. S., and Jick, H., Statins and the risk of idiopathic venous thromboembolism, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 53, pp. 101-5, 2002.
H. Jick, Zornberg, G. L., Jick, S. S., Seshadri, S., and Drachman, D. A., Statins and the risk of dementia, Lancet, vol. 356, pp. 1627-31, 2000.
K. Tascilar, Dell'Aniello, S., Hudson, M., and Suissa, S., Statins and Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Nested Case-Control Study, Arthritis Rheumatol, vol. 68, pp. 2603-2611, 2016.
M. C. Bradley, Hughes, C. M., Cantwell, M. M., and Murray, L. J., Statins and pancreatic cancer risk: a nested case-control study, Cancer Causes Control, vol. 21, pp. 2093-100, 2010.
S. S. Jick and Bradbury, B. D., Statins and newly diagnosed diabetes, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 58, pp. 303-9, 2004.
G. J. Lefeber, Koek, H. L., Souverein, P. C., Bouvy, M. L., de Boer, A., and Knol, W., Statins After Myocardial Infarction in the Oldest: A Cohort Study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink Database, J Am Geriatr Soc, 2019.
L. Alexandre, Clark, A. B., Bhutta, H. Y., Holt, S., Lewis, M. P., and Hart, A. R., Statin use is associated with reduced risk of histologic subtypes of esophageal cancer: a nested case-control analysis, Gastroenterology, vol. 146, pp. 661-8, 2014.
[Page last reviewed 7 September 2020]