Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 April 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 226 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2770 results:
Author Title [ Type(Asc)] Year
Journal Article
K. B. Filion, Joseph, L., Boivin, J. F., Suissa, S., and Brophy, J. M., Thiazolidinediones and the risk of incident congestive heart failure among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 20, pp. 785-96, 2011.
A. J. Apter, Kinman, J. L., Bilker, W. B., Herlim, M., Margolis, D. J., Lautenbach, E., Hennessy, S., and Strom, B. L., Is there cross-reactivity between penicillins and cephalosporins?, Am J Med, vol. 119, pp. 354.e11-9, 2006.
C. Martinez, Katholing, A., Wallenhorst, C., and Freedman, S. B., Therapy persistence in newly diagnosed non-valvular atrial fibrillation treated with warfarin or NOAC. A cohort study, Thromb Haemost, vol. 115, pp. 31-9, 2016.
E. Herrett, Williamson, E., Van Staa, T., Ranopa, M., Free, C., Chadborn, T., Goldacre, B., and Smeeth, L., Text messaging reminders for influenza vaccine in primary care: a cluster randomised controlled trial (TXT4FLUJAB), BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e010069, 2016.
C. Martinez, Suissa, S., Rietbrock, S., Katholing, A., Freedman, B., Cohen, A. T., and Handelsman, D. J., Testosterone treatment and risk of venous thromboembolism: population based case-control study, Bmj, vol. 355, p. i5968, 2016.
C. Santella, Renoux, C., Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., and Azoulay, L., Testosterone Replacement Therapy and the Risk of Prostate Cancer in Men with Late-Onset Hypogonadism, Am J Epidemiol, 2019.
M. W. Myers and Jick, H., Terfenadine and risk of acute liver disease, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 46, pp. 251-3, 1998.
D. Spanopoulos, Okhai, H., Zaccardi, F., Tebboth, A., Barrett, B., Busse, M., Webb, J., and Khunti, K., Temporal variation of renal function in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a retrospective UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink cohort study, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2019.
K. Alexandropoulou, van Vlymen, J., Reid, F., Poullis, A., and Kang, J. Y., Temporal trends of Barrett's oesophagus and gastro-oesophageal reflux and related oesophageal cancer over a 10-year period in England and Wales and associated proton pump inhibitor and H2RA prescriptions: a GPRD study, Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol, vol. 25, pp. 15-21, 2013.
J. W. O'Sullivan, Stevens, S., Hobbs, F. D. R., Salisbury, C., Little, P., Goldacre, B., Bankhead, C., Aronson, J. K., Perera, R., and Heneghan, C., Temporal trends in use of tests in UK primary care, 2000-15: retrospective analysis of 250 million tests, Bmj, vol. 363, p. k4666, 2018.
E. L. Axson, Sundaram, V., Bloom, C. I., Bottle, A., Cowie, M. R., and Quint, J. K., Temporal Trends in the Incidence of Heart Failure among Patients with COPD and Its Association with Mortality, Ann Am Thorac Soc, 2020.
M. B. Toledano, Hansell, A. L., Jarup, L., Quinn, M., Jick, S., and Elliott, P., Temporal trends in orchidopexy, Great Britain, 1992-1998, Environ Health Perspect, vol. 111, pp. 129-32, 2003.
D. A. Lane, Skjoth, F., Lip, G. Y. H., Larsen, T. B., and Kotecha, D., Temporal Trends in Incidence, Prevalence, and Mortality of Atrial Fibrillation in Primary Care, J Am Heart Assoc, vol. 6, 2017.
S. C. Mendonca, Saunders, C. L., Lund, J., Mant, J., and Edwards, D., Temporal trends in incidence of atrial fibrillation in primary care records: a population-based cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e042518, 2020.
D. J. Culliford, Maskell, J., Beard, D. J., Murray, D. W., Price, A. J., and Arden, N. K., Temporal trends in hip and knee replacement in the United Kingdom: 1991 to 2006, J Bone Joint Surg Br, vol. 92, pp. 130-5, 2010.
J. Sarginson, Webb, R. T., Stocks, S. J., Esmail, A., Garg, S., and Ashcroft, D. M., Temporal trends in antidepressant prescribing to children in UK primary care, 2000-2015, J Affect Disord, vol. 210, pp. 312-318, 2017.
N. Conrad, Judge, A., Canoy, D., Tran, J., Pinho-Gomes, A. C., Millett, E. R. C., Salimi-Khorshidi, G., Cleland, J. G., McMurray, J. J. V., and Rahimi, K., Temporal Trends and Patterns in Mortality After Incident Heart Failure: A Longitudinal Analysis of 86000 Individuals, JAMA Cardiol, 2019.
N. Conrad, Judge, A., Tran, J., Mohseni, H., Hedgecott, D., Crespillo, A. P., Allison, M., Hemingway, H., Cleland, J. G., McMurray, J. J. V., and Rahimi, K., Temporal trends and patterns in heart failure incidence: a population-based study of 4 million individuals, Lancet, vol. 391, pp. 572-580, 2018.
S. Swain, Coupland, C., Mallen, C., Kuo, C. F., Sarmanova, A., Bierma-Zeinstra, S. M. A., Englund, M., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Doherty, M., and Zhang, W., Temporal relationship between osteoarthritis and comorbidities: a combined case control and cohort study in the UK primary care setting, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2021.
J. Busby, Schroeder, K., Woltersdorf, W., Sterne, J. A., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Hay, A., and Hollingworth, W., Temporal growth and geographic variation in the use of laboratory tests by NHS general practices: using routine data to identify research priorities, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 63, pp. e256-66, 2013.
L. A. Page, Hajat, S., Kovats, R. S., and Howard, L. M., Temperature-related deaths in people with psychosis, dementia and substance misuse, Br J Psychiatry, vol. 200, pp. 485-90, 2012.
M. Pang, Schuster, T., Filion, K. B., Eberg, M., and Platt, R. W., Targeted Maximum Likelihood Estimation for Pharmacoepidemiologic Research, Epidemiology, vol. 27, pp. 570-7, 2016.
J. Zhu and Gallego, B., Targeted estimation of heterogeneous treatment effect in observational survival analysis, J Biomed Inform, vol. 107, p. 103474, 2020.
B. D. Bradbury, Lash, T. L., Kaye, J. A., and Jick, S. S., Tamoxifen-treated breast carcinoma patients and the risk of acute myocardial infarction and newly-diagnosed angina, Cancer, vol. 103, pp. 1114-21, 2005.
C. R. Meier and Jick, H., Tamoxifen and risk of idiopathic venous thromboembolism, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 45, pp. 608-12, 1998.
B. D. Bradbury, Lash, T. L., Kaye, J. A., and Jick, S. S., Tamoxifen and cataracts: a null association, Breast Cancer Res Treat, vol. 87, pp. 189-96, 2004.
R. Ravindrarajah, Hazra, N. C., Hamada, S., Charlton, J., Jackson, S. H. D., Dregan, A., and Gulliford, M. C., Systolic Blood Pressure Trajectory, Frailty, and All-Cause Mortality >80 Years of Age: Cohort Study Using Electronic Health Records, Circulation, vol. 135, pp. 2357-2368, 2017.
A. L. Nightingale, Farmer, R. D., and de Vries, C. S., Systemic lupus erythematosus prevalence in the UK: methodological issues when using the General Practice Research Database to estimate frequency of chronic relapsing-remitting disease, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 16, pp. 144-51, 2007.
H. El-Serag, Hill, C., and Jones, R., Systematic review: the epidemiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in primary care, using the UK General Practice Research Database, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 29, pp. 470-80, 2009.
E. A. Shephard, Neal, R. D., Rose, P. W., Walter, F. M., and Hamilton, W., Symptoms of adult chronic and acute leukaemia before diagnosis: large primary care case-control studies using electronic records, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 66, pp. e182-8, 2016.
D. Price, Thomas, V., von Ziegenweidt, J., Gould, S., Hutton, C., and King, C., Switching patients from other inhaled corticosteroid devices to the Easyhaler((R)): historical, matched-cohort study of real-life asthma patients, J Asthma Allergy, vol. 7, pp. 31-51, 2014.
M. Frisher, Heatlie, H., Chapman, S., Bashford, J., and Norwood, J., Switching between metered dose inhalers (MDIs) and dry powder inhalers (DPIs) in airways disease: An analysis of agespecific rates using the general practice research database., Journal of Applied Therapeutic Research, vol. 2, pp. 253-259, 1999.
L. Li, Roddam, A., Ferguson, S., Feudjo-Tepie, M., Taylor, A., and Jick, S., Switch patterns of osteoporosis medication and its impact on persistence among postmenopausal women in the U.K. General Practice Research Database, Menopause, vol. 21, pp. 1106-13, 2014.
G. Amirthalingam, Campbell, H., Ribeiro, S., Fry, N. K., Ramsay, M., Miller, E., and Andrews, N., Sustained Effectiveness of the Maternal Pertussis Immunization Program in England 3 Years Following Introduction, Clin Infect Dis, vol. 63, pp. S236-s243, 2016.
A. J. Walker, Grainge, M., Bates, T. E., and Card, T. R., Survival of glioma and colorectal cancer patients using tricyclic antidepressants post-diagnosis, Cancer Causes Control, vol. 23, pp. 1959-64, 2012.
J. B. Soriano, Vestbo, J., Pride, N. B., Kiri, V., Maden, C., and Maier, W. C., Survival in COPD patients after regular use of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol in general practice, Eur Respir J, vol. 20, pp. 819-25, 2002.
C. J. Currie, Peters, J. R., Tynan, A., Evans, M., Heine, R. J., Bracco, O. L., Zagar, T., and Poole, C. D., Survival as a function of HbA(1c) in people with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study, Lancet, vol. 375, pp. 481-9, 2010.
R. M. Joseph, Soames, J., Wright, M., Sultana, K., van Staa, T. P., and Dixon, W. G., Supplementing electronic health records through sample collection and patient diaries: A study set within a primary care research database, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 27, pp. 239-242, 2018.
A. Douros, Dell'Aniello, S., Yu, O. H. Y., Filion, K. B., Azoulay, L., and Suissa, S., Sulfonylureas as second line drugs in type 2 diabetes and the risk of cardiovascular and hypoglycaemic events: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 362, p. k2693, 2018.
O. Yu, Azoulay, L., Yin, H., Filion, K. B., and Suissa, S., Sulfonylureas as Initial Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes and the Risk of Severe Hypoglycemia, Am J Med, vol. 131, pp. 317.e11-317.e22, 2018.
K. B. Filion, Douros, A., Azoulay, L., Yin, H., Yu, O. H., and Suissa, S., Sulfonylureas as initial treatment for type 2 diabetes and the risk of adverse cardiovascular events: A population-based cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2019.
K. Windfuhr, While, D., Kapur, N., Ashcroft, D. M., Kontopantelis, E., Carr, M. J., Shaw, J., Appleby, L., and Webb, R. T., Suicide risk linked with clinical consultation frequency, psychiatric diagnoses and psychotropic medication prescribing in a national study of primary-care patients, Psychol Med, vol. 46, pp. 3407-3417, 2016.
R. T. Webb, Kontopantelis, E., Doran, T., Qin, P., Creed, F., and Kapur, N., Suicide risk in primary care patients with major physical diseases: a case-control study, Arch Gen Psychiatry, vol. 69, pp. 256-64, 2012.
M. Doyle, While, D., Mok, P. L., Windfuhr, K., Ashcroft, D. M., Kontopantelis, E., Chew-Graham, C. A., Appleby, L., Shaw, J., and Webb, R. T., Suicide risk in primary care patients diagnosed with a personality disorder: a nested case control study, BMC Fam Pract, vol. 17, p. 106, 2016.
D. Osborn, Levy, G., Nazareth, I., and King, M., Suicide and severe mental illnesses. Cohort study within the UK general practice research database, Schizophr Res, vol. 99, pp. 134-8, 2008.
L. E. Derby, Tennis, P., and Jick, H., Sudden unexplained death among subjects with refractory epilepsy, Epilepsia, vol. 37, pp. 931-5, 1996.
A. Banerjee, Allan, V., Denaxas, S., Shah, A., Kotecha, D., Lambiase, P. D., Jacob, J., Lund, L. H., and Hemingway, H., Subtypes of atrial fibrillation with concomitant valvular heart disease derived from electronic health records: phenotypes, population prevalence, trends and prognosis, Europace, 2019.
M. Frisher, Crome, I., Macleod, J., Millson, D., and Croft, P., Substance misuse and psychiatric illness: prospective observational study using the general practice research database, J Epidemiol Community Health, vol. 59, pp. 847-50, 2005.
T. R. Mikuls, Farrar, J. T., Bilker, W. B., Fernandes, S., and Saag, K. G., Suboptimal physician adherence to quality indicators for the management of gout and asymptomatic hyperuricaemia: results from the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD), Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 44, pp. 1038-42, 2005.
E. M. van Soest, Valkhoff, V. E., Mazzaglia, G., Schade, R., Molokhia, M., Goldstein, J. L., Hernandez-Diaz, S., Trifiro, G., Dieleman, J. P., Kuipers, E. J., and Sturkenboom, M. C., Suboptimal gastroprotective coverage of NSAID use and the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers: an observational study using three European databases, Gut, vol. 60, pp. 1650-9, 2011.
[Page last reviewed 6 April 2021]