Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 August 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 207 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2566 results:
[ Author(Desc)] Title Type Year
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I. M. Carey, Anderson, H. R., Atkinson, R. W., Beevers, S., Cook, D. G., Dajnak, D., Gulliver, J., and Kelly, F. J., Traffic pollution and the incidence of cardiorespiratory outcomes in an adult cohort in London, Occup Environ Med, vol. 73, pp. 849-856, 2016.
I. M. Carey, Shah, S. M., Hosking, F. J., DeWilde, S., Harris, T., Beighton, C., and Cook, D. G., Health characteristics and consultation patterns of people with intellectual disability: a cross-sectional database study in English general practice, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 66, pp. e264-70, 2016.
I. M. Carey, Hosking, F. J., Harris, T., DeWilde, S., Beighton, C., Shah, S. M., and Cook, D. G., Do health checks for adults with intellectual disability reduce emergency hospital admissions? Evaluation of a natural experiment, J Epidemiol Community Health, vol. 71, pp. 52-58, 2017.
I. M. Carey, Critchley, J. A., DeWilde, S., Harris, T., Hosking, F. J., and Cook, D. G., Risk of Infection in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Compared With the General Population: A Matched Cohort Study, Diabetes Care, vol. 41, pp. 513-521, 2018.
C. Carlson, Hornbuckle, K., DeLisle, F., Kryzhanovskaya, L., Breier, A., and Cavazzoni, P., Diabetes mellitus and antipsychotic treatment in the United Kingdom, Eur Neuropsychopharmacol, vol. 16, pp. 366-75, 2006.
M. Carney, Quiroga, M., Mounce, L., Shephard, E., Hamilton, W., and Price, S., Effect of pre-existing conditions on bladder cancer stage at diagnosis: a cohort study using electronic primary care records in the UK, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
M. J. Carr, Ashcroft, D. M., Kontopantelis, E., Awenat, Y., Cooper, J., Chew-Graham, C., Kapur, N., and Webb, R. T., The epidemiology of self-harm in a UK-wide primary care patient cohort, 2001-2013, BMC Psychiatry, vol. 16, p. 53, 2016.
M. J. Carr, Ashcroft, D. M., Kontopantelis, E., While, D., Awenat, Y., Cooper, J., Chew-Graham, C., Kapur, N., and Webb, R. T., Clinical management following self-harm in a UK-wide primary care cohort, J Affect Disord, vol. 197, pp. 182-8, 2016.
M. J. Carr, Ashcroft, D. M., Kontopantelis, E., While, D., Awenat, Y., Cooper, J., Chew-Graham, C., Kapur, N., and Webb, R. T., Premature Death Among Primary Care Patients With a History of Self-Harm, Ann Fam Med, vol. 15, pp. 246-254, 2017.
M. J. Carr, Ashcroft, D. M., White, P. D., Kapur, N., and Webb, R. T., Prevalence of comorbid mental and physical illnesses and risks for self-harm and premature death among primary care patients diagnosed with fatigue syndromes, Psychol Med, pp. 1-8, 2019.
D. F. Carr, O'Meara, H., Jorgensen, A. L., Campbell, J., Hobbs, M., McCann, G., Van Staa, T., and Pirmohamed, M., SLCO1B1 genetic variant associated with statin-induced myopathy: a proof-of-concept study using the clinical practice research datalink, Clin Pharmacol Ther, vol. 94, pp. 695-701, 2013.
D. F. Carr, Francis, B., Jorgensen, A. L., Zhang, E., Chinoy, H., Heckbert, S. R., Bis, J. C., Brody, J. A., Floyd, J., Psaty, B. M., Molokhia, M., Lapeyre-Mestre, M., Conforti, A., Alfirevic, A., Van Staa, T., and Pirmohamed, M., Genome-wide association study of statin-induced myopathy in patients recruited using the UK clinical practice research datalink, Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2019.
H. Carreira, Williams, R., Muller, M., Harewood, R., and Bhaskaran, K., Adverse mental health outcomes in breast cancer survivors compared to women who did not have cancer: systematic review protocol, Syst Rev, vol. 6, p. 162, 2017.
H. Carreira, Williams, R., Strongman, H., and Bhaskaran, K., Identification of mental health and quality of life outcomes in primary care databases in the UK: a systematic review, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e029227, 2019.
B. Carter, C. Bennett, V., Bethel, J., Jones, H. M., Wang, T., and Kemp, A., Identifying cerebral palsy from routinely-collected data in England and Wales, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 11, pp. 457-468, 2019.
M. Carter, Moser, K., and Kelly, S., Health of older people: disease prevalence, prescription and referral rates, England and Wales 1996, Health Statistics Quarterly, vol. 4, pp. 9-15, 1999.
H. Caspard, Wise, R. P., Steffey, A., and Brody, R. S., Incidence of live-attenuated influenza vaccine administration beyond expiry date in children and adolescents aged 2-17 years in the UK: a population-based cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e016520, 2017.
H. Caspard, Steffey, A., Mallory, R. M., and Ambrose, C. S., Evaluation of the safety of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in children and adolescents with asthma and high-risk conditions: a population-based prospective cohort study conducted in England with the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e023118, 2018.
A. Cassell, Edwards, D., Harshfield, A., Rhodes, K., Brimicombe, J., Payne, R., and Griffin, S., The epidemiology of multimorbidity in primary care: a retrospective cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 68, pp. e245-e251, 2018.
J. A. Cassell, Mercer, C. H., Sutcliffe, L., Petersen, I., Islam, A., Brook, M. G., Ross, J. D., Kinghorn, G. R., Simms, I., Hughes, G., Majeed, A., Stephenson, J. M., Johnson, A. M., and Hayward, A. C., Trends in sexually transmitted infections in general practice 1990-2000: population based study using data from the UK general practice research database, Bmj, vol. 332, pp. 332-4, 2006.
J. Castellsague, Kuiper, J. G., Pottegard, A., I. Berglind, A., Dedman, D., Gutierrez, L., Calingaert, B., van Herk-Sukel, M. P., Hallas, J., Sundstrom, A., Gallagher, A. M., Kaye, J. A., Pardo, C., Rothman, K. J., and Perez-Gutthann, S., A cohort study on the risk of lymphoma and skin cancer in users of topical tacrolimus, pimecrolimus, and corticosteroids (Joint European Longitudinal Lymphoma and Skin Cancer Evaluation - JOELLE study), Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 299-310, 2018.
J. Castellsague, Garcia-Rodriguez, L. A., Duque, A., and Perez, S., Risk of serious skin disorders among users of oral antifungals: a population-based study, BMC Dermatol, vol. 2, p. 14, 2002.
J. Castellsague, S. Gutthann, P., and Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Recent epidemiological studies of the association between hormone replacement therapy and venous thromboembolism. A review, Drug Saf, vol. 18, pp. 117-23, 1998.
M. A. Cavender, Norhammar, A., Birkeland, K. I., Jorgensen, M. E., Wilding, J. P., Khunti, K., Fu, A. Z., Bodegard, J., Blak, B. T., Wittbrodt, E., Thuresson, M., Fenici, P., Hammar, N., and Kosiborod, M., SGLT-2 Inhibitors and Cardiovascular Risk: An Analysis of CVD-REAL, J Am Coll Cardiol, vol. 71, pp. 2497-2506, 2018.
E. Cecil, Bottle, A., Ma, R., Hargreaves, D. S., Wolfe, I., ,, and Saxena, S., Impact of preventive primary care on children's unplanned hospital admissions: a population-based birth cohort study of UK children 2000-2013, BMC Med, vol. 16, p. 151, 2018.
J. D. Chalmers, Poole, C., Webster, S., Tebboth, A., Dickinson, S., and Gayle, A., Assessing the healthcare resource use associated with inappropriate prescribing of inhaled corticosteroids for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in GOLD groups A or B: an observational study using the Clinical Practice Research Data, Respir Res, vol. 19, p. 63, 2018.
J. D. Chalmers, Tebboth, A., Gayle, A., Ternouth, A., and Ramscar, N., Determinants of initial inhaled corticosteroid use in patients with GOLD A/B COPD: a retrospective study of UK general practice, NPJ Prim Care Respir Med, vol. 27, p. 43, 2017.
M. S. Chan, van den Hout, A., Pujades-Rodriguez, M., Jones, M. M., Matthews, F. E., Jagger, C., Raine, R., and Bajekal, M., Socio-economic inequalities in life expectancy of older adults with and without multimorbidity: a record linkage study of 1.1 million people in England, Int J Epidemiol, 2019.
K. C. Chang, Soljak, M., Lee, J. T., Woringer, M., Johnston, D., Khunti, K., Majeed, A., and Millett, C., Coverage of a national cardiovascular risk assessment and management programme (NHS Health Check): Retrospective database study, Prev Med, vol. 78, pp. 1-8, 2015.
K. C. Chang, Lee, J. T., Vamos, E. P., Soljak, M., Johnston, D., Khunti, K., Majeed, A., and Millett, C., Impact of the National Health Service Health Check on cardiovascular disease risk: a difference-in-differences matching analysis, Cmaj, vol. 188, pp. E228-38, 2016.
K. C. Chang, Vamos, E. P., Palladino, R., Majeed, A., Lee, J. T., and Millett, C., Impact of the NHS Health Check on inequalities in cardiovascular disease risk: a difference-in-differences matching analysis, J Epidemiol Community Health, 2018.
C. R. Chapman and Bradshaw, D. H., Only modest long-term opioid dose escalation occurs over time in chronic nonmalignant pain management, J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother, vol. 27, pp. 370-7, 2013.
C. R. Chapple, Lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic obstruction–Triumph: design and implementation, Eur Urol, vol. 39 Suppl 3, pp. 31-6, 2001.
C. R. Chapple, Nazir, J., Hakimi, Z., Bowditch, S., Fatoye, F., Guelfucci, F., Khemiri, A., Siddiqui, E., and Wagg, A., Persistence and Adherence with Mirabegron versus Antimuscarinic Agents in Patients with Overactive Bladder: A Retrospective Observational Study in UK Clinical Practice, Eur Urol, vol. 72, pp. 389-399, 2017.
J. Charlton, Ravindrarajah, R., Hamada, S., Jackson, S. H., and Gulliford, M. C., Trajectory of Total Cholesterol in the Last Years of Life Over Age 80 Years: Cohort Study of 99,758 Participants, J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, vol. 73, pp. 1083-1089, 2018.
J. Charlton, Latinovic, R., and Gulliford, M. C., Explaining the decline in early mortality in men and women with type 2 diabetes: a population-based cohort study, Diabetes Care, vol. 31, pp. 1761-6, 2008.
J. Charlton, Rudisill, C., Bhattarai, N., and Gulliford, M., Impact of deprivation on occurrence, outcomes and health care costs of people with multiple morbidity, J Health Serv Res Policy, vol. 18, pp. 215-23, 2013.
R. Charlton, Green, A., Shaddick, G., Snowball, J., Nightingale, A., Tillett, W., Smith, C., and McHugh, N., Risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in an incident cohort of people with psoriatic arthritis: a population-based cohort study, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2018.
R. Charlton, Green, A., Shaddick, G., Snowball, J., Nightingale, A., Tillett, W., Smith, C. H., and McHugh, N., Risk of uveitis and inflammatory bowel disease in people with psoriatic arthritis: a population-based cohort study, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 77, pp. 277-280, 2018.
R. Charlton, Garne, E., Wang, H., Klungsoyr, K., Jordan, S., Neville, A., Pierini, A., Hansen, A., Engeland, A., Gini, R., Thayer, D., Bos, J., Puccini, A., Andersen, A. M. Nybo, Dolk, H., and L. van den Berg, deJong-, Antiepileptic drug prescribing before, during and after pregnancy: a study in seven European regions, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 24, pp. 1144-54, 2015.
R. Charlton, Snowball, J., Sammon, C., and de Vries, C., The Clinical Practice Research Datalink for drug safety in pregnancy research: an overview, Therapie, vol. 69, pp. 83-9, 2014.
R. Charlton, Snowball, J., Bloomfield, K., and de Vries, C., Colorectal cancer incidence on the General Practice Research Database, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 21, pp. 775-783, 2012.
R. A. Charlton, Snowball, J. M., Nightingale, A. L., and Davis, K. J., Safety of Fluticasone Propionate Prescribed for Asthma During Pregnancy: A UK Population-Based Cohort Study, J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, vol. 3, pp. 772-9.e3, 2015.
R. A. Charlton, Cunnington, M. C., de Vries, C. S., and Weil, J. G., Data resources for investigating drug exposure during pregnancy and associated outcomes: the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) as an alternative to pregnancy registries, Drug Saf, vol. 31, pp. 39-51, 2008.
R. A. Charlton, Weil, J. G., Cunnington, M. C., and de Vries, C. S., Identifying major congenital malformations in the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD): a study reporting on the sensitivity and added value of photocopied medical records and free text in the GPRD, Drug Saf, vol. 33, pp. 741-50, 2010.
R. A. Charlton, Weil, J. G., Cunnington, M. C., Ray, S., and de Vries, C. S., Comparing the General Practice Research Database and the UK Epilepsy and Pregnancy Register as tools for postmarketing teratogen surveillance: anticonvulsants and the risk of major congenital malformations, Drug Saf, vol. 34, pp. 157-71, 2011.
R. A. Charlton, Hutchison, A., Davis, K. J., and de Vries, C. S., Asthma management in pregnancy, PLoS One, vol. 8, p. e60247, 2013.
R. A. Charlton, Snowball, J. M., Bloomfield, K., and de Vries, C. S., Colorectal cancer risk reduction following macrogol exposure: a cohort and nested case control study in the UK, PLoS One, vol. 8, p. e83203, 2013.
R. A. Charlton, Pierini, A., Klungsoyr, K., Neville, A. J., Jordan, S., van den Berg, L. T. de Jong, Thayer, D., Bos, H. J., Puccini, A., Hansen, A. V., Gini, R., Engeland, A., Andersen, A. M. Nybo, Dolk, H., and Garne, E., Asthma medication prescribing before, during and after pregnancy: a study in seven European regions, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e009237, 2016.
R. A. Charlton, McGrogan, A., Snowball, J., Yates, L. M., Wood, A., Clayton-Smith, J., Smithson, W. H., Richardson, J. L., McHugh, N., Thomas, S. H., Baker, G. A., and Bromley, R., Sensitivity of the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink to Detect Neurodevelopmental Effects of Medicine Exposure in Utero: Comparative Analysis of an Antiepileptic Drug-Exposed Cohort, Drug Saf, vol. 40, pp. 387-397, 2017.
[Page last reviewed 5 August 2020]