Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 7 September 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 209 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2588 results:
Author [ Title(Asc)] Type Year
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K. Chidwick, Strongman, H., Matthews, A., Stanway, S., Lyon, A. R., Smeeth, L., and Bhaskaran, K., Statin use in cancer survivors versus the general population: cohort study using primary care data from the UK clinical practice research datalink, BMC Cancer, vol. 18, p. 1018, 2018.
J. A. Kaye, Meier, C. R., Walker, A. M., and Jick, H., Statin use, hyperlipidaemia, and the risk of breast cancer, Br J Cancer, vol. 86, pp. 1436-9, 2002.
A. D. Spence, Busby, J., Hughes, C. M., Johnston, B. T., Coleman, H. G., and Cardwell, C. R., Statin use and survival in patients with gastric cancer in two independent population-based cohorts, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2018.
C. R. Cardwell, U. Menamin, M., Hughes, C. M., and Murray, L. J., Statin use and survival from lung cancer: a population-based cohort study, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, vol. 24, pp. 833-41, 2015.
K. A. McGlynn, Hagberg, K., Chen, J., Graubard, B. I., London, W. T., Jick, S., and Sahasrabuddhe, V. V., Statin use and risk of primary liver cancer in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, J Natl Cancer Inst, vol. 107, 2015.
A. Sarmanova, Doherty, M., Kuo, C., Wei, J., Abhishek, A., Mallen, C., Zeng, C., Wang, Y., Lei, G., and Zhang, W., Statin use and risk of joint replacement due to osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: a propensity-score matched longitudinal cohort study, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2020.
C. Seliger, Meier, C. R., Becker, C., Jick, S. S., Bogdahn, U., Hau, P., and Leitzmann, M. F., Statin use and risk of glioma: population-based case-control analysis, Eur J Epidemiol, vol. 31, pp. 947-52, 2016.
M. Bodmer, Brauchli, Y. B., Krahenbuhl, S., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Statin use and risk of gallstone disease followed by cholecystectomy, Jama, vol. 302, pp. 2001-7, 2009.
Y. B. Brauchli, Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Statin use and risk of first-time psoriasis diagnosis, J Am Acad Dermatol, vol. 65, pp. 77-83, 2011.
Z. Liu, Alsaggaf, R., McGlynn, K. A., Anderson, L. A., Tsai, H. T., Zhu, B., Zhu, Y., Mbulaiteye, S. M., Gadalla, S. M., and Koshiol, J., Statin use and reduced risk of biliary tract cancers in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Gut, 2018.
U. T. Kadam, Blagojevic, M., and Belcher, J., Statin use and clinical osteoarthritis in the general population: a longitudinal study, J Gen Intern Med, vol. 28, pp. 943-9, 2013.
J. A. Kaye and Jick, H., Statin use and cancer risk in the General Practice Research Database, Br J Cancer, vol. 90, pp. 635-7, 2004.
C. R. Cardwell, Hicks, B. M., Hughes, C., and Murray, L. J., Statin use after diagnosis of breast cancer and survival: a population-based cohort study, Epidemiology, vol. 26, pp. 68-78, 2015.
C. R. Cardwell, Hicks, B. M., Hughes, C., and Murray, L. J., Statin use after colorectal cancer diagnosis and survival: a population-based cohort study, J Clin Oncol, vol. 32, pp. 3177-83, 2014.
E. M. van de Garde, Hak, E., Souverein, P. C., Hoes, A. W., van den Bosch, J. M., and Leufkens, H. G., Statin treatment and reduced risk of pneumonia in patients with diabetes, Thorax, vol. 61, pp. 957-61, 2006.
J. Y. Shin, Eberg, M., Ernst, P., and Filion, K. B., Statin potency and the risk of hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 83, pp. 1319-1327, 2017.
M. Molokhia, McKeigue, P., Curcin, V., and Majeed, A., Statin induced myopathy and myalgia: time trend analysis and comparison of risk associated with statin class from 1991-2006, PLoS One, vol. 3, p. e2522, 2008.
O. A. Oshagbemi, Burden, A. M., Braeken, D. C. W., Henskens, Y., Wouters, E. F. M., Driessen, J. H. M., van der Zee, A. H. Maitlan, de Vries, F., and Franssen, F. M. E., Stability of Blood Eosinophils in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and in Control Subjects, and the Impact of Sex, Age, Smoking, and Baseline Counts, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, vol. 195, pp. 1402-1404, 2017.
S. H. Landis, Suruki, R., Hilton, E., Compton, C., and Galwey, N. W., Stability of Blood Eosinophil Count in Patients with COPD in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Copd, vol. 14, pp. 382-388, 2017.
I. S. Mackenzie, Morant, S. V., Wei, L., Thompson, A. M., and MacDonald, T. M., Spironolactone use and risk of incident cancers: a retrospective, matched cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 83, pp. 653-663, 2017.
I. S. Mackenzie, MacDonald, T. M., Thompson, A., Morant, S., and Wei, L., Spironolactone and risk of incident breast cancer in women older than 55 years: retrospective, matched cohort study, Bmj, vol. 345, p. e4447, 2012.
D. C. Lloyd, Harris, C. M., and Roberts, D. J., Specific therapeutic group age-sex related prescribing units (STAR-PUs): weightings for analysing general practices' prescribing in England, Bmj, vol. 311, pp. 991-4, 1995.
E. Kontopantelis, Stevens, R. J., Helms, P. J., Edwards, D., Doran, T., and Ashcroft, D. M., Spatial distribution of clinical computer systems in primary care in England in 2016 and implications for primary care electronic medical record databases: a cross-sectional population study, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e020738, 2018.
C. Fairhurst, Martin, F., Watt, I., Doran, T., Bland, M., and Brackenbury, W. J., Sodium channel-inhibiting drugs and cancer survival: protocol for a cohort study using the CPRD primary care database, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e011661, 2016.
R. P. Cornish, Boyd, A., Van Staa, T., Salisbury, C., and Macleod, J., Socio-economic position and childhood multimorbidity: a study using linkage between the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children and the General Practice Research Database, Int J Equity Health, vol. 12, p. 66, 2013.
M. S. Chan, van den Hout, A., Pujades-Rodriguez, M., Jones, M. M., Matthews, F. E., Jagger, C., Raine, R., and Bajekal, M., Socio-economic inequalities in life expectancy of older adults with and without multimorbidity: a record linkage study of 1.1 million people in England, Int J Epidemiol, 2019.
M. Weldegiorgis, Smith, M., Herrington, W. G., Bankhead, C., and Woodward, M., Socioeconomic disadvantage and the risk of advanced chronic kidney disease: results from a cohort study with 1.4 million participants, Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 2019.
M. Rafiq, Hayward, A., Warren-Gash, C., Denaxas, S., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Lyratzopoulos, G., and Thomas, S., Socioeconomic deprivation and regional variation in Hodgkin's lymphoma incidence in the UK: a population-based cohort study of 10 million individuals, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e029228, 2019.
M. Gulliford, Charlton, J., Bhattarai, N., and Rudisill, C., Social and material deprivation and the cost-effectiveness of an intervention to promote physical activity: cohort study and Markov model, J Public Health (Oxf), vol. 36, pp. 674-83, 2014.
R. M. Joseph, Movahedi, M., Dixon, W. G., and Symmons, D. P., Smoking-Related Mortality in Patients With Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Retrospective Cohort Study Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken), vol. 68, pp. 1598-1606, 2016.
C. Alexakis, Saxena, S., Chhaya, V., Cecil, E., Majeed, A., and Pollok, R., Smoking Status at Diagnosis and Subsequent Smoking Cessation: Associations With Corticosteroid Use and Intestinal Resection in Crohn's Disease, Am J Gastroenterol, vol. 113, pp. 1689-1700, 2018.
K. H. Thomas, Martin, R. M., Davies, N. M., Metcalfe, C., Windmeijer, F., and Gunnell, D., Smoking cessation treatment and risk of depression, suicide, and self harm in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink: prospective cohort study, Bmj, vol. 347, p. f5704, 2013.
R. Boggon, Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., Raju, S., Malvestiti, F. M., and van Staa, T. P., Smoking cessation interventions following acute coronary syndrome: a missed opportunity?, Eur J Prev Cardiol, vol. 21, pp. 767-73, 2014.
J. V. Been, Szatkowski, L., van Staa, T. P., Leufkens, H. G., van Schayck, O. C., Sheikh, A., de Vries, F., and Souverein, P., Smoke-free legislation and the incidence of paediatric respiratory infections and wheezing/asthma: interrupted time series analyses in the four UK nations, Sci Rep, vol. 5, p. 15246, 2015.
X. Xiao, Fischbach, S., Zhang, T., Chen, C., Sheng, Q., Zimmerman, R., Patnaik, S., Fusco, J., Ming, Y., Guo, P., Shiota, C., Prasadan, K., Gangopadhyay, N., Husain, S. Z., Dong, H., and Gittes, G. K., SMAD3/Stat3 Signaling Mediates beta-Cell Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Chronic Pancreatitis-Related Diabetes, Diabetes, vol. 66, pp. 2646-2658, 2017.
K. T. Palmer, D'Angelo, S., Harris, E. C., Linaker, C., Sayer, A. A., Gale, C. R., Evandrou, M., Van Staa, T., Cooper, C., and Coggon, D., Sleep disturbance and the older worker: findings from the Health and Employment after Fifty study, Scand J Work Environ Health, vol. 43, pp. 136-145, 2017.
D. F. Carr, O'Meara, H., Jorgensen, A. L., Campbell, J., Hobbs, M., McCann, G., Van Staa, T., and Pirmohamed, M., SLCO1B1 genetic variant associated with statin-induced myopathy: a proof-of-concept study using the clinical practice research datalink, Clin Pharmacol Ther, vol. 94, pp. 695-701, 2013.
R. L. Tannen, Weiner, M. G., Xie, D., and Barnhart, K., A simulation using data from a primary care practice database closely replicated the women's health initiative trial, J Clin Epidemiol, vol. 60, pp. 686-95, 2007.
R. L. Tannen, Weiner, M. G., and Marcus, S. M., Simulation of the Syst-Eur randomized control trial using a primary care electronic medical record was feasible, J Clin Epidemiol, vol. 59, pp. 254-64, 2006.
T. P. van Staa, Geusens, P., Pols, H. A., de Laet, C., Leufkens, H. G., and Cooper, C., A simple score for estimating the long-term risk of fracture in patients using oral glucocorticoids, Qjm, vol. 98, pp. 191-8, 2005.
M. T. Bazelier, van Staa, T. P., Uitdehaag, B. M., Cooper, C., Leufkens, H. G., Vestergaard, P., Bentzen, J., and de Vries, F., A simple score for estimating the long-term risk of fracture in patients with multiple sclerosis, Neurology, vol. 79, pp. 922-8, 2012.
R. S. Padwal, Klarenbach, S. W., Wang, X., Sharma, A. M., Karmali, S., Birch, D. W., and Majumdar, S. R., A simple prediction rule for all-cause mortality in a cohort eligible for bariatric surgery, JAMA Surg, vol. 148, pp. 1109-15, 2013.
P. C. Prieto, Ibrahim, F., Campbell, R., Chinoy, H., Galloway, J., and Gordon, P., Similar risk of cardiovascular events in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy and rheumatoid arthritis in the first 5 years after diagnosis, Clin Rheumatol, 2020.
T. M. McKeever, Lewis, S. A., Smith, C., Collins, J., Heatlie, H., Frischer, M., and Hubbard, R., Siblings, multiple births, and the incidence of allergic disease: a birth cohort study using the West Midlands general practice research database, Thorax, vol. 56, pp. 758-62, 2001.
M. Frischer, Heatlie, H., Chapman, S., Norwood, J., Bashford, J., and Millson, D., Should the corticosteroid to bronchodilator ratio be promoted as a quality prescribing marker?, Public Health, vol. 113, pp. 247-50, 1999.
S. Weir, Samnaliev, M., Kuo, T. C., Tierney, T. S., S. Autiero, W., Taylor, R. S., and Schrag, A., Short- and long-term cost and utilization of health care resources in Parkinson's disease in the UK, Mov Disord, vol. 33, pp. 974-981, 2018.
M. A. Cavender, Norhammar, A., Birkeland, K. I., Jorgensen, M. E., Wilding, J. P., Khunti, K., Fu, A. Z., Bodegard, J., Blak, B. T., Wittbrodt, E., Thuresson, M., Fenici, P., Hammar, N., and Kosiborod, M., SGLT-2 Inhibitors and Cardiovascular Risk: An Analysis of CVD-REAL, J Am Coll Cardiol, vol. 71, pp. 2497-2506, 2018.
J. M. Dennis, Henley, W. E., Weedon, M. N., Lonergan, M., Rodgers, L. R., Jones, A. G., Hamilton, W. T., Sattar, N., Janmohamed, S., Holman, R. R., Pearson, E. R., Shields, B. M., and Hattersley, A. T., Sex and BMI Alter the Benefits and Risks of Sulfonylureas and Thiazolidinediones in Type 2 Diabetes: A Framework for Evaluating Stratification Using Routine Clinical and Individual Trial Data, Diabetes Care, vol. 41, pp. 1844-1853, 2018.
K. M. Abel, Heatlie, H. F., Howard, L. M., and Webb, R. T., Sex- and age-specific incidence of fractures in mental illness: a historical, population-based cohort study, J Clin Psychiatry, vol. 69, pp. 1398-403, 2008.
F. de Vries, van Staa, T. P., Bracke, M. S., Cooper, C., Leufkens, H. G., and Lammers, J. W., Severity of obstructive airway disease and risk of osteoporotic fracture, Eur Respir J, vol. 25, pp. 879-84, 2005.
[Page last reviewed 7 September 2020]