Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 3,000 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography listed below is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 8 September 2022).

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.

Download: CPRD bibliography PDF September 2022 (PDF, 6MB, 273 pages) 

Download: CPRD bibliography .BIB September 2022 (BIB, 1.3MB, 1 page)

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website

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Triple Inhaler versus Dual Bronchodilator Therapy in COPD: Real-World Effectiveness on Mortality


Authors: S. Suissa, S. Dell'Aniello, P. Ernst


UK prevalence of underlying conditions which increase the risk of severe COVID-19 disease: a point prevalence study using electronic health records


Authors: J. Walker, D. Grint, H. Strongman, R. Eggo, M. Peppa, C. Minassian, K. Mansfield, C. Rentsch, I. Douglas, R. Mathur, A. Wong, J. Quint, N. Andrews, J. Bernal, J. Scott, M. Ramsay, L. Smeeth, H. McDonald


Use of levothyroxine among pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism in the United Kingdom: A population-based assessment


Authors: Y. Yu, K. Filion, P. Reynier, R. Platt, O. H. Y. Yu, S. Grandi


Use of menopausal hormone therapy and risk of dementia: nested case-control studies using QResearch and CPRD databases


Authors: Y. Vinogradova, T. Dening, J. Hippisley-Cox, L. Taylor, M. Moore, C. Coupland


The use of mono- and combination drug therapy in men and women with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in the UK: a retrospective observational study


Authors: M. Ali, M. Landeira, P. Covernton, N. Choudhury, A. Jaggi, F. Fatoye, R. van Maanen


Use of prescribing safety quality improvement reports in UK general practices: a qualitative assessment


Authors: N. Khan, H. Booth, P. Myles, D. Mullett, A. Gallagher, C. Evans, N. Thomas, J. Valentine


Using Bayesian Networks to identify musculoskeletal symptoms influencing the risk of developing Psoriatic Arthritis in people with psoriasis


Authors: A. Green, W. Tillett, N. McHugh, T. Smith


Using electronic health records to inform trial feasibility in a rare autoimmune blistering skin disease in England


Authors: M. Persson, K. Harman, K. Thomas, J. Chalmers, Y. Vinogradova, S. Langan, J. Hippisley-Cox, S. Gran


Utilisation and Safety of Polyethylene Glycol 3350 with Electrolytes in Children Under 2 Years: A Retrospective Cohort


Authors: D. Roy, F. Akriche, B. Amlani, S. Shakir


Utilization and long-term persistence of direct oral anticoagulants among patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and liver disease


Authors: A. Douros, Y. Cui, R. Platt, K. Filion, G. Sebastiani, C. Renoux


The Utilization and Safety of Umeclidinium and Umeclidinium/Vilanterol in UK Primary Care: A Retrospective Cohort Study


Authors: G. Requena, D. Dedman, J. Quint, R. Ghosh, R. Williams, J. Pimenta


Validity of an algorithm to identify cardiovascular deaths from administrative health records: a multi-database population-based cohort study


Authors: L. Lix, S. Sobhan, A. St-Jean, J. Daigle, A. Fisher, O. H. Y. Yu, S. Dell'Aniello, N. Hu, S. Bugden, B. Shah, P. Ronksley, S. Alessi-Severini, A. Douros, P. Ernst, K. Filion


Validity of bariatric surgery codes in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) GOLD compared with Hospital Episodes Statistics


Authors: T. Burkard, M. Rauch, S. Jick, C. Meier


Vertebral fracture as a risk factor for self-harm: a retrospective cohort study


Authors: J. Prior, F. Crawford-Manning, R. Whittle, A. Abdul-Sultan, C. Chew-Graham, S. Muller, T. Shepherd, A. Sumathipala, C. Mallen, Z. Paskins


Weight change, cardio-metabolic risk factors and cardiovascular incidence in people with serious mental illness: protocol of a population-based cohort study in the UK from 1998 to 2020


Authors: C. Lee, F. Waite, M. Smith, M. Gao, C. Bankhead, P. Aveyard, C. Piernas


wEight chanGes, caRdio-mEtabolic risks and morTality in patients with hyperthyroidism (EGRET): a protocol for a CPRD-HES linked cohort study


Authors: B. Torlinska, J. Hazlehurst, K. Nirantharakumar, G. Thomas, J. Priestley, S. Finnikin, P. Saunders, K. Abrams, K. Boelaert


Weight loss and risk reduction of obesity-related outcomes in 0.5 million people: evidence from a UK primary care database


Authors: C. Haase, S. Lopes, A. Olsen, A. Satylganova, V. Schnecke, P. McEwan


What is the incidence of methotrexate or leflunomide discontinuation related to cytopenia, liver enzyme elevation or kidney function decline?


Authors: G. Nakafero, M. Grainge, T. Card, C. Mallen, W. Zhang, M. Doherty, M. Taal, G. Aithal, A. Abhishek


Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome have an increased risk of major cardiovascular events: a population study


Authors: T. Berni, C. Morgan, D. Rees


Younger people with rheumatoid arthritis are at increased risk of fracture even before age 50 years: a population-based cohort study


Authors: J. Erwin, D. Enki, A. Woolf


β-blocker prescription is associated with lower cumulative risk of knee osteoarthritis and knee pain consultations in primary care: a propensity score matched cohort study


Authors: G. Nakafero, M. Grainge, A. Valdes, N. Townsend, C. Mallen, W. Zhang, M. Doherty, M. Mamas, A. Abhishek


Suicide and other causes of death among working-age and older adults in the year after discharge from in-patient mental healthcare in England: matched cohort study


Authors: R. Musgrove, M. Carr, N. Kapur, C. Chew-Graham, F. Mughal, D. Ashcroft, R. Webb


Healthcare resource use and costs for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus with and without severe mental illness in England: longitudinal matched-cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink


Authors: H. Wang, L. Han, R. Jacobs, T. Doran, R. Holt, S. Prady, S. Gilbody, D. Shiers, S. Alderson, C. Hewitt, J. Taylor, C. Kitchen, S. Bellass, N. Siddiqi


The healthcare resource impact of maternal mental illness on children and adolescents: UK retrospective cohort study


Authors: H. Hope, C. Osam, E. Kontopantelis, S. Hughes, L. Munford, D. Ashcroft, M. Pierce, K. Abel


The Long-Term Impact of Vaginal Surgical Mesh Devices in UK Primary Care: A Cohort Study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink


Authors: E. McFadden, S. Lay-Flurrie, C. Koshiaris, G. Richards, C. Heneghan


Does pre-existing morbidity influences risks and benefits of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis: a prospective study of 6682 patients from linked national datasets in England


Authors: R. Ferguson, D. Prieto-Alhambra, G. Peat, A. Delmestri, K. Jordan, V . Y. Strauss, J. Valderas, C. Walker, D. Yu, S. Glyn-Jones, A. Silman


Does pre-existing morbidity influences risks and benefits of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis: a prospective study of 6682 patients from linked national datasets in England


Authors: R. Ferguson, D. Prieto-Alhambra, G. Peat, A. Delmestri, K. Jordan, V . Y. Strauss, J. Valderas, C. Walker, D. Yu, S. Glyn-Jones, A. Silman


Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors and Urinary Tract Infections: A Propensity Score-matched Population-based Cohort Study


Authors: W. Alkabbani, A. Zongo, J. Minhas-Sandhu, D. Eurich, B. Shah, M. Alsabbagh, J. Gamble


Associations between attainment of incentivized primary care indicators and incident sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in England: A population-based historical cohort study


Authors: A. McKay, L. Gunn, M. Nugawela, T. Sathish, A. Majeed, Vamos E, G. Molina, S. Sivaprasad


Healthcare, Medication Utilization and Outcomes of Patients with COPD by GOLD Classification in England


Authors: L. Sansbury, K. Rothnie, C. Bains, C. Compton, G. Anley, A. Ismaila


Effectiveness and safety among direct oral anticoagulants in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: A multi-database cohort study with meta-analysis


Authors: M. Durand, M. Schnitzer, M. Pang, G. Carney, S. Eltonsy, K. Filion, A. Fisher, M. Jun, I. Kuo, A. Matteau, J. Paterson, J. Quail, C. Renoux


Persistence of Eosinophilic Asthma Endotype and Clinical Outcomes: A Real-World Observational Study


Authors: T. Tran, M. Kerkhof, V. Carter, D. Price


Lower cardiorenal risk with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors versus dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes without cardiovascular and renal diseases: A large multinational observational study


Authors: K. Birkeland, J. Bodegard, A. Banerjee, D. Kim, A. Norhammar, J. Eriksson, M. Thuresson, S. Okami, K. Ha, N. Kossack, J. Mamza, R. Zhang, T. Yajima, I. Komuro, T. Kadowaki


Lower risk of hospitalization for heart failure, kidney disease and death with sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors compared with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes regardless of prior cardiovascular or kidney disease


Authors: I. Idris, R. Zhang, J. Mamza, M. Ford, T. Morris, A. Banerjee, K. Khunti


Ability of primary care health databases to assess medicinal products discussed by the European Union Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee


Authors: R. Flynn, K. Hedenmalm, T. Murray-Thomas, A. Pacurariu, P. Arlett, H. Shepherd, P. Myles, X. Kurz


Accelerated FEV(1) decline and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in a primary care population of COPD patients


Authors: H. Whittaker, C. Bloom, A. Morgan, D. Jarvis, S. Kiddle, J. Quint


Adaptive Treatment Strategies with Survival Outcomes: An Application to the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes using a Large Observational Database


Authors: G. Simoneau, E. Moodie, L. Azoulay, R. Platt


Quality of life and mental health in breast cancer survivors compared with non-cancer controls: a study of patient-reported outcomes in the United Kingdom


Authors: H. Carreira, R. Williams, H. Dempsey, S. Stanway, L. Smeeth, K. Bhaskaran


Quantifying the impact of pre-existing conditions on the stage of oesophagogastric cancer at diagnosis: a primary care cohort study using electronic medical records


Authors: M. Quiroga, E. Shephard, L. Mounce, M. Carney, W. Hamilton, S. Price


Real-world data on the incidence, mortality, and cost of ischaemic stroke and major bleeding events among non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients in England


Authors: A. Bakhai, H. Petri, F. Vahidnia, C. Wolf, Y. Ding, N. Foskett, M. Sculpher


Real-world reproducibility study characterizing patients newly diagnosed with multiple myeloma using Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a UK-based electronic health records database


Authors: A. Seesaghur, N. Petruski-Ivleva, V. Banks, J. Wang, P. Mattox, E. Hoeben, J. Maskell, D. Neasham, S. Reynolds, G. Kafatos


Recurrent heart failure hospitalizations are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in patients with heart failure in Clinical Practice Research Datalink


Authors: R. Lahoz, A. Fagan, M. McSharry, C. Proudfoot, S. Corda, R. Studer


Regional analysis of UK primary care prescribing and adult service referrals for young people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder


Authors: A. Price, T. Ford, A. Janssens, A. Williams, T. Newlove-Delgado


Resource use and direct medical costs of acute respiratory illness in the UK based on linked primary and secondary care records from 2001 to 2009


Authors: G. Meier, J. Watkins, P. McEwan, R. Pockett


Respiratory tract infection-related healthcare utilisation in children with Down\textquoterights syndrome


Authors: L. Manikam, A. Schilder, M. Lakhanpaul, P. Littlejohns, E. Alexander, A. Hayward


Risk Factor Control and Cardiovascular Event Risk in People With Type 2 Diabetes in Primary and Secondary Prevention Settings


Authors: A. Wright, M. Suarez-Ortegon, S. Read, E. Kontopantelis, I. Buchan, R. Emsley, N. Sattar, D. Ashcroft, S. Wild, M. Rutter


Risk factors associated with the incidence and recurrence of hyperkalaemia in patients with cardiorenal conditions


Authors: E. Tafesse, M. Hurst, L. Hoskin, K. Badora, D. Sugrue, L. Qin, G. James, P. McEwan


Risk of depression, suicide and psychosis with hydroxychloroquine treatment for rheumatoid arthritis: a multinational network cohort study


Authors: J. Lane, J. Weaver, K. Kostka, T. Duarte-Salles, M. Abrahao, H. Alghoul, O. Alser, T. Alshammari, C. Areia, P. Biedermann, J. Banda, E. Burn, P. Casajust, Fi\v ster, J. Hardin, L. Hester, G. Hripcsak, B. Kaas-Hansen, S. Khosla, S. Kolovos, K. Lynch, R. Makadia, P. Mehta, D. Morales, H. Morgan-Stewart, M. Mosseveld, D. Newby, F. Nyberg, A. Ostropolets, Woong Park, A. Prats-Uribe, G. Rao, C. Reich, P. Rijnbeek, A. Sena, A. Shoaibi, M. Spotnitz, S. Vignesh, M. Suchard, D. Vizcaya, H. Wen, M. de Wilde, J. Xie, S. You, L. Zhang, S. Lovestone, P. Ryan, D. Prieto-Alhambra


Risk of hand osteoarthritis in new users of hormone replacement therapy: A nested case-control analysis


Authors: T. Burkard, M. Rauch, J. Spoendlin, D. Prieto-Alhambra, S. Jick, C. Meier


Risk of herpes zoster after exposure to varicella to explore the exogenous boosting hypothesis: self controlled case series study using UK electronic healthcare data


Authors: H. Forbes, I. Douglas, A. Finn, J. Breuer, K. Bhaskaran, L. Smeeth, S. Packer, S. Langan, K. Mansfield, R. Marlow, H. Whitaker, C. Warren-Gash