Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 April 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 226 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2770 results:
Author Title [ Type(Desc)] Year
Journal Article
C. Becker, Meier, C. R., Jick, S. S., and Bodmer, M., Case-control analysis on metformin and cancer of the esophagus, Cancer Causes Control, vol. 24, pp. 1763-70, 2013.
L. Smeeth, Hall, A. J., Fombonne, E., Rodrigues, L. C., Huang, X., and Smith, P. G., A case-control study of autism and mumps-measles-rubella vaccination using the general practice research database: design and methodology, BMC Public Health, vol. 1, p. 2, 2001.
I. J. Douglas, Cook, C., Chakravarthy, U., Hubbard, R., Fletcher, A. E., and Smeeth, L., A case-control study of drug risk factors for age-related macular degeneration, Ophthalmology, vol. 114, pp. 1164-9, 2007.
C. O. Sullivan, Omar, R. Z., Ambler, G., and Majeed, A., Case-mix and variation in specialist referrals in general practice, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 55, pp. 529-33, 2005.
L. Smeeth, Hubbard, R., and Fletcher, A. E., Cataract and the use of statins: a case-control study, Qjm, vol. 96, pp. 337-43, 2003.
C. Becker, Schneider, C., Aballea, S., Bailey, C., Bourne, R., Jick, S., and Meier, C., Cataract in patients with diabetes mellitus-incidence rates in the UK and risk factors, Eye (Lond), vol. 32, pp. 1028-1035, 2018.
A. Lalmohamed, Bazelier, M. T., van Staa, T. P., Uitdehaag, B. M., Leufkens, H. G., de Boer, A., and de Vries, F., Causes of death in patients with multiple sclerosis and matched referent subjects: a population-based cohort study, Eur J Neurol, vol. 19, pp. 1007-14, 2012.
A. A. Sultan, Crooks, C. J., Card, T., Tata, L. J., Fleming, K. M., and West, J., Causes of death in people with coeliac disease in England compared with the general population: a competing risk analysis, Gut, vol. 64, pp. 1220-6, 2015.
K. Abuabara, Azfar, R. S., Shin, D. B., Neimann, A. L., Troxel, A. B., and Gelfand, J. M., Cause-specific mortality in patients with severe psoriasis: a population-based cohort study in the U.K, Br J Dermatol, vol. 163, pp. 586-92, 2010.
M. Solaymani-Dodaran, Card, T. R., and West, J., Cause-specific mortality of people with Barrett's esophagus compared with the general population: a population-based cohort study, Gastroenterology, vol. 144, pp. 1375-83, 1383.e1, 2013.
C. Black, Kaye, J. A., and Jick, H., Cesarean delivery in the United Kingdom: time trends in the general practice research database, Obstet Gynecol, vol. 106, pp. 151-5, 2005.
I. C. Wong, Asherson, P., Bilbow, A., Clifford, S., Coghill, D., DeSoysa, R., Hollis, C., McCarthy, S., Murray, M., Planner, C., Potts, L., Sayal, K., and Taylor, E., Cessation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder drugs in the young (CADDY)–a pharmacoepidemiological and qualitative study, Health Technol Assess, vol. 13, pp. iii-iv, ix-xi, 1-120, 2009.
M. A. C. Tanke, Feyman, Y., Bernal-Delgado, E., Deeny, S. R., Imanaka, Y., Jeurissen, P., Lange, L., Pimperl, A., Sasaki, N., Schull, M., Wammes, J. J. G., Wodchis, W. P., and Meyer, G. S., A challenge to all. A primer on inter-country differences of high-need, high-cost patients, PLoS One, vol. 14, p. e0217353, 2019.
M. Smith, Herrington, W. G., Weldegiorgis, M., Hobbs, F. R., Bankhead, C., and Woodward, M., Change in Albuminuria and Risk of Renal and Cardiovascular Outcomes: Natural Variation Should Be Taken into Account, Kidney Int Rep, vol. 3, pp. 939-949, 2018.
J. A. Kaye, Bradbury, B. D., and Jick, H., Changes in antipsychotic drug prescribing by general practitioners in the United Kingdom from 1991 to 2000: a population-based observational study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 56, pp. 569-75, 2003.
J. P. H. Wilding, Godec, T., Khunti, K., Pocock, S., Fox, R., Smeeth, L., Clauson, P., Fenici, P., Hammar, N., and Medina, J., Changes in HbA1c and weight after initiation of second-line therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes in clinical practice., Diabetologia., vol. 60, p. S301, 2017.
J. Wilding, Godec, T., Khunti, K., Pocock, S., Fox, R., Smeeth, L., Clauson, P., Fenici, P., Hammar, N., and Medina, J., Changes in HbA1c and weight, and treatment persistence, over the 18 months following initiation of second-line therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes: results from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMC Med, vol. 16, p. 116, 2018.
D. Prieto-Alhambra, Javaid, M. K., Maskell, J., Judge, A., Nevitt, M., Cooper, C., and Arden, N. K., Changes in hip fracture rate before and after total knee replacement due to osteoarthritis: a population-based cohort study, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 70, pp. 134-8, 2011.
T. Kendrick, Stuart, B., Newell, C., Geraghty, A. W., and Moore, M., Changes in rates of recorded depression in English primary care 2003-2013: Time trend analyses of effects of the economic recession, and the GP contract quality outcomes framework (QOF), J Affect Disord, vol. 180, pp. 68-78, 2015.
E. Setakis, Leufkens, H. G., and van Staa, T. P., Changes in the characteristics of patients prescribed selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors after the 2004 withdrawal of rofecoxib, Arthritis Rheum, vol. 59, pp. 1105-11, 2008.
J. K. Quint, Millett, E. R., Joshi, M., Navaratnam, V., Thomas, S. L., Hurst, J. R., Smeeth, L., and Brown, J. S., Changes in the incidence, prevalence and mortality of bronchiectasis in the UK from 2004 to 2013: a population-based cohort study, Eur Respir J, vol. 47, pp. 186-93, 2016.
S. S. R. Crossfield, Buch, M. H., Baxter, P., Kingsbury, S. R., Pujades-Rodriguez, M., and Conaghan, P. G., Changes in the pharmacological management of rheumatoid arthritis over two decades, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2021.
S. Chowienczyk, Price, S., and Hamilton, W., Changes in the presenting symptoms of lung cancer from 2000-2017: a serial cross-sectional study of observational records in UK primary care, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
C. S. Zin, Chen, L. C., and Knaggs, R. D., Changes in trends and pattern of strong opioid prescribing in primary care, Eur J Pain, vol. 18, pp. 1343-51, 2014.
A. V. Gayle, Axson, E. L., Bloom, C. I., Navaratnam, V., and Quint, J. K., Changing causes of death for patients with chronic respiratory disease in England, 2005-2015, Thorax, 2019.
H. P. Booth, Khan, O., Fildes, A., Prevost, A. T., Reddy, M., Charlton, J., and Gulliford, M. C., Changing Epidemiology of Bariatric Surgery in the UK: Cohort Study Using Primary Care Electronic Health Records, Obes Surg, vol. 26, pp. 1900-5, 2016.
S. V. Ramagopalan, Carroll, R., Ulvestad, M., Mehmud, F., and Alikhan, R., The changing face of venous thromboembolism management in England, Future Cardiol, 2019.
R. Ackers, Besag, F. M., Wade, A., Murray, M. L., and Wong, I. C., Changing trends in antiepileptic drug prescribing in girls of child-bearing potential, Arch Dis Child, vol. 94, pp. 443-7, 2009.
S. Wilkinson, Douglas, I., Stirnadel-Farrant, H., Fogarty, D., Pokrajac, A., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L., Changing use of antidiabetic drugs in the UK: trends in prescribing 2000-2017, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e022768, 2018.
C. J. Edwards, Arden, N. K., Fisher, D., Saperia, J. C., Reading, I., van Staa, T. P., and Cooper, C., The changing use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis from the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 44, pp. 1394-8, 2005.
R. B. Weinstein, Ryan, P. B., Berlin, J. A., Schuemie, M. J., Swerdel, J., and Fife, D., Channeling Bias in the Analysis of Risk of Myocardial Infarction, Stroke, Gastrointestinal Bleeding, and Acute Renal Failure with the Use of Paracetamol Compared with Ibuprofen, Drug Saf, 2020.
R. B. Weinstein, Ryan, P., Berlin, J. A., Matcho, A., Schuemie, M., Swerdel, J., Patel, K., and Fife, D., Channeling in the Use of Nonprescription Paracetamol and Ibuprofen in an Electronic Medical Records Database: Evidence and Implications, Drug Saf, vol. 40, pp. 1279-1292, 2017.
T. M. MacDonald, Morant, S. V., Goldstein, J. L., Burke, T. A., and Pettitt, D., Channelling bias and the incidence of gastrointestinal haemorrhage in users of meloxicam, coxibs, and older, non-specific non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Gut, vol. 52, pp. 1265-70, 2003.
L. Kalilani, Friesen, D., Boudiaf, N., and Asgharnejad, M., The characteristics and treatment patterns of patients with Parkinson's disease in the United States and United Kingdom: A retrospective cohort study, PLoS One, vol. 14, p. e0225723, 2019.
H. R. Whittaker, Pimenta, J. M., Jarvis, D., Kiddle, S. J., and Quint, J. K., Characteristics Associated with Accelerated Lung Function Decline in a Primary Care Population with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 15, pp. 3079-3091, 2020.
Y. S. Punekar, Landis, S. H., Wurst, K., and Le, H., Characteristics, disease burden and costs of COPD patients in the two years following initiation of long-acting bronchodilators in UK primary care, Respir Res, vol. 16, p. 141, 2015.
S. Ramtoola, Nyeland, M. E., Jacobsen, J., Ploug, U. J., Kragh, N., and Zimmermann, E., Characteristics of newly diagnosed adults with type 1 diabetes in the UK and evolution of glycaemic control, body mass index and Charlson comorbidity index over the first 5 years after diagnosis, Prim Care Diabetes, 2019.
Y. Zhu, Edwards, D., Mant, J., Payne, R. A., and Kiddle, S., Characteristics, service use and mortality of clusters of multimorbid patients in England: a population-based study, BMC Med, vol. 18, p. 78, 2020.
A. Ruigomez, Rodriguez, L. A., Wallander, M. A., Johansson, S., and Jones, R., Chest pain in general practice: incidence, comorbidity and mortality, Fam Pract, vol. 23, pp. 167-74, 2006.
A. Ruigomez, Masso-Gonzalez, E. L., Johansson, S., Wallander, M. A., and Garcia-Rodriguez, L. A., Chest pain without established ischaemic heart disease in primary care patients: associated comorbidities and mortality, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 59, pp. e78-86, 2009.
S. L. Thomas, Minassian, C., Ganesan, V., Langan, S. M., and Smeeth, L., Chickenpox and risk of stroke: a self-controlled case series analysis, Clin Infect Dis, vol. 58, pp. 61-8, 2014.
C. H. van Jaarsveld and Gulliford, M. C., Childhood obesity trends from primary care electronic health records in England between 1994 and 2013: population-based cohort study, Arch Dis Child, vol. 100, pp. 214-9, 2015.
J. M. Burnham, Shults, J., Weinstein, R., Lewis, J. D., and Leonard, M. B., Childhood onset arthritis is associated with an increased risk of fracture: a population based study using the General Practice Research Database, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 65, pp. 1074-9, 2006.
T. P. van Staa, Cooper, C., Leufkens, H. G., and Bishop, N., Children and the risk of fractures caused by oral corticosteroids, J Bone Miner Res, vol. 18, pp. 913-8, 2003.
den C. Heijer, Hoebe, C., Driessen, J. H., Wolffs, P., van den Broek, I., Hoenderboom, B., Williams, R., de Vries, F., and Dukers-Muijrers, N., Chlamydia trachomatis and the Risk of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, Ectopic Pregnancy, and Female Infertility: A Retrospective Cohort Study Among Primary Care Patients, Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2019.
T. Shao and Yang, Y. X., Cholecystectomy and the risk of colorectal cancer, Am J Gastroenterol, vol. 100, pp. 1813-20, 2005.
L. E. Derby, Jick, H., Henry, D. A., and Dean, A. D., Cholestatic hepatitis associated with flucloxacillin, Med J Aust, vol. 158, pp. 596-600, 1993.
S. Rietbrock, Heeley, E., Plumb, J., and Van Staa, T., Chronic atrial fibrillation: Incidence, prevalence, and prediction of stroke using the Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age >75, Diabetes mellitus, and prior Stroke or transient ischemic attack (CHADS2) risk stratification scheme, Am Heart J, vol. 156, pp. 57-64, 2008.
A. Dregan, Charlton, J., Chowienczyk, P., and Gulliford, M. C., Chronic inflammatory disorders and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and stroke: a population-based cohort study, Circulation, vol. 130, pp. 837-44, 2014.
M. Iwagami, Caplin, B., Smeeth, L., Tomlinson, L. A., and Nitsch, D., Chronic kidney disease and cause-specific hospitalisation: a matched cohort study using primary and secondary care patient data, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 68, pp. e512-e523, 2018.
[Page last reviewed 6 April 2021]