Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 August 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 207 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 31 results:
Author Title [ Type(Desc)] Year
Filters: Author is Douglas, I.  [Clear All Filters]
Journal Article
D. Nitsch, Douglas, I., Smeeth, L., and Fletcher, A., Age-related macular degeneration and complement activation-related diseases: a population-based case-control study, Ophthalmology, vol. 115, pp. 1904-10, 2008.
K. Bhaskaran, Douglas, I., Evans, S., Van Staa, T., and Smeeth, L., Angiotensin receptor blockers and risk of cancer: cohort study among people receiving antihypertensive drugs in UK General Practice Research Database, Bmj, vol. 344, p. e2697, 2012.
N. S. Nagra, Robinson, D. E., Douglas, I., Delmestri, A., Dakin, S. G., Snelling, S. J. B., Carr, A. J., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Antibiotic treatment and flares of rheumatoid arthritis: a self-controlled case series study analysis using CPRD GOLD, Sci Rep, vol. 9, p. 8941, 2019.
R. Brauer, Smeeth, L., Anaya-Izquierdo, K., Timmis, A., Denaxas, S. C., Farrington, C. P., Whitaker, H., Hemingway, H., and Douglas, I., Antipsychotic drugs and risks of myocardial infarction: a self-controlled case series study, Eur Heart J, vol. 36, pp. 984-92, 2015.
A. Skow, Douglas, I., and Smeeth, L., The association between Parkinson's disease and anti-epilepsy drug carbamazepine: a case-control study using the UK General Practice Research Database, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 76, pp. 816-22, 2013.
N. Qizilbash, Gregson, J., Johnson, M. E., Pearce, N., Douglas, I., Wing, K., Evans, S. J. W., and Pocock, S. J., BMI and risk of dementia in two million people over two decades: a retrospective cohort study, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, vol. 3, pp. 431-436, 2015.
K. Bhaskaran, Douglas, I., Forbes, H., dos-Santos-Silva, I., Leon, D. A., and Smeeth, L., Body-mass index and risk of 22 specific cancers: a population-based cohort study of 5.24 million UK adults, Lancet, vol. 384, pp. 755-65, 2014.
S. Wilkinson, Douglas, I., Stirnadel-Farrant, H., Fogarty, D., Pokrajac, A., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L., Changing use of antidiabetic drugs in the UK: trends in prescribing 2000-2017, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e022768, 2018.
C. I. Bloom, Douglas, I., Olney, J., D'Ancona, G., Smeeth, L., and Quint, J. K., Cost saving of switching to equivalent inhalers and its effect on health outcomes, Thorax, 2019.
K. Wing, Douglas, I., Bhaskaran, K., Klungel, O. H., Reynolds, R. F., Pirmohamed, M., Smeeth, L., and van Staa, T. P., Development of predictive genetic tests for improving the safety of new medicines: the utilization of routinely collected electronic health records, Drug Discov Today, vol. 19, pp. 361-6, 2014.
J. F. Hayes, Bhaskaran, K., Batterham, R., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I., The effect of sibutramine prescribing in routine clinical practice on cardiovascular outcomes: a cohort study in the United Kingdom, Int J Obes (Lond), vol. 39, pp. 1359-64, 2015.
R. Mathur, Farmer, R. E., Eastwood, S. V., Chaturvedi, N., Douglas, I., and Smeeth, L., Ethnic disparities in initiation and intensification of diabetes treatment in adults with type 2 diabetes in the UK, 1990-2017: A cohort study, PLoS Med, vol. 17, p. e1003106, 2020.
A. A. Root, Wong, A. Y., Ghebremichael-Weldeselassie, Y., Smeeth, L., Bhaskaran, K., Evans, S. J., Brauer, R., Wong, I. C., Navaratnam, V., and Douglas, I., Evaluation of the risk of cardiovascular events with clarithromycin using both propensity score and self-controlled study designs, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 82, pp. 512-21, 2016.
R. Brauer, Bhaskaran, K., Chaturvedi, N., Dexter, D. T., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I., Glitazone Treatment and Incidence of Parkinson's Disease among People with Diabetes: A Retrospective Cohort Study, PLoS Med, vol. 12, p. e1001854, 2015.
N. S. Wexler, Collett, L., Wexler, A. R., Rawlins, M. D., Tabrizi, S. J., Douglas, I., Smeeth, L., and Evans, S. J., Incidence of adult Huntington's disease in the UK: a UK-based primary care study and a systematic review, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e009070, 2016.
A. Grosso, Douglas, I., Hingorani, A. D., MacAllister, R., Hubbard, R., and Smeeth, L., Inhaled tiotropium bromide and risk of stroke, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 68, pp. 731-6, 2009.
I. Douglas, Evans, S., Rawlins, M. D., Smeeth, L., Tabrizi, S. J., and Wexler, N. S., Juvenile Huntington's disease: a population-based study using the General Practice Research Database, BMJ Open, vol. 3, 2013.
R. Beau-Lejdstrom, Douglas, I., Evans, S. J., and Smeeth, L., Latest trends in ADHD drug prescribing patterns in children in the UK: prevalence, incidence and persistence, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e010508, 2016.
K. J. Rothnie, Connell, O., Mullerova, H., Smeeth, L., Pearce, N., Douglas, I., and Quint, J. K., Myocardial Infarction and Ischemic Stroke after Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Ann Am Thorac Soc, vol. 15, pp. 935-946, 2018.
K. Wing, Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., van Staa, T. P., Klungel, O. H., Reynolds, R. F., and Douglas, I., Optimising case detection within UK electronic health records: use of multiple linked databases for detecting liver injury, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e012102, 2016.
A. Grosso, Douglas, I., Hingorani, A., MacAllister, R., and Smeeth, L., Oral bisphosphonates and risk of atrial fibrillation and flutter in women: a self-controlled case-series safety analysis, PLoS One, vol. 4, p. e4720, 2009.
R. Mathur, Bhaskaran, K., Edwards, E., Lee, H., Chaturvedi, N., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I., Population trends in the 10-year incidence and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the UK: a cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink 2004-2014, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e014444, 2017.
S. J. Evans, Douglas, I., Rawlins, M. D., Wexler, N. S., Tabrizi, S. J., and Smeeth, L., Prevalence of adult Huntington's disease in the UK based on diagnoses recorded in general practice records, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol. 84, pp. 1156-60, 2013.
R. Brauer, Ruigomez, A., Downey, G., Bate, A., Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Huerta, C., Gil, M., de Abajo, F., Requena, G., Alvarez, Y., Slattery, J., de Groot, M., Souverein, P., Hesse, U., Rottenkolber, M., Schmiedl, S., de Vries, F., Tepie, M. F., Schlienger, R., Smeeth, L., Douglas, I., Reynolds, R., and Klungel, O., Prevalence of antibiotic use: a comparison across various European health care data sources, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 25 Suppl 1, pp. 11-20, 2016.
K. Wing, Bhaskaran, K., Pealing, L., Root, A., Smeeth, L., van Staa, T. P., Klungel, O. H., Reynolds, R. F., and Douglas, I., Quantification of the risk of liver injury associated with flucloxacillin: a UK population-based cohort study, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol. 72, pp. 2636-2646, 2017.
K. Wing, Williamson, E., Carpenter, J. R., Wise, L., Schneeweiss, S., Smeeth, L., Quint, J. K., and Douglas, I., Real-world effects of medications for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: protocol for a UK population-based non-interventional cohort study with validation against randomised trial results, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e019475, 2018.
K. Bhaskaran, Forbes, H. J., Douglas, I., Leon, D. A., and Smeeth, L., Representativeness and optimal use of body mass index (BMI) in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), BMJ Open, vol. 3, p. e003389, 2013.
R. Brauer, Ruigomez, A., Klungel, O., Reynolds, R., M. Tepie, F., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I., The risk of acute liver injury among users of antibiotic medications: a comparison of case-only studies, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 25 Suppl 1, pp. 39-46, 2016.
H. Forbes, Douglas, I., Finn, A., Breuer, J., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., Packer, S., Langan, S. M., Mansfield, K. E., Marlow, R., Whitaker, H., and Warren-Gash, C., Risk of herpes zoster after exposure to varicella to explore the exogenous boosting hypothesis: self controlled case series study using UK electronic healthcare data, Bmj, vol. 368, p. l6987, 2020.
A. F. Macedo, Douglas, I., Smeeth, L., Forbes, H., and Ebrahim, S., Statins and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: cohort study using the UK clinical practice pesearch datalink, BMC Cardiovasc Disord, vol. 14, p. 85, 2014.
I. Douglas, Smeeth, L., and Irvine, D., The use of antidepressants and the risk of haemorrhagic stroke: a nested case control study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 71, pp. 116-20, 2011.
[Page last reviewed 5 August 2020]