Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 April 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 226 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2770 results:
Author Title [ Type(Desc)] Year
Journal Article
A. D. Morgan, Rothnie, K. J., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., and Quint, J. K., Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the risk of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a population-based study using UK primary care data, Thorax, vol. 73, pp. 877-879, 2018.
C. Schneider, Bothner, U., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the risk of cardiovascular diseases, Eur J Epidemiol, vol. 25, pp. 253-60, 2010.
S. Menon, Nightingale, P., and Trudgill, N., Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and the Risk of Esophagitis, Barrett Esophagus, and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma: A Primary Care Case-Control Study, J Clin Gastroenterol, 2019.
L. A. Garcia Rodriguez, Wallander, M. A., Tolosa, L. B., and Johansson, S., Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in UK primary care: incidence and risk factors, Copd, vol. 6, pp. 369-79, 2009.
Y. X. Yang, Hennessy, S., Propert, K., Hwang, W. T., Sedarat, A., and Lewis, J. D., Chronic proton pump inhibitor therapy and the risk of colorectal cancer, Gastroenterology, vol. 133, pp. 748-54, 2007.
S. L. Stevens, Stevens, R. J., Hobbs, F. D., and Lasserson, D. S., Chronic renal disease is not chronic kidney disease: implications for use of the QRISK and Joint British Societies risk scores, Fam Pract, vol. 33, pp. 57-60, 2016.
Y. X. Yang, Hennessy, S., Propert, K., Hwang, W. T., Sarkar, M., and Lewis, J. D., Chronic statin therapy and the risk of colorectal cancer, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 17, pp. 869-76, 2008.
V. Kuan, Denaxas, S., A Izquierdo, G. -, Direk, K., Bhatti, O., Husain, S., Sutaria, S., Hingorani, M., Nitsch, D., Parisinos, C. A., Lumbers, T., Mathur, R., Sofat, R., Casas, J. P., Wong, I. C. K., Hemingway, H., and Hingorani, A. D., A chronological map of 308 physical and mental health conditions from 4 million individuals in the English National Health Service, The Lancet Digital Health, 2019.
M. A. Hernan, Jick, S. S., Logroscino, G., Olek, M. J., Ascherio, A., and Jick, H., Cigarette smoking and the progression of multiple sclerosis, Brain, vol. 128, pp. 1461-5, 2005.
S. Jick, Ciprofloxacin safety in a pediatric population, Pediatr Infect Dis J, vol. 16, pp. 130-3; discussion 133-4, 160-2, 1997.
H. I. McDonald, Thomas, S. L., Millett, E. R., and Nitsch, D., CKD and the risk of acute, community-acquired infections among older people with diabetes mellitus: a retrospective cohort study using electronic health records, Am J Kidney Dis, vol. 66, pp. 60-8, 2015.
A. I. B. Kurdi, Elliott, R. A., and Chen, L. C., Clinical and economic implications of therapeutic switching of angiotensin receptor blockers to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: a population-based study, J Hypertens, 2018.
T. P. van Staa, Geusens, P., Bijlsma, J. W., Leufkens, H. G., and Cooper, C., Clinical assessment of the long-term risk of fracture in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, Arthritis Rheum, vol. 54, pp. 3104-12, 2006.
A. Berger, Sadosky, A., Dukes, E., Edelsberg, J., and Oster, G., Clinical characteristics and patterns of healthcare utilization in patients with painful neuropathic disorders in UK general practice: a retrospective cohort study, BMC Neurol, vol. 12, p. 8, 2012.
C. Miani, Martin, A., Exley, J., Doble, B., Wilson, E., Payne, R., Avery, A., Meads, C., Kirtley, A., Jones, M. M., and King, S., Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of issuing longer versus shorter duration (3-month vs. 28-day) prescriptions in patients with chronic conditions: systematic review and economic modelling, Health Technol Assess, vol. 21, pp. 1-128, 2017.
E. A. Shephard, Stapley, S., Neal, R. D., Rose, P., Walter, F. M., and Hamilton, W. T., Clinical features of bladder cancer in primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 62, pp. e598-604, 2012.
S. A. Stapley, Rubin, G. P., Alsina, D., Shephard, E. A., Rutter, M. D., and Hamilton, W. T., Clinical features of bowel disease in patients aged <50 years in primary care: a large case-control study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 67, pp. e336-e344, 2017.
E. Shephard, Neal, R., Rose, P., Walter, F., and Hamilton, W. T., Clinical features of kidney cancer in primary care: a case-control study using primary care records, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 63, pp. e250-5, 2013.
W. Hamilton and Kernick, D., Clinical features of primary brain tumours: a case-control study using electronic primary care records, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 57, pp. 695-9, 2007.
K. Kostikas, Price, D., Gutzwiller, F. S., Jones, B., Loefroth, E., Clemens, A., Fogel, R., Jones, R., and Cao, H., Clinical Impact and Healthcare Resource Utilization Associated with Early versus Late COPD Diagnosis in Patients from UK CPRD Database, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 15, pp. 1729-1738, 2020.
R. Persson and Jick, S., Clinical implications of the association between fluoroquinolones and tendon rupture: the magnitude of the effect with and without corticosteroids, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2019.
K. Khunti, Wolden, M. L., Thorsted, B. L., Andersen, M., and Davies, M. J., Clinical inertia in people with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study of more than 80,000 people, Diabetes Care, vol. 36, pp. 3411-7, 2013.
K. Khunti, Nikolajsen, A., Thorsted, B. L., Andersen, M., Davies, M. J., and Paul, S. K., Clinical inertia with regard to intensifying therapy in people with type 2 diabetes treated with basal insulin, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 18, pp. 401-9, 2016.
M. J. Carr, Ashcroft, D. M., Kontopantelis, E., While, D., Awenat, Y., Cooper, J., Chew-Graham, C., Kapur, N., and Webb, R. T., Clinical management following self-harm in a UK-wide primary care cohort, J Affect Disord, vol. 197, pp. 182-8, 2016.
L. Fiaschi, Nelson-Piercy, C., Deb, S., King, R., and Tata, L. J., Clinical management of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy and hyperemesis gravidarum across primary and secondary care: a population based study, Bjog, 2019.
R. Charlton, Snowball, J., Sammon, C., and de Vries, C., The Clinical Practice Research Datalink for drug safety in pregnancy research: an overview, Therapie, vol. 69, pp. 83-9, 2014.
F. Nissen, Douglas, I. J., Mullerova, H., Pearce, N., Bloom, C. I., Smeeth, L., and Quint, J. K., Clinical profile of predefined asthma phenotypes in a large cohort of UK primary care patients (Clinical Practice Research Datalink), J Asthma Allergy, vol. 12, pp. 7-19, 2019.
S. E. Bailey, Ukoumunne, O. C., Shephard, E. A., and Hamilton, W., Clinical relevance of thrombocytosis in primary care: a prospective cohort study of cancer incidence using English electronic medical records and cancer registry data, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 67, pp. e405-e413, 2017.
J. Chollet, Saragoussi, D., Clay, E., and Francois, C., A clinical research practice datalink analysis of antidepressant treatment patterns and health care costs in generalized anxiety disorder, Value Health, vol. 16, pp. 1133-9, 2013.
C. Black, Kaye, J. A., and Jick, H., Clinical risk factors for venous thromboembolus in users of the combined oral contraceptive pill, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 53, pp. 637-40, 2002.
F. D. R. Hobbs, Bankhead, C., Mukhtar, T., Stevens, S., Perera-Salazar, R., Holt, T., and Salisbury, C., Clinical workload in UK primary care: a retrospective analysis of 100 million consultations in England, 2007-14, Lancet, vol. 387, pp. 2323-2330, 2016.
D. A. Springate, Kontopantelis, E., Ashcroft, D. M., Olier, I., Parisi, R., Chamapiwa, E., and Reeves, D., ClinicalCodes: an online clinical codes repository to improve the validity and reproducibility of research using electronic medical records, PLoS One, vol. 9, p. e99825, 2014.
O. Archangelidi, Pujades-Rodriguez, M., Timmis, A., Jouven, X., Denaxas, S., and Hemingway, H., Clinically recorded heart rate and incidence of 12 coronary, cardiac, cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial diseases in 233,970 men and women: A linked electronic health record study, Eur J Prev Cardiol, vol. 25, pp. 1485-1495, 2018.
M. J. Brodie, Chung, S., Wade, A., Quelen, C., Guiraud-Diawara, A., Francois, C., Verpillat, P., Shen, V., and Isojarvi, J., Clobazam and clonazepam use in epilepsy: Results from a UK database incident user cohort study, Epilepsy Res, vol. 123, pp. 68-74, 2016.
I. J. Douglas, Evans, S. J., Hingorani, A. D., Grosso, A. M., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., and Smeeth, L., Clopidogrel and interaction with proton pump inhibitors: comparison between cohort and within person study designs, Bmj, vol. 345, p. e4388, 2012.
R. Boggon, van Staa, T. P., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., Ray, K. K., Begg, A., Emmas, C., and Fox, K. A., Clopidogrel discontinuation after acute coronary syndromes: frequency, predictors and associations with death and myocardial infarction–a hospital registry-primary care linked cohort (MINAP-GPRD), Eur Heart J, vol. 32, pp. 2376-86, 2011.
B. M. Hicks, Murray, L. J., Hughes, C., and Cardwell, C. R., Clopidogrel use and cancer-specific mortality: a population-based cohort study of colorectal, breast and prostate cancer patients, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 24, pp. 830-40, 2015.
K. J. Rothnie, Smeeth, L., Herrett, E., Pearce, N., Hemingway, H., Wedzicha, J., Timmis, A., and Quint, J. K., Closing the mortality gap after a myocardial infarction in people with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Heart, vol. 101, pp. 1103-10, 2015.
M. C. Gulliford, Van Staa, T., McDermott, L., Dregan, A., McCann, G., Ashworth, M., Charlton, J., Grieve, A. P., Little, P., Moore, M. V., and Yardley, L., Cluster randomised trial in the General Practice Research Database: 1. Electronic decision support to reduce antibiotic prescribing in primary care (eCRT study), Trials, vol. 12, p. 115, 2011.
A. Dregan, Van Staa, T., McDermott, L., McCann, G., Ashworth, M., Charlton, J., Wolfe, C., Rudd, A., Yardley, L., and Gulliford, M., Cluster randomized trial in the general practice research database: 2. Secondary prevention after first stroke (eCRT study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial, Trials, vol. 13, p. 181, 2012.
M. C. Gulliford, van Staa, T. P., McDermott, L., McCann, G., Charlton, J., and Dregan, A., Cluster randomized trials utilizing primary care electronic health records: methodological issues in design, conduct, and analysis (eCRT Study), Trials, vol. 15, p. 220, 2014.
A. Bakhai, Rigney, U., Hollis, S., and Emmas, C., Co-administration of statins with cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors in a UK primary care population, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 21, pp. 485-93, 2012.
D. Metcalfe, Masters, J., Delmestri, A., Judge, A., Perry, D., Zogg, C., Gabbe, B., and Costa, M., Coding algorithms for defining Charlson and Elixhauser co-morbidities in Read-coded databases, BMC Med Res Methodol, vol. 19, p. 115, 2019.
N. Bhattarai, Charlton, J., Rudisill, C., and Gulliford, M. C., Coding, recording and incidence of different forms of coronary heart disease in primary care, PLoS One, vol. 7, p. e29776, 2012.
L. R. Rodgers, Weedon, M. N., Henley, W. E., Hattersley, A. T., and Shields, B. M., Cohort profile for the MASTERMIND study: using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) to investigate stratification of response to treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e017989, 2017.
L. Li, Neogi, T., and Jick, S., A cohort study of comorbidity in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 57, pp. 291-299, 2018.
S. Venkatesan, Myles, P. R., Manning, H. J., Mozid, A. M., Andersson, C., Jorgensen, M. E., Hardman, J. G., Moonesinghe, S. R., Foex, P., Mythen, M., Grocott, M. P. W., and Sanders, R. D., Cohort study of preoperative blood pressure and risk of 30-day mortality after elective non-cardiac surgery, Br J Anaesth, vol. 119, pp. 65-77, 2017.
P. Mangtani, Cumberland, P., Hodgson, C. R., Roberts, J. A., Cutts, F. T., and Hall, A. J., A cohort study of the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in older people, performed using the United Kingdom general practice research database, J Infect Dis, vol. 190, pp. 1-10, 2004.
L. A. Garcia Rodriguez, Mannino, S., Wallander, M. A., and Lindblom, B., A cohort study of the ocular safety of anti-ulcer drugs, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 42, pp. 213-6, 1996.
L. A. Garcia Rodriguez, Duque, A., Castellsague, J., Perez-Gutthann, S., and Stricker, B. H., A cohort study on the risk of acute liver injury among users of ketoconazole and other antifungal drugs, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 48, pp. 847-52, 1999.
[Page last reviewed 6 April 2021]