Bibliography

Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,400 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 March 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at enquiries@cprd.com so that we can update the bibliography.

Download: 

(PDF, 3MB, 194 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website
 

 

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C
B. Cai, Xu, W., Bortnichak, E., and Watson, D. J., An algorithm to identify medical practices common to both the General Practice Research Database and The Health Improvement Network database, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 21, pp. 770-774, 2012.
M. Cainzos-Achirica, Varas-Lorenzo, C., Pottegard, A., Asmar, J., Plana, E., Rasmussen, L., Bizouard, G., Forns, J., Hellfritzsch, M., Zint, K., Perez-Gutthann, S., and Pladevall-Vila, M., Methodological challenges when evaluating potential off-label prescribing of drugs using electronic health care databases: A case study of dabigatran etexilate in Europe, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 27, pp. 713-723, 2018.
V. Cairns, Wallenhorst, C., Rietbrock, S., and Martinez, C., Incidence of Lyme disease in the UK: a population-based cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e025916, 2019.
R. R. Camejo, McGrath, C., Herings, R., Starkie, H., and Rutten, F., Assessing the determinants of the potential for cost-effectiveness over time: the empirical case of COPD, Value Health, vol. 16, pp. 426-33, 2013.
R. R. Camejo, McGrath, C., Miraldo, M., and Rutten, F., The determinants of cost-effectiveness potential: an historical perspective on lipid-lowering therapies, Pharmacoeconomics, vol. 31, pp. 445-54, 2013.
C. Canavan, West, J., and Card, T., Calculating Total Health Service Utilisation and Costs from Routinely Collected Electronic Health Records Using the Example of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome Before and After Their First Gastroenterology Appointment, Pharmacoeconomics, vol. 34, pp. 181-94, 2016.
C. Group on H. Cancer, Type and timing of menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis of the worldwide epidemiological evidence, Lancet, vol. 394, pp. 1159-1168, 2019.
X. Cao, Ejzykowicz, F., Ramey, D. R., Sajjan, S., Ambegaonkar, B. M., Mavros, P., and Tunceli, K., Impact of Switching From High-Efficacy Lipid-Lowering Therapies to Generic Simvastatin on LDL-C Levels and LDL-C Goal Attainment Among High-Risk Primary and Secondary Prevention Populations in the United Kingdom, Clin Ther, vol. 37, pp. 804-15, 2015.
D. M. Carbonari, Saine, M. E., Newcomb, C. W., Blak, B., Roy, J. A., Haynes, K., Wood, J., Gallagher, A. M., Bhullar, H., Cardillo, S., Hennessy, S., Strom, B. L., and , Use of demographic and pharmacy data to identify patients included within both the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and The Health Improvement Network (THIN), Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 24, pp. 999-1003, 2015.
T. R. Card, Siffledeen, J., and Fleming, K. M., Are IBD patients more likely to have a prior diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome? Report of a case-control study in the General Practice Research Database, United European Gastroenterol J, vol. 2, pp. 505-12, 2014.
T. R. Card, Solaymani-Dodaran, M., Hubbard, R., Logan, R. F., and West, J., Is an internal comparison better than using national data when estimating mortality in longitudinal studies?, J Epidemiol Community Health, vol. 60, pp. 819-21, 2006.
T. R. Card, Solaymani-Dodaran, M., and West, J., Incidence and mortality of primary sclerosing cholangitis in the UK: a population-based cohort study, J Hepatol, vol. 48, pp. 939-44, 2008.
T. R. Card, Siffledeen, J., West, J., and Fleming, K. M., An excess of prior irritable bowel syndrome diagnoses or treatments in Celiac disease: evidence of diagnostic delay, Scand J Gastroenterol, vol. 48, pp. 801-7, 2013.
T. Card, Logan, R. F., Rodrigues, L. C., and Wheeler, J. G., Antibiotic use and the development of Crohn's disease, Gut, vol. 53, pp. 246-50, 2004.
T. Card, West, J., Hubbard, R., and Logan, R. F., Hip fractures in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and their relationship to corticosteroid use: a population based cohort study, Gut, vol. 53, pp. 251-5, 2004.
T. Card, Hubbard, R., and Logan, R. F., Mortality in inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based cohort study, Gastroenterology, vol. 125, pp. 1583-90, 2003.
C. R. Cardwell, Hicks, B. M., Hughes, C., and Murray, L. J., Statin use after diagnosis of breast cancer and survival: a population-based cohort study, Epidemiology, vol. 26, pp. 68-78, 2015.
C. R. Cardwell, U. Menamin, M., Hughes, C. M., and Murray, L. J., Statin use and survival from lung cancer: a population-based cohort study, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, vol. 24, pp. 833-41, 2015.
C. R. Cardwell, Flahavan, E. M., Hughes, C. M., Coleman, H. G., O'Sullivan, J. M., Powe, D. G., and Murray, L. J., Low-dose aspirin and survival in men with prostate cancer: a study using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Cancer Causes Control, vol. 25, pp. 33-43, 2014.
C. R. Cardwell, Hicks, B. M., Hughes, C., and Murray, L. J., Statin use after colorectal cancer diagnosis and survival: a population-based cohort study, J Clin Oncol, vol. 32, pp. 3177-83, 2014.
C. R. Cardwell, Kunzmann, A. T., Cantwell, M. M., Hughes, C., Baron, J. A., Powe, D. G., and Murray, L. J., Low-dose aspirin use after diagnosis of colorectal cancer does not increase survival: a case-control analysis of a population-based cohort, Gastroenterology, vol. 146, pp. 700-708.e2, 2014.
C. R. Cardwell, Menamin, U. C. Mc, Hicks, B. M., Hughes, C., Cantwell, M. M., and Murray, L. J., Drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system and survival from cancer: a population based study of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer patient cohorts, BMC Med, vol. 12, p. 28, 2014.
C. R. Cardwell, Abnet, C. C., Cantwell, M. M., and Murray, L. J., Exposure to oral bisphosphonates and risk of esophageal cancer, Jama, vol. 304, pp. 657-63, 2010.
C. R. Cardwell, Carson, D. J., and Patterson, C. C., No association between routinely recorded infections in early life and subsequent risk of childhood-onset Type 1 diabetes: a matched case-control study using the UK General Practice Research Database, Diabet Med, vol. 25, pp. 261-7, 2008.
C. R. Cardwell, McKinney, P. A., Patterson, C. C., and Murray, L. J., Infections in early life and childhood leukaemia risk: a UK case-control study of general practitioner records, Br J Cancer, vol. 99, pp. 1529-33, 2008.
C. R. Cardwell, Abnet, C. C., Veal, P., Hughes, C. M., Cantwell, M. M., and Murray, L. J., Exposure to oral bisphosphonates and risk of cancer, Int J Cancer, vol. 131, pp. E717-25, 2012.
C. R. Cardwell, Coleman, H. G., Murray, L. J., Entschladen, F., and Powe, D. G., Beta-blocker usage and breast cancer survival: a nested case-control study within a UK clinical practice research datalink cohort, Int J Epidemiol, vol. 42, pp. 1852-61, 2013.
I. M. Carey, Cook, D. G., De Wilde, S., Bremner, S. A., Richards, N., Caine, S., Strachan, D. P., and Hilton, S. R., Developing a large electronic primary care database (Doctors' Independent Network) for research, Int J Med Inform, vol. 73, pp. 443-53, 2004.
I. M. Carey, Cook, D. G., De Wilde, S., Bremner, S. A., Richards, N., Caine, S., Strachan, D. P., and Hilton, S. R., Implications of the problem orientated medical record (POMR) for research using electronic GP databases: a comparison of the Doctors Independent Network Database (DIN) and the General Practice Research Database (GPRD), BMC Fam Pract, vol. 4, p. 14, 2003.
I. M. Carey, Anderson, H. R., Atkinson, R. W., Beevers, S. D., Cook, D. G., Strachan, D. P., Dajnak, D., Gulliver, J., and Kelly, F. J., Are noise and air pollution related to the incidence of dementia? A cohort study in London, England, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e022404, 2018.
I. M. Carey, Atkinson, R. W., Kent, A. J., Van Staa, T., Cook, D. G., and Anderson, H. R., Mortality associations with long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution in a national English cohort, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, vol. 187, pp. 1226-33, 2013.
I. M. Carey, Anderson, H. R., Atkinson, R. W., Beevers, S., Cook, D. G., Dajnak, D., Gulliver, J., and Kelly, F. J., Traffic pollution and the incidence of cardiorespiratory outcomes in an adult cohort in London, Occup Environ Med, vol. 73, pp. 849-856, 2016.
I. M. Carey, Shah, S. M., Hosking, F. J., DeWilde, S., Harris, T., Beighton, C., and Cook, D. G., Health characteristics and consultation patterns of people with intellectual disability: a cross-sectional database study in English general practice, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 66, pp. e264-70, 2016.
I. M. Carey, Hosking, F. J., Harris, T., DeWilde, S., Beighton, C., Shah, S. M., and Cook, D. G., Do health checks for adults with intellectual disability reduce emergency hospital admissions? Evaluation of a natural experiment, J Epidemiol Community Health, vol. 71, pp. 52-58, 2017.
I. M. Carey, Critchley, J. A., DeWilde, S., Harris, T., Hosking, F. J., and Cook, D. G., Risk of Infection in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Compared With the General Population: A Matched Cohort Study, Diabetes Care, vol. 41, pp. 513-521, 2018.
C. Carlson, Hornbuckle, K., DeLisle, F., Kryzhanovskaya, L., Breier, A., and Cavazzoni, P., Diabetes mellitus and antipsychotic treatment in the United Kingdom, Eur Neuropsychopharmacol, vol. 16, pp. 366-75, 2006.
D. F. Carr, O'Meara, H., Jorgensen, A. L., Campbell, J., Hobbs, M., McCann, G., Van Staa, T., and Pirmohamed, M., SLCO1B1 genetic variant associated with statin-induced myopathy: a proof-of-concept study using the clinical practice research datalink, Clin Pharmacol Ther, vol. 94, pp. 695-701, 2013.
D. F. Carr, Francis, B., Jorgensen, A. L., Zhang, E., Chinoy, H., Heckbert, S. R., Bis, J. C., Brody, J. A., Floyd, J., Psaty, B. M., Molokhia, M., Lapeyre-Mestre, M., Conforti, A., Alfirevic, A., Van Staa, T., and Pirmohamed, M., Genome-wide association study of statin-induced myopathy in patients recruited using the UK clinical practice research datalink, Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2019.
M. J. Carr, Ashcroft, D. M., White, P. D., Kapur, N., and Webb, R. T., Prevalence of comorbid mental and physical illnesses and risks for self-harm and premature death among primary care patients diagnosed with fatigue syndromes, Psychol Med, pp. 1-8, 2019.
M. J. Carr, Ashcroft, D. M., Kontopantelis, E., While, D., Awenat, Y., Cooper, J., Chew-Graham, C., Kapur, N., and Webb, R. T., Premature Death Among Primary Care Patients With a History of Self-Harm, Ann Fam Med, vol. 15, pp. 246-254, 2017.
M. J. Carr, Ashcroft, D. M., Kontopantelis, E., Awenat, Y., Cooper, J., Chew-Graham, C., Kapur, N., and Webb, R. T., The epidemiology of self-harm in a UK-wide primary care patient cohort, 2001-2013, BMC Psychiatry, vol. 16, p. 53, 2016.
M. J. Carr, Ashcroft, D. M., Kontopantelis, E., While, D., Awenat, Y., Cooper, J., Chew-Graham, C., Kapur, N., and Webb, R. T., Clinical management following self-harm in a UK-wide primary care cohort, J Affect Disord, vol. 197, pp. 182-8, 2016.
H. Carreira, Williams, R., Muller, M., Harewood, R., and Bhaskaran, K., Adverse mental health outcomes in breast cancer survivors compared to women who did not have cancer: systematic review protocol, Syst Rev, vol. 6, p. 162, 2017.
H. Carreira, Williams, R., Strongman, H., and Bhaskaran, K., Identification of mental health and quality of life outcomes in primary care databases in the UK: a systematic review, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e029227, 2019.
M. Carter, Moser, K., and Kelly, S., Health of older people: disease prevalence, prescription and referral rates, England and Wales 1996, Health Statistics Quarterly, vol. 4, pp. 9-15, 1999.
B. Carter, C. Bennett, V., Bethel, J., Jones, H. M., Wang, T., and Kemp, A., Identifying cerebral palsy from routinely-collected data in England and Wales, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 11, pp. 457-468, 2019.
H. Caspard, Wise, R. P., Steffey, A., and Brody, R. S., Incidence of live-attenuated influenza vaccine administration beyond expiry date in children and adolescents aged 2-17 years in the UK: a population-based cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e016520, 2017.
H. Caspard, Steffey, A., Mallory, R. M., and Ambrose, C. S., Evaluation of the safety of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in children and adolescents with asthma and high-risk conditions: a population-based prospective cohort study conducted in England with the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e023118, 2018.
J. A. Cassell, Mercer, C. H., Sutcliffe, L., Petersen, I., Islam, A., Brook, M. G., Ross, J. D., Kinghorn, G. R., Simms, I., Hughes, G., Majeed, A., Stephenson, J. M., Johnson, A. M., and Hayward, A. C., Trends in sexually transmitted infections in general practice 1990-2000: population based study using data from the UK general practice research database, Bmj, vol. 332, pp. 332-4, 2006.
A. Cassell, Edwards, D., Harshfield, A., Rhodes, K., Brimicombe, J., Payne, R., and Griffin, S., The epidemiology of multimorbidity in primary care: a retrospective cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 68, pp. e245-e251, 2018.
[Page last reviewed 10 March 2020]