Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 July 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 206 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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S. V. Eastwood, Mathur, R., Atkinson, M., Brophy, S., Sudlow, C., Flaig, R., de Lusignan, S., Allen, N., and Chaturvedi, N., Algorithms for the Capture and Adjudication of Prevalent and Incident Diabetes in UK Biobank, PLoS One, vol. 11, p. e0162388, 2016.
M. Eberg, Platt, R. W., and Filion, K. B., The Estimation of Gestational Age at Birth in Database Studies, Epidemiology, vol. 28, pp. 854-862, 2017.
M. Eberg, Platt, R. W., Reynier, P., and Filion, K. B., Estimation of high-dimensional propensity scores with multiple exposure levels, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
J. Edington, Winter, P. D., Coles, S. J., Gale, C. R., and Martyn, C. N., Outcomes of undernutrition in patients in the community with cancer or cardiovascular disease, Proc Nutr Soc, vol. 58, pp. 655-61, 1999.
E. Edson-Heredia, Zhu, B., Lefevre, C., Wang, M., Barrett, A., Bushe, C. J., Cox, A., Wu, J. J., and Maeda-Chubachi, T., Prevalence and incidence rates of cardiovascular, autoimmune, and other diseases in patients with psoriatic or psoriatic arthritis: a retrospective study using Clinical Practice Research Datalink, J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol, vol. 29, pp. 955-63, 2015.
C. J. Edwards, Cooper, C., Fisher, D., Field, M., van Staa, T. P., and Arden, N. K., The importance of the disease process and disease-modifying antirheumatic drug treatment in the development of septic arthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, Arthritis Rheum, vol. 57, pp. 1151-7, 2007.
C. J. Edwards, Arden, N. K., Fisher, D., Saperia, J. C., Reading, I., van Staa, T. P., and Cooper, C., The changing use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis from the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 44, pp. 1394-8, 2005.
C. J. Edwards, Campbell, J., Van Staa, T., and Arden, N. K., Regional and temporal variation in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis across the UK: a descriptive register-based cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 2, 2012.
M. Egbring, Kullak-Ublick, G. A., and Russmann, S., Phynx: an open source software solution supporting data management and web-based patient-level data review for drug safety studies in the general practice research database and other health care databases, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 19, pp. 38-44, 2010.
V. Ehrenstein, Hernandez, R. K., Ulrichsen, S. P., Rungby, J., Lash, T. L., Riis, A. H., Li, L., Sorensen, H. T., and Jick, S. S., Rosiglitazone use and post-discontinuation glycaemic control in two European countries, 2000-2010, BMJ Open, vol. 3, p. e003424, 2013.
I. A. Eland, Alvarez, C. H., Stricker, B. H., and Rodriguez, L. A., The risk of acute pancreatitis associated with acid-suppressing drugs, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 49, pp. 473-8, 2000.
C. Ellis, Gnani, S., and Majeed, A., Prevalence and management of heart failure in general practice in England and Wales, 1994-98, Health Stat Q., pp. 17-24, 2001.
H. El-Serag, Hill, C., and Jones, R., Systematic review: the epidemiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in primary care, using the UK General Practice Research Database, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 29, pp. 470-80, 2009.
C. A. Emdin, Rothwell, P. M., Salimi-Khorshidi, G., Kiran, A., Conrad, N., Callender, T., Mehta, Z., Pendlebury, S. T., Anderson, S. G., Mohseni, H., Woodward, M., and Rahimi, K., Blood Pressure and Risk of Vascular Dementia: Evidence From a Primary Care Registry and a Cohort Study of Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke, Stroke, vol. 47, pp. 1429-35, 2016.
W. L. Eppenga, Lalmohamed, A., Geerts, A. F., Derijks, H. J., Wensing, M., Egberts, A., De Smet, P. A., and de Vries, F., Risk of lactic acidosis or elevated lactate concentrations in metformin users with renal impairment: a population-based cohort study, Diabetes Care, vol. 37, pp. 2218-24, 2014.
P. Ernst, Renoux, C., Dell'Aniello, S., and Suissa, S., Pramipexole use and the risk of pneumonia, BMC Neurol, vol. 12, p. 113, 2012.
P. Ernst, Dell'Aniello, S., Mikaeloff, Y., and Suissa, S., Risk of herpes zoster in patients prescribed inhaled corticosteroids: a cohort study, BMC Pulm Med, vol. 11, p. 59, 2011.
S. Erridge, Moussa, O. M., Ziprin, P., Darzi, A., and Purkayastha, S., Risk of GERD-Related Disorders in Obese Patients on PPI Therapy: a Population Analysis, Obes Surg, vol. 28, pp. 2796-2803, 2018.
J. Erviti, Alonso, A., Gorricho, J., and Lopez, A., Oral bisphosphonates may not decrease hip fracture risk in elderly Spanish women: a nested case-control study, BMJ Open, vol. 3, 2013.
J. Erviti, Alonso, A., Oliva, B., Gorricho, J., Lopez, A., Timoner, J., Huerta, C., Gil, M., and de Abajo, F., Oral bisphosphonates are associated with increased risk of subtrochanteric and diaphyseal fractures in elderly women: a nested case-control study, BMJ Open, vol. 3, 2013.
O. B. Esan, Perera, R., McCarthy, N., Violato, M., and Fanshawe, T. R., Incidence, risk factors, and health service burden of sequelae of campylobacter and non-typhoidal salmonella infections in England, 2000-2015: A retrospective cohort study using linked electronic health records, J Infect, 2020.
I. Essers, Stolwijk, C., Boonen, A., De Bruin, M. L., Bazelier, M. T., de Vries, F., and van Tubergen, A., Ankylosing spondylitis and risk of ischaemic heart disease: a population-based cohort study, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 75, pp. 203-9, 2016.
H. E. Evans, Mercer, C. H., Rait, G., Hamill, M., Delpech, V., Hughes, G., Brook, M. G., Williams, T., Johnson, A. M., Singh, S., Petersen, I., Chadborn, T., and Cassell, J. A., Trends in HIV testing and recording of HIV status in the UK primary care setting: a retrospective cohort study 1995-2005, Sex Transm Infect, vol. 85, pp. 520-6, 2009.
H. E. Evans, Tsourapas, A., Mercer, C. H., Rait, G., Bryan, S., Hamill, M., Delpech, V., Hughes, G., Brook, G., Williams, T., Johnson, A. M., Singh, S., Petersen, I., Chadborn, T., and Cassell, J. A., Primary care consultations and costs among HIV-positive individuals in UK primary care 1995-2005: a cohort study, Sex Transm Infect, vol. 85, pp. 543-9, 2009.
S. J. Evans, Douglas, I., Rawlins, M. D., Wexler, N. S., Tabrizi, S. J., and Smeeth, L., Prevalence of adult Huntington's disease in the UK based on diagnoses recorded in general practice records, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol. 84, pp. 1156-60, 2013.
[Page last reviewed 6 July 2020]