Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 April 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 226 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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P. S. Gutthann, Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Castellsague, J., and A. Oliart, D., Hormone replacement therapy and risk of venous thromboembolism: population based case-control study, Bmj, vol. 314, pp. 796-800, 1997.
I. Gurol-Urganci, Geary, R. S., Mamza, J. B., Iwagami, M., El-Hamamsy, D., Duckett, J., Wilson, A., Tincello, D., and van der Meulen, J., Determinants of referral of women with urinary incontinence to specialist services: a national cohort study using primary care data from the UK, BMC Fam Pract, vol. 21, p. 211, 2020.
D. Gupta, Hansell, A., Nichols, T., Duong, T., Ayres, J. G., and Strachan, D., Epidemiology of pneumothorax in England, Thorax, vol. 55, pp. 666-71, 2000.
G. Gupta, Gelfand, J. M., and Lewis, J. D., Increased risk for demyelinating diseases in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, Gastroenterology, vol. 129, pp. 819-26, 2005.
G. Gupta, Lautenbach, E., and Lewis, J. D., Incidence and risk factors for herpes zoster among patients with inflammatory bowel disease, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, vol. 4, pp. 1483-90, 2006.
D. Gunnell, Irvine, D., Wise, L., Davies, C., and Martin, R. M., Varenicline and suicidal behaviour: a cohort study based on data from the General Practice Research Database, Bmj, vol. 339, p. b3805, 2009.
U. Gungabissoon, Kirichek, O., C. Baou, E., and Galwey, N., Comparison of long-term use of prolonged-release ropinirole and immediate-release dopamine agonists in an observational study in patients with Parkinson's disease, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
R. F. Gulluoglu, Souverein, P. C., van den Ham, H. A., de Boer, A., and Komen, J., Comparative effectiveness and safety of direct oral anticoagulants versus warfarin in UK patients with atrial fibrillation and type 2 diabetes: A retrospective cohort study, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
M. Gulliford, Latinovic, R., Charlton, J., Little, P., Van Staa, T., and Ashworth, M., Selective decrease in consultations and antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in UK primary care up to 2006, J Public Health (Oxf), vol. 31, pp. 512-20, 2009.
M. Gulliford, Charlton, J., Bhattarai, N., and Rudisill, C., Social and material deprivation and the cost-effectiveness of an intervention to promote physical activity: cohort study and Markov model, J Public Health (Oxf), vol. 36, pp. 674-83, 2014.
M. Gulliford, Ravindrarajah, R., Hamada, S., Jackson, S., and Charlton, J., Inception and deprescribing of statins in people aged over 80 years: cohort study, Age Ageing, vol. 46, pp. 1001-1005, 2017.
M. C. Gulliford and Charlton, J., Is relative mortality of type 2 diabetes mellitus decreasing?, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 169, pp. 455-61, 2009.
M. C. Gulliford, Charlton, J., Ashworth, M., Rudd, A. G., and Toschke, A. M., Selection of medical diagnostic codes for analysis of electronic patient records. Application to stroke in a primary care database, PLoS One, vol. 4, p. e7168, 2009.
M. C. Gulliford, Charlton, J., Rudd, A., Wolfe, C. D., and Toschke, A. M., Declining 1-year case-fatality of stroke and increasing coverage of vascular risk management: population-based cohort study, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol. 81, pp. 416-22, 2010.
M. C. Gulliford, Adams, G., Ukoumunne, O. C., Latinovic, R., Chinn, S., and Campbell, M. J., Intraclass correlation coefficient and outcome prevalence are associated in clustered binary data, J Clin Epidemiol, vol. 58, pp. 246-51, 2005.
M. C. Gulliford, Charlton, J., and Latinovic, R., Increased utilization of primary care 5 years before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: a matched cohort study, Diabetes Care, vol. 28, pp. 47-52, 2005.
M. C. Gulliford, Charlton, J., and Latinovic, R., Trends in antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy in subjects with type II diabetes: clinical effectiveness or clinical discretion?, J Hum Hypertens, vol. 19, pp. 111-7, 2005.
M. C. Gulliford, Bhattarai, N., Charlton, J., and Rudisill, C., Cost-effectiveness of a universal strategy of brief dietary intervention for primary prevention in primary care: population-based cohort study and Markov model, Cost Eff Resour Alloc, vol. 12, p. 4, 2014.
M. C. Gulliford, Charlton, J., Bhattarai, N., Charlton, C., and Rudisill, C., Impact and cost-effectiveness of a universal strategy to promote physical activity in primary care: population-based cohort study and Markov model, Eur J Health Econ, vol. 15, pp. 341-51, 2014.
M. C. Gulliford, Dregan, A., Moore, M. V., Ashworth, M., Staa, T., McCann, G., Charlton, J., Yardley, L., Little, P., and McDermott, L., Continued high rates of antibiotic prescribing to adults with respiratory tract infection: survey of 568 UK general practices, BMJ Open, vol. 4, p. e006245, 2014.
M. C. Gulliford, Van Staa, T., Dregan, A., McDermott, L., McCann, G., Ashworth, M., Charlton, J., Little, P., Moore, M. V., and Yardley, L., Electronic health records for intervention research: a cluster randomized trial to reduce antibiotic prescribing in primary care (eCRT study), Ann Fam Med, vol. 12, pp. 344-51, 2014.
M. C. Gulliford, van Staa, T. P., McDermott, L., McCann, G., Charlton, J., and Dregan, A., Cluster randomized trials utilizing primary care electronic health records: methodological issues in design, conduct, and analysis (eCRT Study), Trials, vol. 15, p. 220, 2014.
M. C. Gulliford, Prevost, A. T., Charlton, J., Juszczyk, D., Soames, J., McDermott, L., Sultana, K., Wright, M., Fox, R., Hay, A. D., Little, P., Moore, M. V., Yardley, L., and Ashworth, M., Effectiveness and safety of electronically delivered prescribing feedback and decision support on antibiotic use for respiratory illness in primary care: REDUCE cluster randomised trial, Bmj, vol. 364, p. l236, 2019.
M. C. Gulliford, Juszczyk, D., Prevost, A. T., Soames, J., McDermott, L., Sultana, K., Wright, M., Fox, R., Hay, A. D., Little, P., Moore, M., Yardley, L., Ashworth, M., and Charlton, J., Electronically delivered interventions to reduce antibiotic prescribing for respiratory infections in primary care: cluster RCT using electronic health records and cohort study, Health Technol Assess, vol. 23, pp. 1-70, 2019.
M. C. Gulliford, Charlton, J., Prevost, T., Booth, H., Fildes, A., Ashworth, M., Littlejohns, P., Reddy, M., Khan, O., and Rudisill, C., Costs and Outcomes of Increasing Access to Bariatric Surgery: Cohort Study and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Using Electronic Health Records, Value Health, vol. 20, pp. 85-92, 2017.
M. C. Gulliford, Booth, H. P., Reddy, M., Charlton, J., Fildes, A., Prevost, A. T., and Khan, O., Effect of Contemporary Bariatric Surgical Procedures on Type 2 Diabetes Remission. A Population-Based Matched Cohort Study, Obes Surg, vol. 26, pp. 2308-15, 2016.
M. C. Gulliford, Moore, M. V., Little, P., Hay, A. D., Fox, R., Prevost, A. T., Juszczyk, D., Charlton, J., and Ashworth, M., Safety of reduced antibiotic prescribing for self limiting respiratory tract infections in primary care: cohort study using electronic health records, Bmj, vol. 354, p. i3410, 2016.
M. C. Gulliford, Van Staa, T., McDermott, L., Dregan, A., McCann, G., Ashworth, M., Charlton, J., Grieve, A. P., Little, P., Moore, M. V., and Yardley, L., Cluster randomised trial in the General Practice Research Database: 1. Electronic decision support to reduce antibiotic prescribing in primary care (eCRT study), Trials, vol. 12, p. 115, 2011.
M. C. Gulliford, Sun, X., Charlton, J., Winter, J. R., Bunce, C., Boiko, O., Fox, R., Little, P., Moore, M., Hay, A. D., and Ashworth, M., Serious bacterial infections and antibiotic prescribing in primary care: cohort study using electronic health records in the UK, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e036975, 2020.
M. C. Gulliford, Sun, X., Anjuman, T., Yelland, E., and Murray-Thomas, T., Comparison of antibiotic prescribing records in two UK primary care electronic health record systems: cohort study using CPRD GOLD and CPRD Aurum databases, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e038767, 2020.
M. C. Gulliford, Charlton, J., Winter, J. R., Sun, X., Rezel-Potts, E., Bunce, C., Fox, R., Little, P., Hay, A. D., Moore, M. V., and Ashworth, M., Probability of sepsis after infection consultations in primary care in the United Kingdom in 2002-2017: Population-based cohort study and decision analytic model, PLoS Med, vol. 17, p. e1003202, 2020.
K. Gruntz, Bloechliger, M., Becker, C., Jick, S. S., Fuhr, P., Meier, C. R., and Ruegg, S., Parkinson disease and the risk of epileptic seizures, Ann Neurol, vol. 83, pp. 363-374, 2018.
A. Grosso, Douglas, I., Hingorani, A., MacAllister, R., and Smeeth, L., Oral bisphosphonates and risk of atrial fibrillation and flutter in women: a self-controlled case-series safety analysis, PLoS One, vol. 4, p. e4720, 2009.
A. Grosso, Douglas, I., Hingorani, A. D., MacAllister, R., Hubbard, R., and Smeeth, L., Inhaled tiotropium bromide and risk of stroke, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 68, pp. 731-6, 2009.
L. Grønbaek, Otete, H., Ban, L., Crooks, C., Card, T., Jepsen, P., and West, J., Incidence, prevalence, and mortality of autoimmune hepatitis in England 1997-2015. A population-based cohort study, Liver Int, 2020.
D. J. Grint, McDonald, H. I., Walker, J. L., Amirthalingam, G., Andrews, N., and Thomas, S., Safety of inadvertent administration of live zoster vaccine to immunosuppressed individuals in a UK-based observational cohort analysis, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e034886, 2020.
L. Grimaldi-Bensouda, Klungel, O., Kurz, X., de Groot, M. C., Afonso, A. S. Maciel, De Bruin, M. L., Reynolds, R., and Rossignol, M., Calcium channel blockers and cancer: a risk analysis using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e009147, 2016.
R. I. Griffiths, Valderas, J. M., McFadden, E. C., Bankhead, C. R., Lavery, B. A., Khan, N. F., Stevens, R. J., and Keating, N. L., Outcomes of preexisting diabetes mellitus in breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer, J Cancer Surviv, vol. 11, pp. 604-613, 2017.
R. I. Griffiths, McFadden, E. C., Stevens, R. J., Valderas, J. M., Lavery, B. A., Khan, N. F., Keating, N. L., and Bankhead, C. R., Quality of diabetes care in breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer, J Cancer Surviv, vol. 12, pp. 803-812, 2018.
J. Griffin, Lee, S., Caiado, M., Kesten, S., and Price, D., Comparison of tiotropium bromide and combined ipratropium/salbutamol for the treatment of COPD: a UK General Practice Research Database 12-month follow-up study, Prim Care Respir J, vol. 17, pp. 104-10, 2008.
J. Gribbin, Hubbard, R., Smith, C., Gladman, J., and Lewis, S., Incidence and mortality of falls amongst older people in primary care in the United Kingdom, Qjm, vol. 102, pp. 477-83, 2009.
J. Gregson, Qizilbash, N., Iwagami, M., Douglas, I., Johnson, M., Pearce, N., and Pocock, S., Blood pressure and risk of dementia and its subtypes: a historical cohort study with long-term follow-up in 2.6 million people, Eur J Neurol, vol. 26, pp. 1479-1486, 2019.
G. H. B. Greenhall, Mansfield, K. E., Nitsch, D., Iwagami, M., Leyrat, C., Johnston, R., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L. A., The effect of initiation of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors on haemoglobin: A national cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2020.
J. Green, Czanner, G., Reeves, G., Watson, J., Wise, L., and Beral, V., Oral bisphosphonates and risk of cancer of oesophagus, stomach, and colorectum: case-control analysis within a UK primary care cohort, Bmj, vol. 341, p. c4444, 2010.
J. Green, Czanner, G., Reeves, G., Watson, J., Wise, L., Roddam, A., and Beral, V., Menopausal hormone therapy and risk of gastrointestinal cancer: nested case-control study within a prospective cohort, and meta-analysis, Int J Cancer, vol. 130, pp. 2387-96, 2012.
A. Green, Tillett, W., McHugh, N., and Smith, T., Using Bayesian Networks to identify musculoskeletal symptoms influencing the risk of developing Psoriatic Arthritis in people with psoriasis, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2021.
A. Green, Shaddick, G., Charlton, R., Snowball, J., Nightingale, A., Smith, C., Tillett, W., and McHugh, N., Modifiable risk factors and the development of psoriatic arthritis in people with psoriasis, Br J Dermatol, 2019.
C. A. Gravel, Filion, K. B., Reynier, P. M., and Platt, R. W., Postmyocardial Infarction Statin Exposure and the Risk of Stroke with Weighting for Outcome Misclassification, Epidemiology, vol. 31, pp. 880-888, 2020.
J. Granerod, Davies, N. W., Ramanuj, P. P., Easton, A., Brown, D. W., and Thomas, S. L., Increased rates of sequelae post-encephalitis in individuals attending primary care practices in the United Kingdom: a population-based retrospective cohort study, J Neurol, vol. 264, pp. 407-415, 2017.
S. M. Grandi, Vallee-Pouliot, K., Reynier, P., Eberg, M., Platt, R. W., Arel, R., Basso, O., and Filion, K. B., Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy and the Risk of Subsequent Cardiovascular Disease, Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol, vol. 31, pp. 412-421, 2017.
[Page last reviewed 6 April 2021]