Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,900 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 January 2022) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 6MB, 247 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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L. L. N. Husemoen, Mørch, L. S., Christensen, P. K., Hartvig, N. V., and Feher, M. D., All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality Among Insulin-Naïve People With Type 2 Diabetes Treated With Insulin Detemir or Glargine: A Cohort Study in the UK, Diabetes Ther, 2021.
J. H. Humphreys, Warner, A., Costello, R., Lunt, M., Verstappen, S. M. M., and Dixon, W. G., Quantifying the hepatotoxic risk of alcohol consumption in patients with rheumatoid arthritis taking methotrexate, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 76, pp. 1509-1514, 2017.
T. J. L. Humphrey, James, G., Wittbrodt, E. T., Zarzuela, D., and Hiemstra, T. F., Adverse clinical outcomes associated with RAAS inhibitor discontinuation: analysis of over 400 000 patients from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), Clin Kidney J, vol. 14, pp. 2203-2212, 2021.
D. J. Humes, Solaymani-Dodaran, M., Fleming, K. M., Simpson, J., Spiller, R. C., and West, J., A population-based study of perforated diverticular disease incidence and associated mortality, Gastroenterology, vol. 136, pp. 1198-205, 2009.
D. J. Humes, Abdul-Sultan, A., Walker, A. J., Ludvigsson, J. F., and West, J., Duration and magnitude of postoperative risk of venous thromboembolism after planned inguinal hernia repair in men: a population-based cohort study, Hernia, vol. 22, pp. 447-453, 2018.
D. J. Humes, Nordenskjold, A., Walker, A. J., West, J., and Ludvigsson, J. F., Risk of venous thromboembolism in children after general surgery, J Pediatr Surg, vol. 50, pp. 1870-3, 2015.
D. J. Humes, Walker, A. J., Blackwell, J., Hunt, B. J., and West, J., Variation in the risk of venous thromboembolism following colectomy, Br J Surg, vol. 102, pp. 1629-38, 2015.
D. J. Humes, Walker, A. J., Hunt, B. J., Sultan, A. A., Ludvigsson, J. F., and West, J., Risk of symptomatic venous thromboembolism following emergency appendicectomy in adults, Br J Surg, vol. 103, pp. 443-50, 2016.
D. J. Humes, Radcliffe, R. S., Camm, C., and West, J., Population-based study of presentation and adverse outcomes after femoral hernia surgery, Br J Surg, vol. 100, pp. 1827-32, 2013.
D. J. Humes and West, J., Role of acute diverticulitis in the development of complicated colonic diverticular disease and 1-year mortality after diagnosis in the UK: population-based cohort study, Gut, vol. 61, pp. 95-100, 2012.
D. J. Humes, Fleming, K. M., Spiller, R. C., and West, J., Concurrent drug use and the risk of perforated colonic diverticular disease: a population-based case-control study, Gut, vol. 60, pp. 219-24, 2011.
L. Huiart, Ferdynus, C., Dell'Aniello, S., Bakiri, N., Giorgi, R., and Suissa, S., Measuring persistence to hormonal therapy in patients with breast cancer: accounting for temporary treatment discontinuation, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 23, pp. 882-9, 2014.
L. Huiart, Dell'Aniello, S., and Suissa, S., Use of tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors in a large population-based cohort of women with breast cancer, Br J Cancer, vol. 104, pp. 1558-63, 2011.
G. Hughes, Williams, T., Simms, I., Mercer, C., Fenton, K., and Cassell, J., Use of a primary care database to determine trends in genital chlamydia testing, diagnostic episodes and management in UK general practice, 1990-2004, Sex Transm Infect, vol. 83, pp. 310-3, 2007.
R. A. Hughes, Charlton, J., Latinovic, R., and Gulliford, M. C., No association between immunization and Guillain-Barre syndrome in the United Kingdom, 1992 to 2000, Arch Intern Med, vol. 166, pp. 1301-4, 2006.
G. W. Hugenholtz, Heerdink, E. R., van Staa, T. P., Nolen, W. A., and Egberts, A. C., Risk of hip/femur fractures in patients using antipsychotics, Bone, vol. 37, pp. 864-70, 2005.
C. Huerta, Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Moller, C. S., and Arellano, F. M., The risk of obstructive airways disease in a glaucoma population, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 10, pp. 157-63, 2001.
C. Huerta and Rodriguez, L. A., Incidence of ocular melanoma in the general population and in glaucoma patients, J Epidemiol Community Health, vol. 55, pp. 338-9, 2001.
C. Huerta, Johansson, S., Wallander, M. A., and Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Risk factors and short-term mortality of venous thromboembolism diagnosed in the primary care setting in the United Kingdom, Arch Intern Med, vol. 167, pp. 935-43, 2007.
C. Huerta, Rivero, E., and Rodriguez, L. A., Incidence and risk factors for psoriasis in the general population, Arch Dermatol, vol. 143, pp. 1559-65, 2007.
C. Huerta, Johansson, S., Wallander, M. A., and Rodriguez, L. A., Risk of myocardial infarction and overall mortality in survivors of venous thromboembolism, Thromb J, vol. 6, p. 10, 2008.
C. Huerta, Castellsague, J., Varas-Lorenzo, C., and Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of ARF in the general population, Am J Kidney Dis, vol. 45, pp. 531-9, 2005.
C. Huerta, Lanes, S. F., and Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Respiratory medications and the risk of cardiac arrhythmias, Epidemiology, vol. 16, pp. 360-6, 2005.
C. Huerta, Varas-Lorenzo, C., Castellsague, J., and Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of first hospital admission for heart failure in the general population, Heart, vol. 92, pp. 1610-5, 2006.
C. Huerta, Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Wallander, M. A., and Johansson, S., Users of oral steroids are at a reduced risk of developing irritable bowel syndrome, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 12, pp. 583-8, 2003.
C. Huerta and Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Risk of clinical blood dyscrasia in a cohort of antibiotic users, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 22, pp. 630-6, 2002.
C. Huerta, Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Wallander, M. A., and Johansson, S., Risk of irritable bowel syndrome among asthma patients, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 11, pp. 31-5, 2002.
C. Huerta, Zhao, S. Z., and Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Risk of acute liver injury in patients with diabetes, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 22, pp. 1091-6, 2002.
C. Huerta, Rivero, E., Montoro, M. A., and Garcia-Rodriguez, L. A., Risk factors for intestinal ischaemia among patients registered in a UK primary care database: a nested case-control study, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 33, pp. 969-78, 2011.
C. Huerta, Abbing-Karahagopian, V., Requena, G., Oliva, B., Alvarez, Y., Gardarsdottir, H., Miret, M., Schneider, C., Gil, M., Souverein, P. C., De Bruin, M. L., Slattery, J., de Groot, M. C., Hesse, U., Rottenkolber, M., Schmiedl, S., Montero, D., Bate, A., Ruigomez, A., Garcia-Rodriguez, L. A., Johansson, S., de Vries, F., Schlienger, R. G., Reynolds, R. F., Klungel, O. H., and de Abajo, F. J., Exposure to benzodiazepines (anxiolytics, hypnotics and related drugs) in seven European electronic healthcare databases: a cross-national descriptive study from the PROTECT-EU Project, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 25 Suppl 1, pp. 56-65, 2016.
R. B. Hubbard, Smith, C. J., Smeeth, L., Harrison, T. W., and Tattersfield, A. E., Inhaled corticosteroids and hip fracture: a population-based case-control study, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, vol. 166, pp. 1563-6, 2002.
R. Hubbard and Venn, A., Adult height and cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis: a case-control study using the UK general practice research database, Thorax, vol. 55, pp. 864-6, 2000.
R. Hubbard, Venn, A., and Britton, J., Exposure to antidepressants and the risk of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis: a case-control study, Eur Respir J, vol. 16, pp. 409-13, 2000.
R. Hubbard, Venn, A., Lewis, S., and Britton, J., Lung cancer and cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. A population-based cohort study, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, vol. 161, pp. 5-8, 2000.
R. Hubbard and Venn, A., The impact of coexisting connective tissue disease on survival in patients with fibrosing alveolitis, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 41, pp. 676-9, 2002.
R. Hubbard, Farrington, P., Smith, C., Smeeth, L., and Tattersfield, A., Exposure to tricyclic and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants and the risk of hip fracture, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 158, pp. 77-84, 2003.
R. Hubbard, Venn, A., Smith, C., Cooper, M., Johnston, I., and Britton, J., Exposure to commonly prescribed drugs and the etiology of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis: a case-control study, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, vol. 157, pp. 743-7, 1998.
R. Hubbard, Venn, A., Lewis, S., and Britton, J., Anitdepressant exposure and risk of Cryptogenic Fibrosing Alveolitis (CFA): A case-control study using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD), vol. 53, p. A11, 1998.
Y. Hsia and Maclennan, K., Rise in psychotropic drug prescribing in children and adolescents during 1992-2001: a population-based study in the UK, Eur J Epidemiol, vol. 24, pp. 211-6, 2009.
Y. Hsia, Neubert, A. C., Rani, F., Viner, R. M., Hindmarsh, P. C., and Wong, I. C., An increase in the prevalence of type 1 and 2 diabetes in children and adolescents: results from prescription data from a UK general practice database, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 67, pp. 242-9, 2009.
R. Howell-Jones, Soldan, K., Wetten, S., Mesher, D., Williams, T., Gill, O. N., and Hughes, G., Declining genital Warts in young women in england associated with HPV 16/18 vaccination: an ecological study, J Infect Dis, vol. 208, pp. 1397-403, 2013.
L. Howard, Kirkwood, G., and Leese, M., Risk of hip fracture in patients with a history of schizophrenia, Br J Psychiatry, vol. 190, pp. 129-34, 2007.
L. M. Howard, Goss, C., Leese, M., and Thornicroft, G., Medical outcome of pregnancy in women with psychotic disorders and their infants in the first year after birth, Br J Psychiatry, vol. 182, pp. 63-7, 2003.
L. M. Howard, Kumar, C., Leese, M., and Thornicroft, G., The general fertility rate in women with psychotic disorders, Am J Psychiatry, vol. 159, pp. 991-7, 2002.
L. M. Howard, Goss, C., Leese, M., Appleby, L., and Thornicroft, G., The psychosocial outcome of pregnancy in women with psychotic disorders, Schizophr Res, vol. 71, pp. 49-60, 2004.
J. P. A. Houwen, Egberts, A. C. G., de Boer, A., van Maarseveen, E. M., Houwen, R. H. J., and Lalmohamed, A., Influence of allopurinol on thiopurine associated toxicity: A retrospective population-based cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2020.
R. Houghton, Liu, C., and Bolognani, F., Psychiatric Comorbidities and Psychotropic Medication Use in Autism: A Matched Cohort Study with ADHD and General Population Comparator Groups in the United Kingdom, Autism Res, 2018.
F. J. Hosking, Carey, I. M., Shah, S. M., Harris, T., DeWilde, S., Beighton, C., and Cook, D. G., Mortality Among Adults With Intellectual Disability in England: Comparisons With the General Population, Am J Public Health, vol. 106, pp. 1483-90, 2016.
M. J. Horspool, Julious, S. A., Mooney, C., May, R., Sully, B., and Smithson, W. H., Preventing and Lessening Exacerbations of Asthma in School-aged children Associated with a New Term (PLEASANT): Recruiting Primary Care Research Sites-the PLEASANT experience, NPJ Prim Care Respir Med, vol. 25, p. 15066, 2015.
L. Horne, Ashfaq, A., MacLachlan, S., Sinsakul, M., Qin, L., LoCasale, R., and Wetmore, J. B., Epidemiology and health outcomes associated with hyperkalemia in a primary care setting in England, BMC Nephrol, vol. 20, p. 85, 2019.
[Page last reviewed 4 January 2022]