Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 7 September 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 209 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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P. G. Iyer, Borah, B. J., Heien, H. C., Das, A., Cooper, G. S., and Chak, A., Association of Barrett's esophagus with type II Diabetes Mellitus: results from a large population-based case-control study, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, vol. 11, pp. 1108-1114.e5, 2013.
M. Iwagami, Mansfield, K. E., Hayes, J. F., Walters, K., Osborn, D. P., Smeeth, L., Nitsch, D., and Tomlinson, L. A., Severe mental illness and chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study in the United Kingdom, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 421-429, 2018.
M. Iwagami, Caplin, B., Smeeth, L., Tomlinson, L. A., and Nitsch, D., Chronic kidney disease and cause-specific hospitalisation: a matched cohort study using primary and secondary care patient data, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 68, pp. e512-e523, 2018.
M. Iwagami, Tomlinson, L. A., Mansfield, K. E., Douglas, I. J., Smeeth, L., and Nitsch, D., Gastrointestinal bleeding risk of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors by level of kidney function: A population-based cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 84, pp. 2142-2151, 2018.
M. Iwagami, Mansfield, K., Quint, J., Nitsch, D., and Tomlinson, L., Diagnosis of acute kidney injury and its association with in-hospital mortality in patients with infective exacerbations of bronchiectasis: cohort study from a UK nationwide database, BMC Pulm Med, vol. 16, p. 14, 2016.
M. Iwagami, Tomlinson, L. A., Mansfield, K. E., Casula, A., Caskey, F. J., Aitken, G., Fraser, S. D. S., Roderick, P. J., and Nitsch, D., Validity of estimated prevalence of decreased kidney function and renal replacement therapy from primary care electronic health records compared with national survey and registry data in the United Kingdom, Nephrol Dial Transplant, vol. 32, pp. ii142-ii150, 2017.
M. Iwagami, Tomlinson, L. A., Mansfield, K. E., McDonald, H. I., Smeeth, L., and Nitsch, D., Prevalence, incidence, indication, and choice of antidepressants in patients with and without chronic kidney disease: a matched cohort study in UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 26, pp. 792-801, 2017.
L. Iversen, Delaney, E. K., Hannaford, P. C., and Black, C., Menopause-related workload in general practice 1996-2005: a retrospective study in the UK, Fam Pract, vol. 27, pp. 499-506, 2010.
T. Itani, Martin, R., Rai, D., Jones, T., Taylor, G., Thomas, K., Munafo, M., Davies, N., and Taylor, A., Use of varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy in people with and without general practitioner-recorded dementia: retrospective cohort study of routine electronic medical records, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e027569, 2019.
T. Itani, Rai, D., Jones, T., Taylor, G. M. J., Thomas, K. H., Martin, R. M., Munafo, M. R., Davies, N. M., and Taylor, A. E., Long-term effectiveness and safety of varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy in people with neurodevelopmental disorders: A prospective cohort study, Sci Rep, vol. 9, p. 19488, 2019.
N. Ismail, Jordan, K. P., Kadam, U. T., Edwards, J. J., Kinnaird, T., and Mamas, M. A., Bleeding After Hospital Discharge Following Acute Coronary Syndrome: Incidence, Types, Timing, and Predictors, J Am Heart Assoc, vol. 8, p. e013679, 2019.
L. Ishihara, Webb, D. J., Irizarry, M., and Weil, J., Exploring differential prescribing between anti-epileptic drugs in epilepsy patients with a history of mood disorders, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 19, pp. 289-95, 2010.
C. Ishiguro, Wang, X., Li, L., and Jick, S., Antipsychotic drugs and risk of idiopathic venous thromboembolism: a nested case-control study using the CPRD, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 23, pp. 1168-75, 2014.
M. C. Irizarry, Webb, D. J., Boudiaf, N., Logie, J., Habel, L. A., Udaltsova, N., and Friedman, G. D., Risk of cancer in patients exposed to gabapentin in two electronic medical record systems, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 21, pp. 214-25, 2012.
C. Irish, Alli, M., Gilham, C., Joseph, C., and Watson, J., Influenza vaccine uptake and distribution in England and Wales, July 1989-June 1997, Health Trends, vol. 30, 1998.
J. R. Ingram, Jenkins-Jones, S., Knipe, D. W., Morgan, C. L. I., Cannings-John, R., and Piguet, V., Population-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink study using algorithm modelling to identify the true burden of hidradenitis suppurativa, Br J Dermatol, vol. 178, pp. 917-924, 2018.
B. Ineichen, Logie, J., Rowlands, S., and Lawrenson, R., Patterns of prescription of PC4 by general practitioners in England and Wales, Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care, vol. 5, pp. 241-7, 2000.
A. K. Imkampe and Gulliford, M. C., Trends in Type 1 diabetes incidence in the UK in 0- to 14-year-olds and in 15- to 34-year-olds, 1991-2008, Diabet Med, vol. 28, pp. 811-4, 2011.
P. Imfeld, Bodmer, M., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Proton Pump Inhibitor Use and Risk of Developing Alzheimer's Disease or Vascular Dementia: A Case-Control Analysis, Drug Saf, vol. 41, pp. 1387-1396, 2018.
P. Imfeld, Bodmer, M., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Metformin, other antidiabetic drugs, and risk of Alzheimer's disease: a population-based case-control study, J Am Geriatr Soc, vol. 60, pp. 916-21, 2012.
P. Imfeld, Bodmer, M., Schuerch, M., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Risk of incident stroke in patients with Alzheimer disease or vascular dementia, Neurology, vol. 81, pp. 910-9, 2013.
P. Imfeld, Bodmer, M., Schuerch, M., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Seizures in patients with Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia: a population-based nested case-control analysis, Epilepsia, vol. 54, pp. 700-7, 2013.
P. Imfeld, Pernus, Y. B. Brauchl, Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Epidemiology, co-morbidities, and medication use of patients with Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia in the UK, J Alzheimers Dis, vol. 35, pp. 565-73, 2013.
P. Imfeld, Toovey, S., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Influenza infections and risk of Alzheimer's disease, Brain Behav Immun, vol. 57, pp. 187-192, 2016.
P. Imfeld, Bodmer, M., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Benzodiazepine Use and Risk of Developing Alzheimer's Disease or Vascular Dementia: A Case-Control Analysis, Drug Saf, vol. 38, pp. 909-19, 2015.
D. Ilo, Raluy-Callado, M., Graham-Clarke, P., Sadasivan, R., Birt, J., Donaldson, R., Zhu, E., Kirby, M. G., and Neasham, D., Patient characteristics and treatment patterns for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, erectile dysfunction or co-occurring benign prostatic hyperplasia and erectile dysfunction in general practices in the UK: a retrospective observational study, Int J Clin Pract, vol. 69, pp. 853-62, 2015.
I. Idris, Peng, X., He, X., Liu, D., Balogh, E., Kaushik, P., and van Brunt, K., The Trend of High-Dose Insulin Usage Among Patients with Diabetes in the UK: A Retrospective Study, Diabetes Ther, vol. 9, pp. 2245-2257, 2018.
L. Ibanez, Sabate, M., Vidal, X., Ballarin, E., Rottenkolber, M., Schmiedl, S., Heeke, A., Huerta, C., E. Merino, M., Montero, D., Leon-Munoz, L. M., Gasse, C., Moore, N., Droz, C., Lassalle, R., Aakjaer, M., Andersen, M., De Bruin, M. L., Groenwold, R., van den Ham, R., Souverein, P., Klungel, O., and Gardarsdottir, H., Incidence of Direct Oral Anticoagulant use in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and characteristics of users in six European countries (2008-2015): A cross-national drug utilization study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2019.
[Page last reviewed 7 September 2020]