Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,800 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 9 Sepember 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 4MB, 239 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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D. Juszczyk, Charlton, J., McDermott, L., Soames, J., Sultana, K., Ashworth, M., Fox, R., Hay, A. D., Little, P., Moore, M. V., Yardley, L., Prevost, A. T., and Gulliford, M. C., Electronically delivered, multicomponent intervention to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing for respiratory infections in primary care: a cluster randomised trial using electronic health records-REDUCE Trial study original protocol, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e010892, 2016.
S. A. Julious, Campbell, M. J., Bianchi, S. M., and Murray-Thomas, T., Seasonality of medical contacts in school-aged children with asthma: association with school holidays, Public Health, vol. 125, pp. 769-76, 2011.
S. A. Julious, Horspool, M. J., Davis, S., Bradburn, M., Norman, P., Shephard, N., Cooper, C. L., Smithson, W. H., Boote, J., Elphick, H., Loban, A., Franklin, M., Kua, W. S., May, R., Campbell, J., Williams, R., Rex, S., and Bortolami, O., PLEASANT: Preventing and Lessening Exacerbations of Asthma in School-age children Associated with a New Term - a cluster randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation, Health Technol Assess, vol. 20, pp. 1-154, 2016.
S. A. Julious, Horspool, M. J., Davis, S., Franklin, M., Smithson, W. H., Norman, P., Simpson, R. M., Elphick, H., Bortolami, O., and Cooper, C., Open-label, cluster randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of a brief letter from a GP on unscheduled medical contacts associated with the start of the school year: the PLEASANT trial, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e017367, 2018.
A. Judge, Javaid, M. K., Leal, J., Hawley, S., Drew, S., Sheard, S., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Gooberman-Hill, R., Lippett, J., Farmer, A., Arden, N., Gray, A., Goldacre, M., Delmestri, A., and Cooper, C., Models of care for the delivery of secondary fracture prevention after hip fracture: a health service cost, clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness study within a region of England, Health Services and Delivery Research, vol. No. 4.28, 2016.
A. Judge, Garriga, C., Arden, N. K., Lovestone, S., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Cooper, C., and Edwards, C. J., Protective effect of antirheumatic drugs on dementia in rheumatoid arthritis patients, Alzheimers Dement (N Y), vol. 3, pp. 612-621, 2017.
A. Judge, Wallace, G., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Arden, N. K., and Edwards, C. J., Can the publication of guidelines change the management of early rheumatoid arthritis? An interrupted time series analysis from the United Kingdom, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 54, pp. 2244-8, 2015.
R. Joshi, Venkatesan, S., and Myles, P. R., A UK general practice population cohort study investigating the association between lipid lowering drugs and 30-day mortality following medically attended acute respiratory illness, PeerJ, vol. 4, p. e1902, 2016.
C. Joseph, Goddard, N., and Gelb, D., Influenza vaccine uptake and distribution in England and Wales using data from the General Practice Research Database, 1989/90-2003/04, J Public Health (Oxf), vol. 27, pp. 371-7, 2005.
R. M. Joseph, Soames, J., Wright, M., Sultana, K., van Staa, T. P., and Dixon, W. G., Supplementing electronic health records through sample collection and patient diaries: A study set within a primary care research database, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 27, pp. 239-242, 2018.
R. M. Joseph, Movahedi, M., Dixon, W. G., and Symmons, D. P., Risks of smoking and benefits of smoking cessation on hospitalisations for cardiovascular events and respiratory infection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a retrospective cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, RMD Open, vol. 3, p. e000506, 2017.
R. M. Joseph, Movahedi, M., Dixon, W. G., and Symmons, D. P., Smoking-Related Mortality in Patients With Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Retrospective Cohort Study Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken), vol. 68, pp. 1598-1606, 2016.
R. M. Joseph, van Staa, T. P., Lunt, M., Abrahamowicz, M., and Dixon, W. G., Exposure measurement error when assessing current glucocorticoid use using UK primary care electronic prescription data, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 28, pp. 179-186, 2019.
R. M. Joseph, Ray, D. W., Keevil, B., van Staa, T. P., and Dixon, W. G., Low salivary cortisol levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis exposed to oral glucocorticoids: a cross-sectional study set within UK electronic health records, RMD Open, vol. 4, p. e000700, 2018.
R. M. Joseph, van Staa, T. P., Lunt, M., Abrahamowicz, M., and Dixon, W. G., Exposure measurement error when assessing current glucocorticoid use using UK primary care electronic prescription data, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2018.
K. Jordan, Clarke, A. M., Symmons, D. P., Fleming, D., Porcheret, M., Kadam, U. T., and Croft, P., Measuring disease prevalence: a comparison of musculoskeletal disease using four general practice consultation databases, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 57, pp. 7-14, 2007.
K. P. Jordan and Croft, P., Mortality and cancer in patients with new musculoskeletal episodes: a cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 60, pp. e105-11, 2010.
K. P. Jordan, Hayward, R. A., Blagojevic-Bucknall, M., and Croft, P., Incidence of prostate, breast, lung and colorectal cancer following new consultation for musculoskeletal pain: a cohort study among UK primary care patients, Int J Cancer, vol. 133, pp. 713-20, 2013.
K. P. Jordan, Timmis, A., Croft, P., van der Windt, D. A., Denaxas, S., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Hayward, R. A., Perel, P., and Hemingway, H., Prognosis of undiagnosed chest pain: linked electronic health record cohort study, Bmj, vol. 357, p. j1194, 2017.
R. E. Jordan, Lancashire, R. J., and Adab, P., An evaluation of Birmingham Own Health telephone care management service among patients with poorly controlled diabetes. A retrospective comparison with the General Practice Research Database, BMC Public Health, vol. 11, p. 707, 2011.
M. E. Jones, Campbell, G., Patel, D., Brunner, E., Shatapathy, C. C., Murray-Thomas, T., van Staa, T. P., and Motsko, S., Risk of Mortality (including Sudden Cardiac Death) and Major Cardiovascular Events in Users of Olanzapine and Other Antipsychotics: A Study with the General Practice Research Database, Cardiovasc Psychiatry Neurol, vol. 2013, p. 647476, 2013.
R. Jones, Charlton, J., Latinovic, R., and Gulliford, M. C., Alarm symptoms and identification of non-cancer diagnoses in primary care: cohort study, Bmj, vol. 339, p. b3094, 2009.
R. Jones, Latinovic, R., Charlton, J., and Gulliford, M. C., Alarm symptoms in early diagnosis of cancer in primary care: cohort study using General Practice Research Database, Bmj, vol. 334, p. 1040, 2007.
R. Jones, Latinovic, R., Charlton, J., and Gulliford, M., Physical and psychological co-morbidity in irritable bowel syndrome: a matched cohort study using the General Practice Research Database, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 24, pp. 879-86, 2006.
R. C. Jones, Price, D., Ryan, D., Sims, E. J., von Ziegenweidt, J., Mascarenhas, L., Burden, A., Halpin, D. M., Winter, R., Hill, S., Kearney, M., Holton, K., Moger, A., Freeman, D., Chisholm, A., and Bateman, E. D., Opportunities to diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in routine care in the UK: a retrospective study of a clinical cohort, Lancet Respir Med, vol. 2, pp. 267-76, 2014.
S. S. Johnston, Jamous, N., Mistry, S., Jain, S., Gangoli, G., Danker, W., Ammann, E., and Hampton, K., Association of In-Hospital Surgical Bleeding Events with Prolonged Hospital Length of Stay, Days Spent in Critical Care, Complications, and Mortality: A Retrospective Cohort Study Among Patients Undergoing Neoplasm-Directed Surgeries in English Hospitals, Clinicoecon Outcomes Res, vol. 13, pp. 19-29, 2021.
K. D. Johnson, Lu, X., and Zhang, D., Adherence to hepatitis A and hepatitis B multi-dose vaccination schedules among adults in the United Kingdom: a retrospective cohort study, BMC Public Health, vol. 19, p. 404, 2019.
M. E. Johnson, Lefevre, C., Collings, S. L., Evans, D., Kloss, S., Ridha, E., and Maguire, A., Early real-world evidence of persistence on oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation: a cohort study in UK primary care, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e011471, 2016.
S. Johansson, Wallander, M. A., de Abajo, F. J., and Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Prospective drug safety monitoring using the UK primary-care General Practice Research Database: theoretical framework, feasibility analysis and extrapolation to future scenarios, Drug Saf, vol. 33, pp. 223-32, 2010.
S. Johansson, Wallander, M. A., Ruigomez, A., and Garcia, R., Treatment patterns among newly diagnosed heart failure patients in general practice, Eur J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 57, pp. 813-7, 2002.
S. Johansson, Wallander, M. A., Ruigomez, A., and Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Incidence of newly diagnosed heart failure in UK general practice, Eur J Heart Fail, vol. 3, pp. 225-31, 2001.
H. Jick, Terris, B. Z., Derby, L. E., and Jick, S. S., Further validation of information recorded on a general practitioner based computerized data resource in the united kingdom, Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, vol. 1, pp. 347-349, 1992.
H. Jick, Incidence of venous thromboembolism in users of combined oral contraceptives. Methods for identifying cases and estimating person time at risk must be detailed, Bmj, vol. 320, pp. 57; author reply 57-8, 2000.
H. Jick, Kaye, J. A., Vasilakis-Scaramozza, C., and Jick, S. S., Risk of venous thromboembolism among users of third generation oral contraceptives compared with users of oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel before and after 1995: cohort and case-control analysis, Bmj, vol. 321, pp. 1190-5, 2000.
H. Jick, Zornberg, G. L., Jick, S. S., Seshadri, S., and Drachman, D. A., Statins and the risk of dementia, Lancet, vol. 356, pp. 1627-31, 2000.
H. Jick, Vasilakis-Scaramozza, C., and Jick, S. S., Live attenuated polio vaccine and the risk of intussusception, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 52, pp. 451-3, 2001.
H. Jick, Kaye, J. A., Russmann, S., and Jick, S. S., Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and acute myocardial infarction in patients with no major risk factors, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 26, pp. 1379-87, 2006.
H. Jick and Kaye, J. A., Epidemiology and possible causes of autism, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 23, pp. 1524-30, 2003.
H. Jick and Kaye, J. A., Autism and DPT vaccination in the United Kingdom, N Engl J Med, vol. 350, pp. 2722-3, 2004.
H. Jick, Kaye, J. A., and Black, C., Incidence and prevalence of drug-treated attention deficit disorder among boys in the UK, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 54, pp. 345-7, 2004.
H. Jick, Kaye, J. A., and Jick, S. S., Antidepressants and the risk of suicidal behaviors, Jama, vol. 292, pp. 338-43, 2004.
H. Jick, Chamberlin, D. P., and Hagberg, K. W., The origin and spread of a mumps epidemic: United kingdom, 2003-2006, Epidemiology, vol. 20, pp. 656-61, 2009.
H. Jick, Hagberg, K. W., and Egger, P., Rate of suicide in patients taking montelukast, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 29, pp. 165-6, 2009.
H. Jick and Hagberg, K. W., Effectiveness of influenza vaccination in the United kingdom, 1996-2007, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 30, pp. 1199-206, 2010.
H. Jick and Hagberg, K. W., Measles in the United Kingdom 1990-2008 and the effectiveness of measles vaccines, Vaccine, vol. 28, pp. 4588-92, 2010.
H. Jick, Wilson, A., Wiggins, P., and Chamberlain, D. P., Comparison of prescription drug costs in the United States and the United Kingdom, part 2: proton pump inhibitors, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 32, pp. 489-92, 2012.
H. Jick, Derby, L. E., Vasilakis, C., and Fife, D., The risk of seizures associated with tramadol, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 18, pp. 607-11, 1998.
H. Jick, Vasilakis, C., Weinrauch, L. A., Meier, C. R., Jick, S. S., and Derby, L. E., A population-based study of appetite-suppressant drugs and the risk of cardiac-valve regurgitation, N Engl J Med, vol. 339, pp. 719-24, 1998.
H. Jick, Hall, G. C., Dean, A. D., Jick, S. S., and Derby, L. E., A comparison of the risk of hypoglycemia between users of human and animal insulins. 1. Experience in the United Kingdom, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 10, pp. 395-7, 1990.
H. Jick, Jick, S. S., and Derby, L. E., Validation of information recorded on general practitioner based computerised data resource in the United Kingdom, Bmj, vol. 302, pp. 766-8, 1991.
[Page last reviewed 9 September 2021]