Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,600 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 January 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 218 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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R. Luqmani, Suppiah, R., Edwards, C. J., Phillip, R., Maskell, J., Culliford, D., Jayne, D., Morishita, K., and Arden, N., Mortality in Wegener's granulomatosis: a bimodal pattern, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 50, pp. 697-702, 2011.
K. J. Lum, Newcomb, C. W., Roy, J. A., Carbonari, D. M., Saine, M. E., Cardillo, S., Bhullar, H., Gallagher, A. M., and , Evaluation of methods to estimate missing days' supply within pharmacy data of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and The Health Improvement Network (THIN), Eur J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 73, pp. 115-123, 2017.
K. E. Lowe, Mansfield, K. E., Delmestri, A., Smeeth, L., Roberts, A., Abuabara, K., Prieto-Alhambra, D., and Langan, S. M., Atopic eczema and fracture risk in adults: A population-based cohort study, J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2019.
S. Y. Loo, Azoulay, L., Nie, R., Dell'Aniello, S., Yu, O. H. Y., and Renoux, C., Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular safety of testosterone replacement therapy among aging men with low testosterone levels: a cohort study., Am J Med, 2019.
S. Y. Loo, Dell'Aniello, S., Huiart, L., and Renoux, C., Trends in the prescription of novel oral anticoagulants in UK primary care, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 83, pp. 2096-2106, 2017.
S. Y. Loo, Coulombe, J., Dell'Aniello, S., Brophy, J. M., Suissa, S., and Renoux, C., Comparative effectiveness of novel oral anticoagulants in UK patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease: a matched cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e019638, 2018.
M. M. Loiacono, Mitsakakis, N., Kwong, J. C., Gomez, G. B., Chit, A., and Grootendorst, P., Development and Validation of a Clinical Prediction Tool for Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in England, JAMA Netw Open, vol. 3, p. e207743, 2020.
M. M. Loiacono, Mahmud, S. M., Chit, A., van Aalst, R., Kwong, J. C., Mitsakakis, N., Skinner, L., Thommes, E., Bricout, H., and Grootendorst, P., Patient and practice level factors associated with seasonal influenza vaccine uptake among at-risk adults in England, 2011 to 2016: An age-stratified retrospective cohort study, Vaccine X, vol. 4, p. 100054, 2020.
J. Logie, Clifford, G. M., and Farmer, R. D., Incidence, prevalence and management of lower urinary tract symptoms in men in the UK, BJU Int, vol. 95, pp. 557-62, 2005.
J. W. Logie, Clifford, G. M., Farmer, R. D., and Meesen, B. P., Lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic obstruction–Triumph: the role of general practice databases, Eur Urol, vol. 39 Suppl 3, pp. 42-7, 2001.
D. C. Lloyd, Harris, C. M., and Roberts, D. J., Specific therapeutic group age-sex related prescribing units (STAR-PUs): weightings for analysing general practices' prescribing in England, Bmj, vol. 311, pp. 991-4, 1995.
T. Lloyd and Steventon, A., Effect of Named, Accountable GPs on Continuity of Care: Protocol for a Regression Discontinuity Study of a National Policy Change, Int J Integr Care, vol. 16, p. 6, 2016.
P. Liu, McMenamin, U. C., Spence, A. D., Johnston, B. T., Coleman, H. G., and Cardwell, C. R., Furosemide use and survival in patients with esophageal or gastric cancer: a population-based cohort study, BMC Cancer, vol. 19, p. 1017, 2019.
Z. Liu, Alsaggaf, R., McGlynn, K. A., Anderson, L. A., Tsai, H. T., Zhu, B., Zhu, Y., Mbulaiteye, S. M., Gadalla, S. M., and Koshiol, J., Statin use and reduced risk of biliary tract cancers in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Gut, 2018.
I. Little, Vinogradova, Y., Orton, E., Kai, J., and Qureshi, N., Venous thromboembolism in adults screened for sickle cell trait: a population-based cohort study with nested case-control analysis, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e012665, 2017.
K. W. Littink, Stappers, P. T. Y., Riemslag, F. C. C., Talsma, H. E., van Genderen, M. M., Cremers, F. P. M., Collin, R. W. J., and van den Born, L. I., Autosomal Recessive NRL Mutations in Patients with Enhanced S-Cone Syndrome, Genes (Basel), vol. 9, 2018.
Y. Lis, Spitzer, W. O., Mann, R. D., Chukwujindu, J., Thorogood, M., Evans, S., Suissa, S., and Lelorier, J., A concurrent cohort study of oral contraceptive users from the VAMP research bank, Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, vol. 2, pp. 51-63, 1993.
L. L. Lipscombe, Austin, P. C., Alessi-Severini, S., Blackburn, D. F., Blais, L., Bresee, L., Filion, K. B., Kawasumi, Y., Kurdyak, P., Platt, R. W., Tamim, H., and Paterson, J. M., Atypical antipsychotics and hyperglycemic emergencies: multicentre, retrospective cohort study of administrative data, Schizophr Res, vol. 154, pp. 54-60, 2014.
C. Linde, Bakhai, A., Furuland, H., Evans, M., McEwan, P., Ayoubkhani, D., and Qin, L., Real-World Associations of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitor Dose, Hyperkalemia, and Adverse Clinical Outcomes in a Cohort of Patients With New-Onset Chronic Kidney Disease or Heart Failure in the United Kingdom, J Am Heart Assoc, vol. 8, p. e012655, 2019.
C. Linde, Qin, L., Bakhai, A., Furuland, H., Evans, M., Ayoubkhani, D., Palaka, E., Bennett, H., and McEwan, P., Serum potassium and clinical outcomes in heart failure patients: results of risk calculations in 21 334 patients in the UK, ESC Heart Fail, 2019.
A. W. Lim, Hamilton, W., Hollingworth, A., Stapley, S., and Sasieni, P., Performance characteristics of visualising the cervix in symptomatic young females: a review of primary care records in females with and without cervical cancer, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 66, pp. e189-92, 2016.
A. W. Lim, Landy, R., Castanon, A., Hollingworth, A., Hamilton, W., Dudding, N., and Sasieni, P., Cytology in the diagnosis of cervical cancer in symptomatic young women: a retrospective review, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 66, pp. e871-e879, 2016.
M. Liang, Ye, T., and Fu, H., Estimating individualized optimal combination therapies through outcome weighted deep learning algorithms, Stat Med, vol. 37, pp. 3869-3886, 2018.
S. F. Liang, Taweel, A., Miles, S., Kovalchuk, Y., Spiridou, A., Barratt, B., Hoang, U., Crichton, S., Delaney, B. C., and Wolfe, C., Semi automated transformation to OWL formatted files as an approach to data integration. A feasibility study using environmental, disease register and primary care clinical data, Methods Inf Med, vol. 54, pp. 32-40, 2015.
H. Liang, Vallarino, C., Joseph, G., Manne, S., Perez, A., and Zhang, S., Increased risk of subsequent myocardial infarction in patients with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study using the U.K. General Practice Research Database, Diabetes Care, vol. 37, pp. 1329-37, 2014.
H. Liang, Manne, S., Shick, J., Lissoos, T., and Dolin, P., Incidence, prevalence, and natural history of primary sclerosing cholangitis in the United Kingdom, Medicine (Baltimore), vol. 96, p. e7116, 2017.
H. Liang, Kennedy, C., Manne, S., Lin, J. H., and Dolin, P., Monitoring for proteinuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, vol. 3, p. e000071, 2015.
Y. Lian, Yin, H., Pollak, M. N., Carrier, S., Platt, R. W., Suissa, S., and Azoulay, L., Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors and the Risk of Melanoma Skin Cancer, Eur Urol, vol. 70, pp. 808-815, 2016.
Y. Li, Molter, A., White, A., Welfare, W., Palin, V., Belmonte, M., Ashcroft, D. M., Sperrin, M., and van Staa, T. P., Relationship between prescribing of antibiotics and other medicines in primary care: a cross-sectional study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 69, pp. e42-e51, 2019.
Y. Li, Sperrin, M., Belmonte, M., Pate, A., Ashcroft, D. M., and van Staa, T. P., Do population-level risk prediction models that use routinely collected health data reliably predict individual risks?, Sci Rep, vol. 9, p. 11222, 2019.
Y. Li, Sperrin, M., Ashcroft, D. M., and van Staa, T. P., Consistency of variety of machine learning and statistical models in predicting clinical risks of individual patients: longitudinal cohort study using cardiovascular disease as exemplar, Bmj, vol. 371, p. m3919, 2020.
Y. Li, Rao, S., Solares, J. R. A., Hassaine, A., Ramakrishnan, R., Canoy, D., Zhu, Y., Rahimi, K., and Salimi-Khorshidi, G., BEHRT: Transformer for Electronic Health Records, Sci Rep, vol. 10, p. 7155, 2020.
Y. Li, Sperrin, M., Martin, G. P., Ashcroft, D. M., and van Staa, T. P., Examining the impact of data quality and completeness of electronic health records on predictions of patients' risks of cardiovascular disease, Int J Med Inform, vol. 133, p. 104033, 2020.
H. Li, Hodgson, E., Watson, L., Shukla, A., and Nelson, J. J., Comorbidities and Concomitant Medication Use in Men with Prostate Cancer or High Levels of PSA Compared to Matched Controls: A GPRD Analysis, J Cancer Epidemiol, vol. 2012, p. 291704, 2012.
L. Li, Neogi, T., and Jick, S., Giant cell arteritis and vascular disease-risk factors and outcomes: a cohort study using UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 56, pp. 753-762, 2017.
L. Li, Setoguchi, S., Cabral, H., and Jick, S., Opioid use for noncancer pain and risk of fracture in adults: a nested case-control study using the general practice research database, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 178, pp. 559-69, 2013.
L. Li, Setoguchi, S., Cabral, H., and Jick, S., Opioid use for noncancer pain and risk of myocardial infarction amongst adults, J Intern Med, vol. 273, pp. 511-26, 2013.
L. Li, Setoguchi, S., Cabral, H., and Jick, S., Opioids and risk of type 2 diabetes in adults with non-cancer pain, Pain Physician, vol. 16, pp. 77-88, 2013.
L. Li, Roddam, A., Gitlin, M., Taylor, A., Shepherd, S., Shearer, A., and Jick, S., Persistence with osteoporosis medications among postmenopausal women in the UK General Practice Research Database, Menopause, vol. 19, pp. 33-40, 2012.
L. Li, Neogi, T., and Jick, S., Mortality in Patients With Giant Cell Arteritis: A Cohort Study in UK Primary Care, Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken), vol. 70, pp. 1251-1256, 2018.
L. Li, Neogi, T., and Jick, S., A cohort study of comorbidity in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 57, pp. 291-299, 2018.
L. Li, Hagberg, K. W., Peng, M., Shah, K., Paris, M., and Jick, S., Rates of Cardiovascular Disease and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Psoriatic Arthritis Compared to Patients Without Psoriatic Arthritis, J Clin Rheumatol, vol. 21, pp. 405-10, 2015.
L. Li, Ambegaonkar, B. M., Reckless, J. P., and Jick, S., Association of a reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with incident cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, Eur J Prev Cardiol, vol. 21, pp. 855-65, 2014.
L. Li, Roddam, A., Ferguson, S., Feudjo-Tepie, M., Taylor, A., and Jick, S., Switch patterns of osteoporosis medication and its impact on persistence among postmenopausal women in the U.K. General Practice Research Database, Menopause, vol. 21, pp. 1106-13, 2014.
L. Li, Setoguchi, S., and Jick, S., Validity of non-fatal idiopathic serious ventricular arrhythmia in UK-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 23, pp. 999-1001, 2014.
S. K. Lhachimi, Cole, K. J., Nusselder, W. J., Smit, H. A., Baili, P., Bennett, K., Pomerleau, J., McKee, M., Charlesworth, K., Kulik, M. C., Mackenbach, J. P., and Boshuizen, H., Health impacts of increasing alcohol prices in the European Union: a dynamic projection, Prev Med, vol. 55, pp. 237-43, 2012.
S. K. Lhachimi, Nusselder, W. J., Smit, H. A., van Baal, P., Baili, P., Bennett, K., Fernandez, E., Kulik, M. C., Lobstein, T., Pomerleau, J., Mackenbach, J. P., and Boshuizen, H. C., DYNAMO-HIA–a Dynamic Modeling tool for generic Health Impact Assessments, PLoS One, vol. 7, p. e33317, 2012.
J. D. Lewis, Bilker, W. B., Brensinger, C., Deren, J. J., Vaughn, D. J., and Strom, B. L., Inflammatory bowel disease is not associated with an increased risk of lymphoma, Gastroenterology, vol. 121, pp. 1080-7, 2001.
J. D. Lewis, Gelfand, J. M., Troxel, A. B., Forde, K. A., Newcomb, C., Kim, H., Margolis, D. J., and Strom, B. L., Immunosuppressant medications and mortality in inflammatory bowel disease, Am J Gastroenterol, vol. 103, pp. 1428-35; quiz 1436, 2008.
J. D. Lewis, Brensinger, C., Bilker, W. B., and Strom, B. L., Validity and completeness of the General Practice Research Database for studies of inflammatory bowel disease, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 11, pp. 211-8, 2002.
[Page last reviewed 5 January 2021]