Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,600 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 January 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 218 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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S. R. Pye, Sheppard, T., Joseph, R. M., Lunt, M., Girard, N., Haas, J. S., Bates, D. W., Buckeridge, D. L., van Staa, T. P., Tamblyn, R., and Dixon, W. G., Assumptions made when preparing drug exposure data for analysis have an impact on results: An unreported step in pharmacoepidemiology studies, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 27, pp. 781-788, 2018.
B. Purcell, Gaitatzis, A., Sander, J. W., and Majeed, A., Epilepsy prevalence and prescribing patterns in England and Wales., Health Stat Q, vol. 15, pp. 23-30, 2002.
Y. S. Punekar, Landis, S. H., Wurst, K., and Le, H., Characteristics, disease burden and costs of COPD patients in the two years following initiation of long-acting bronchodilators in UK primary care, Respir Res, vol. 16, p. 141, 2015.
Y. S. Punekar, Wurst, K., and Shukla, A., Resource Use and Costs up to Two Years Post Diagnosis Among Newly Diagnosed COPD Patients in the UK Primary Care Setting: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Copd, vol. 12, pp. 267-75, 2015.
Y. S. Punekar, Shukla, A., and Mullerova, H., COPD management costs according to the frequency of COPD exacerbations in UK primary care, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 9, pp. 65-73, 2014.
Y. S. Punekar and Sheikh, A., Establishing the incidence and prevalence of clinician-diagnosed allergic conditions in children and adolescents using routinely collected data from general practices, Clin Exp Allergy, vol. 39, pp. 1209-16, 2009.
Y. S. Punekar and Sheikh, A., Establishing the sequential progression of multiple allergic diagnoses in a UK birth cohort using the General Practice Research Database, Clin Exp Allergy, vol. 39, pp. 1889-95, 2009.
Y. S. Punekar, Ahmad, A., and Saleh, H. A., Estimating the effect of nasal steroid treatment on repeat polypectomies: survival time analysis using the General Practice Research Database, Rhinology, vol. 49, pp. 190-4, 2011.
M. Pujades-Rodriguez, Duyx, B., Thomas, S. L., Stogiannis, D., Rahman, A., Smeeth, L., and Hemingway, H., Rheumatoid Arthritis and Incidence of Twelve Initial Presentations of Cardiovascular Disease: A Population Record-Linkage Cohort Study in England, PLoS One, vol. 11, p. e0151245, 2016.
M. Pujades-Rodriguez, Duyx, B., Thomas, S. L., Stogiannis, D., Smeeth, L., and Hemingway, H., Associations between polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis and 12 cardiovascular diseases, Heart, vol. 102, pp. 383-9, 2016.
M. Pujades-Rodriguez, Guttmann, O. P., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Duyx, B., O'Mahony, C., Elliott, P., and Hemingway, H., Identifying unmet clinical need in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using national electronic health records, PLoS One, vol. 13, p. e0191214, 2018.
M. Pujades-Rodriguez, Assi, V., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Wilkinson, T., Schnier, C., Sudlow, C., Hemingway, H., and Whiteley, W. N., The diagnosis, burden and prognosis of dementia: A record-linkage cohort study in England, PLoS One, vol. 13, p. e0199026, 2018.
M. Pujades-Rodriguez, Morgan, A. W., Cubbon, R. M., and Wu, J., Dose-dependent oral glucocorticoid cardiovascular risks in people with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases: A population-based cohort study, PLoS Med, vol. 17, p. e1003432, 2020.
M. Pufulete, Harris, J., Sterne, J. A. C., Johnson, T. W., Lasserson, D., Mumford, A., Doble, B., Wordsworth, S., Benedetto, U., Rogers, C. A., Loke, Y., Pithara, C., Redwood, S., and Reeves, B. C., Comprehensive ascertainment of bleeding in patients prescribed different combinations of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and triple therapy (TT) in the UK: study protocol for three population-based cohort studies emulating 'target trials' (the ADAPTT Stu, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e029388, 2019.
M. Pufulete, Maishman, R., Dabner, L., Mohiuddin, S., Hollingworth, W., Rogers, C. A., Higgins, J., Dayer, M., Macleod, J., Purdy, S., McDonagh, T., Nightingale, A., Williams, R., and Reeves, B. C., Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of serum B-type natriuretic peptide testing and monitoring in patients with heart failure in primary and secondary care: an evidence synthesis, cohort study and cost-effectiveness model, Health Technol Assess, vol. 21, pp. 1-150, 2017.
J. A. Prior, Paskins, Z., Whittle, R., Abdul-Sultan, A., Chew-Graham, C. A., Muller, S., Bajpai, R., Shepherd, T. A., Sumathipala, A., and Mallen, C. D., Rheumatological conditions as risk factors for self-harm: A retrospective cohort study, Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken), 2020.
D. Prieto-Alhambra, Javaid, M. K., Judge, A., Maskell, J., Kiran, A., de Vries, F., Cooper, C., and Arden, N. K., Fracture risk before and after total hip replacement in patients with osteoarthritis: potential benefits of bisphosphonate use, Arthritis Rheum, vol. 63, pp. 992-1001, 2011.
D. Prieto-Alhambra, Javaid, M. K., Judge, A., Murray, D., Carr, A., Cooper, C., and Arden, N. K., Association between bisphosphonate use and implant survival after primary total arthroplasty of the knee or hip: population based retrospective cohort study, Bmj, vol. 343, p. d7222, 2011.
D. Prieto-Alhambra, Javaid, M. K., Maskell, J., Judge, A., Nevitt, M., Cooper, C., and Arden, N. K., Changes in hip fracture rate before and after total knee replacement due to osteoarthritis: a population-based cohort study, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 70, pp. 134-8, 2011.
D. Prieto-Alhambra, Javaid, M. K., Judge, A., Maskell, J., Cooper, C., and Arden, N. K., Hormone replacement therapy and mid-term implant survival following knee or hip arthroplasty for osteoarthritis: a population-based cohort study, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 74, pp. 557-63, 2015.
P. C. Prieto, Ibrahim, F., Campbell, R., Chinoy, H., Galloway, J., and Gordon, P., Similar risk of cardiovascular events in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy and rheumatoid arthritis in the first 5 years after diagnosis, Clin Rheumatol, 2020.
A. Price, Ford, T., Janssens, A., Williams, A. J., and Newlove-Delgado, T., Regional analysis of UK primary care prescribing and adult service referrals for young people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, BJPsych Open, vol. 6, p. e7, 2020.
S. Price, Zhang, X., and Spencer, A., Measuring the impact of national guidelines: What methods can be used to uncover time-varying effects for healthcare evaluations?, Soc Sci Med, vol. 258, p. 113021, 2020.
S. Price, Spencer, A., Zhang, X., Ball, S., Lyratzopoulos, G., Mujica-Mota, R., Stapley, S., Ukoumunne, O. C., and Hamilton, W., Trends in time to cancer diagnosis around the period of changing national guidance on referral of symptomatic patients: A serial cross-sectional study using UK electronic healthcare records from 2006-17, Cancer Epidemiol, vol. 69, p. 101805, 2020.
S. J. Price, Stapley, S. A., Shephard, E., Barraclough, K., and Hamilton, W. T., Is omission of free text records a possible source of data loss and bias in Clinical Practice Research Datalink studies? A case-control study, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e011664, 2016.
S. J. Price, Shephard, E. A., Stapley, S. A., Barraclough, K., and Hamilton, W. T., Non-visible versus visible haematuria and bladder cancer risk: a study of electronic records in primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 64, pp. e584-9, 2014.
D. B. Price, Trudo, F., Voorham, J., Xu, X., Kerkhof, M., J. Jie, L. Zhi, and Tran, T. N., Adverse outcomes from initiation of systemic corticosteroids for asthma: long-term observational study, J Asthma Allergy, vol. 11, pp. 193-204, 2018.
D. B. Price, Carter, V., Martin, J., Gardener, E. A., Skinner, D., Yang, S., Hoffman, M., Willis, J. C., and Cooper, A. J., Comparative Safety Profile of the Fixed-Dose Combination Corticosteroid and Long-acting beta2-Agonist Fluticasone Propionate/Formoterol Fumarate: A 36-Month Longitudinal Cohort Study in UK Primary Care, Drugs, 2019.
D. Price, Wilson, A. M., Chisholm, A., Rigazio, A., Burden, A., Thomas, M., and King, C., Predicting frequent asthma exacerbations using blood eosinophil count and other patient data routinely available in clinical practice, J Asthma Allergy, vol. 9, pp. 1-12, 2016.
D. Price, Haughney, J., Sims, E., Ali, M., von Ziegenweidt, J., Hillyer, E. V., Lee, A. J., Chisholm, A., and Barnes, N., Effectiveness of inhaler types for real-world asthma management: retrospective observational study using the GPRD, J Asthma Allergy, vol. 4, pp. 37-47, 2011.
D. Price, Thomas, V., von Ziegenweidt, J., Gould, S., Hutton, C., and King, C., Switching patients from other inhaled corticosteroid devices to the Easyhaler((R)): historical, matched-cohort study of real-life asthma patients, J Asthma Allergy, vol. 7, pp. 31-51, 2014.
V. Prasad, Kendrick, D., Sayal, K., Thomas, S. L., and West, J., Injury among children and young adults with epilepsy, Pediatrics, vol. 133, pp. 827-35, 2014.
V. Prasad, West, J., Kendrick, D., and Sayal, K., Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: variation by socioeconomic deprivation, Arch Dis Child, 2018.
V. Prasad, West, J., Sayal, K., and Kendrick, D., Injury among children and young people with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in the community: The risk of fractures, thermal injuries, and poisonings, Child Care Health Dev, vol. 44, pp. 871-878, 2018.
R. Pradhan, Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., and Azoulay, L., The Use of Long-Acting Insulin Analogs and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer Among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Drug Saf, 2019.
G. Powell, Logan, J., Kiri, V., and Borghs, S., Trends in antiepileptic drug treatment and effectiveness in clinical practice in England from 2003 to 2016: a retrospective cohort study using electronic medical records, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e032551, 2019.
S. Pouwels, de Boer, A., Leufkens, H. G., Weber, W. E., Cooper, C., and de Vries, F., Risk of fracture in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, Muscle Nerve, vol. 50, pp. 919-24, 2014.
S. Pouwels, de Boer, A., Leufkens, H. G., Weber, W. E., Cooper, C., van Onzenoort, H. A., and de Vries, F., Risk of fracture in patients with muscular dystrophies, Osteoporos Int, vol. 25, pp. 509-18, 2014.
S. Pouwels, de Boer, A., Leufkens, H. G., Weber, W. E., Cooper, C., van Staa, T. P., and de Vries, F., Risk of fracture in patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome, Osteoporos Int, vol. 25, pp. 1845-51, 2014.
S. Pouwels, Bazelier, M. T., de Boer, A., Weber, W. E., Neef, C., Cooper, C., and de Vries, F., Risk of fracture in patients with Parkinson's disease, Osteoporos Int, vol. 24, pp. 2283-90, 2013.
S. Pouwels, Bazelier, M. T., de Boer, A., Weber, W. E., Neef, C. K., Cooper, C., and de Vries, F., Five-year fracture risk estimation in patients with Parkinson's disease, Bone, vol. 56, pp. 266-70, 2013.
S. Pouwels, de Boer, A., Javaid, M. K., Hilton-Jones, D., Verschuuren, J., Cooper, C., Leufkens, H. G., and de Vries, F., Fracture rate in patients with myasthenia gravis: the general practice research database, Osteoporos Int, vol. 24, pp. 467-76, 2013.
K. K. Poppe, Doughty, R. N., Wells, S., Gentles, D., Hemingway, H., Jackson, R., and Kerr, A. J., Developing and validating a cardiovascular risk score for patients in the community with prior cardiovascular disease, Heart, vol. 103, pp. 891-892, 2017.
C. D. Poole, Halcox, J. P., Jenkins-Jones, S., Carr, E. S., Schifflers, M. G., Ray, K. K., and Currie, C. J., Omega-3 Fatty acids and mortality outcome in patients with and without type 2 diabetes after myocardial infarction: a retrospective, matched-cohort study, Clin Ther, vol. 35, pp. 40-51, 2013.
R. D. Pockett, Watkins, J., McEwan, P., and Meier, G., Burden of Illness in UK Subjects with Reported Respiratory Infections Vaccinated or Unvaccinated against Influenza: A Retrospective Observational Study, PLoS One, vol. 10, p. e0134928, 2015.
R. W. Platt, Delaney, J. A., and Suissa, S., The positivity assumption and marginal structural models: the example of warfarin use and risk of bleeding, Eur J Epidemiol, vol. 27, pp. 77-83, 2012.
P. Planell-Morell, Bajekal, M., Denaxas, S., Raine, R., and Alexander, D. C., Trajectories of Disease Accumulation Using Electronic Health Records, Stud Health Technol Inform, vol. 270, pp. 469-473, 2020.
R. J. Pitman, Nagy, L. D., and Sculpher, M. J., Cost-effectiveness of childhood influenza vaccination in England and Wales: Results from a dynamic transmission model, Vaccine, vol. 31, pp. 927-42, 2013.
R. J. Pitman, White, L. J., and Sculpher, M., Estimating the clinical impact of introducing paediatric influenza vaccination in England and Wales, Vaccine, vol. 30, pp. 1208-24, 2012.
R. J. Pitman, Melegaro, A., Gelb, D., Siddiqui, M. R., Gay, N. J., and Edmunds, W. J., Assessing the burden of influenza and other respiratory infections in England and Wales, J Infect, vol. 54, pp. 530-8, 2007.
[Page last reviewed 5 January 2021]