Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 7 September 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 209 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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I. Tzoulaki, Molokhia, M., Curcin, V., Little, M. P., Millett, C. J., Ng, A., Hughes, R. I., Khunti, K., Wilkins, M. R., Majeed, A., and Elliott, P., Risk of cardiovascular disease and all cause mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes prescribed oral antidiabetes drugs: retrospective cohort study using UK general practice research database, Bmj, vol. 339, p. b4731, 2009.
E. G. Tyrrell, Orton, E., Sayal, K., Baker, R., and Kendrick, D., Differing patterns in intentional and unintentional poisonings among young people in England, 1998-2014: a population-based cohort study, J Public Health (Oxf), vol. 39, pp. e1-e9, 2017.
E. G. Tyrrell, Kendrick, D., Sayal, K., and Orton, E., Poisoning substances taken by young people: a population-based cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 68, pp. e703-e710, 2018.
F. Tyrer, Zaccardi, F., Khunti, K., and Morriss, R., Incidence of Depression and First-Line Antidepressant Therapy in People with Obesity and Depression in Primary Care, Obesity (Silver Spring), vol. 28, pp. 977-984, 2020.
S. Turner, Thomas, M., von Ziegenweidt, J., and Price, D., Prescribing trends in asthma: a longitudinal observational study, Arch Dis Child, vol. 94, pp. 16-22, 2009.
S. Turner, Richardson, K., Murray, C., Thomas, M., Hillyer, E. V., Burden, A., and Price, D. B., Long-Acting beta-Agonist in Combination or Separate Inhaler as Step-Up Therapy for Children with Uncontrolled Asthma Receiving Inhaled Corticosteroids, J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, vol. 5, pp. 99-106.e3, 2017.
S. W. Turner, Murray, C., Thomas, M., Burden, A., and Price, D. B., Applying UK real-world primary care data to predict asthma attacks in 3776 well-characterised children: a retrospective cohort study, NPJ Prim Care Respir Med, vol. 28, p. 28, 2018.
S. W. Turner, Richardson, K., Burden, A., Thomas, M., Murray, C., and Price, D., Initial step-up treatment changes in asthmatic children already prescribed inhaled corticosteroids: a historical cohort study, NPJ Prim Care Respir Med, vol. 25, p. 15041, 2015.
S. Turnbull, Ward, A., Treasure, J., Jick, H., and Derby, L., The demand for eating disorder care. An epidemiological study using the general practice research database, Br J Psychiatry, vol. 169, pp. 705-12, 1996.
M. Tuccori, Wu, J. W., Yin, H., Majdan, A., and Azoulay, L., The Use of Glyburide Compared With Other Sulfonylureas and the Risk of Cancer in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes, Diabetes Care, vol. 38, pp. 2083-9, 2015.
M. Tuccori, Filion, K. B., Yin, H., Yu, O. H., Platt, R. W., and Azoulay, L., Pioglitazone use and risk of bladder cancer: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 352, p. i1541, 2016.
K. K. Tsilidis, Capothanassi, D., Allen, N. E., Rizos, E. C., Lopez, D. S., van Veldhoven, K., Sacerdote, C., Ashby, D., Vineis, P., Tzoulaki, I., and Ioannidis, J. P., Metformin does not affect cancer risk: a cohort study in the U.K. Clinical Practice Research Datalink analyzed like an intention-to-treat trial, Diabetes Care, vol. 37, pp. 2522-32, 2014.
C. Tsang, Bottle, A., Majeed, A., and Aylin, P., Adverse events recorded in English primary care: observational study using the General Practice Research Database, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 63, pp. e534-42, 2013.
C. Tsang, Bottle, A., Majeed, A., and Aylin, P., Cancer diagnosed by emergency admission in England: an observational study using the general practice research database, BMC Health Serv Res, vol. 13, p. 308, 2013.
F. S. Troelsen and Jick, S., Antibiotic Use in Childhood and Adolescence and Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Case-Control Study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2019.
A. Tran-Duy, Connell, N. J., Vanmolkot, F. H., Souverein, P. C., de Wit, N. J., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Hoes, A. W., de Vries, F., and de Boer, A., Use of proton pump inhibitors and risk of iron deficiency: a population-based case-control study, J Intern Med, vol. 285, pp. 205-214, 2019.
A. Tran-Duy, Connell, N. J., Vanmolkot, F. H., Souverein, P. C., de Wit, N. J., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Hoes, A. W., de Vries, F., and de Boer, A., Use of proton pump inhibitors and risk of iron deficiency: a population-based case-control study, J Intern Med, 2018.
J. Tran, Norton, R., Conrad, N., Rahimian, F., Canoy, D., Nazarzadeh, M., and Rahimi, K., Patterns and temporal trends of comorbidity among adult patients with incident cardiovascular disease in the UK between 2000 and 2014: A population-based cohort study, PLoS Med, vol. 15, p. e1002513, 2018.
T. Tran, Assayag, D., Ernst, P., and Suissa, S., Effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a population-based cohort study, Chest, 2020.
M. Touya, Lamy, F. X., Tanasescu, A., Saragoussi, D., Francois, C., Wade, A. G., Llorca, P. M., Lancon, C., and Falissard, B., Creation and validation of a linear index to measure the health state of patients with depression in automated healthcare databases, J Mark Access Health Policy, vol. 7, p. 1674115, 2019.
P. P. Toth, Danese, M., Villa, G., Qian, Y., Beaubrun, A., Lira, A., and Jansen, J. P., Estimated burden of cardiovascular disease and value-based price range for evolocumab in a high-risk, secondary-prevention population in the US payer context, J Med Econ, vol. 20, pp. 555-564, 2017.
A. M. Toschke, Wolfe, C. D., Heuschmann, P. U., Rudd, A. G., and Gulliford, M., Antihypertensive treatment after stroke and all-cause mortality–an analysis of the General Practitioner Research Database (GPRD), Cerebrovasc Dis, vol. 28, pp. 105-11, 2009.
A. M. Toschke, Gulliford, M. C., Wolfe, C. D., Rudd, A. G., and Heuschmann, P. U., Antihypertensive treatment after first stroke in primary care: results from the General Practitioner Research Database, J Hypertens, vol. 29, pp. 154-60, 2011.
D. J. Torgerson and Dolan, P., Prescribing by general practitioners after an osteoporotic fracture, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 57, pp. 378-9, 1998.
D. J. Torgerson, Sykes, D., Puffer, S., Brown, P., and Cooper, C., Pharmaceutical treatment of symptomatic vertebral fractures in primary care, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 63, pp. 853-6, 2004.
S. Toovey, Nieforth, K., Smith, P., Schlagenhauf, P., Adamcova, M., Tatt, I., Tomianovic, D., and Schnetzler, G., Comparative benefit of malaria chemoprophylaxis modelled in United Kingdom travellers, Travel Med Infect Dis, vol. 12, pp. 726-32, 2014.
S. Toovey, Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Parkinson's disease or Parkinson symptoms following seasonal influenza, Influenza Other Respir Viruses, vol. 5, pp. 328-33, 2011.
S. Toovey, Prinssen, E. P., Rayner, C. R., Thakrar, B. T., Dutkowski, R., Koerner, A., Chu, T., Sirzen-Zelenskaya, A., Britschgi, M., Bansod, S., and Donner, B., Post-marketing assessment of neuropsychiatric adverse events in influenza patients treated with oseltamivir: an updated review, Adv Ther, vol. 29, pp. 826-48, 2012.
P. J. Tooley, Cookson, R. F., Jones, M., and Nuyts, G. D., Medical events and resource utilisation in cancer-pain patients treated with strong opioids: an analysis of the UK General Practice Research Database, Journal of Drug Assessment, vol. 3, pp. 221-233, 2000.
S. Tomkins, Chapman, C., Myland, M., Tham, R., de Nobrega, R., Jackson, B., and Keshav, S., Treating iron deficiency in patients with gastrointestinal disease: Risk of re-attendance in secondary care, PLoS One, vol. 12, p. e0189952, 2017.
M. B. Toledano, Hansell, A. L., Jarup, L., Quinn, M., Jick, S., and Elliott, P., Temporal trends in orchidopexy, Great Britain, 1992-1998, Environ Health Perspect, vol. 111, pp. 129-32, 2003.
W. Tillett, Charlton, R., Nightingale, A., Snowball, J., Green, A., Smith, C., Shaddick, G., and McHugh, N., Interval between onset of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis comparing the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink with a hospital-based cohort, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 56, pp. 2109-2113, 2017.
P. A. Tiffin, Mediavilla, J. L., Close, H., Kasim, A. S., Welsh, P., Paton, L. W., and Mason, J. M., What were the impacts of the Committee on Safety of Medicines warning and publication of the NICE guidelines on trends in child and adolescent antidepressant prescribing in primary care? A population based study, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e028201, 2019.
C. J. D. Threapleton, Kimpton, J. E., Carey, I. M., DeWilde, S., Cook, D. G., Harris, T., and Baker, E. H., Development of a structured clinical pharmacology review for specialist support for management of complex polypharmacy in primary care, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2020.
M. Thorogood, Armstrong, B., Nichols, T., and Hollowell, J., Mortality in people taking selegiline: observational study, Bmj, vol. 317, pp. 252-4, 1998.
A. Thomson, Meeraus, W. H., Wong, J., and Suvarna, R., Monitoring and Evaluating the Effect of Regulatory Action: Some Recent Case Studies, Ther Innov Regul Sci, vol. 49, pp. 473-482, 2015.
A. Thompson, Ashcroft, D. M., Owens, L., van Staa, T. P., and Pirmohamed, M., Drug therapy for alcohol dependence in primary care in the UK: A Clinical Practice Research Datalink study, PLoS One, vol. 12, p. e0173272, 2017.
A. Thompson, Wright, A. K., Ashcroft, D. M., van Staa, T. P., and Pirmohamed, M., Epidemiology of alcohol dependence in UK primary care: Results from a large observational study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, PLoS One, vol. 12, p. e0174818, 2017.
P. L. Thompson, Gilbert, R. E., Long, P. F., Saxena, S., Sharland, M., and Wong, I. C., Has UK guidance affected general practitioner antibiotic prescribing for otitis media in children?, J Public Health (Oxf), vol. 30, pp. 479-86, 2008.
P. L. Thompson, Gilbert, R. E., Long, P. F., Saxena, S., Sharland, M., and Wong, I. C., Effect of antibiotics for otitis media on mastoiditis in children: a retrospective cohort study using the United kingdom general practice research database, Pediatrics, vol. 123, pp. 424-30, 2009.
M. Thomas, Murray-Thomas, T., Fan, T., Williams, T., and Taylor, S., Prescribing patterns of asthma controller therapy for children in UK primary care: a cross-sectional observational study, BMC Pulm Med, vol. 10, p. 29, 2010.
M. Thomas, Price, D., Chrystyn, H., Lloyd, A., Williams, A. E., and von Ziegenweidt, J., Inhaled corticosteroids for asthma: impact of practice level device switching on asthma control, BMC Pulm Med, vol. 9, p. 1, 2009.
M. Thomas, von Ziegenweidt, J., Lee, A. J., and Price, D., High-dose inhaled corticosteroids versus add-on long-acting beta-agonists in asthma: an observational study, J Allergy Clin Immunol, vol. 123, pp. 116-121.e10, 2009.
S. L. Thomas, Walker, J. L., Fenty, J., Atkins, K. E., Elliot, A. J., Hughes, H. E., Stowe, J., Ladhani, S., and Andrews, N. J., Impact of the national rotavirus vaccination programme on acute gastroenteritis in England and associated costs averted, Vaccine, vol. 35, pp. 680-686, 2017.
S. L. Thomas, Minassian, C., Ganesan, V., Langan, S. M., and Smeeth, L., Chickenpox and risk of stroke: a self-controlled case series analysis, Clin Infect Dis, vol. 58, pp. 61-8, 2014.
S. L. Thomas, Edwards, C. J., Smeeth, L., Cooper, C., and Hall, A. J., How accurate are diagnoses for rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis in the general practice research database?, Arthritis Rheum, vol. 59, pp. 1314-21, 2008.
K. H. Thomas, Davies, N., Metcalfe, C., Windmeijer, F., Martin, R. M., and Gunnell, D., Validation of suicide and self-harm records in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 76, pp. 145-57, 2013.
K. H. Thomas, Martin, R. M., Davies, N. M., Metcalfe, C., Windmeijer, F., and Gunnell, D., Smoking cessation treatment and risk of depression, suicide, and self harm in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink: prospective cohort study, Bmj, vol. 347, p. f5704, 2013.
G. Thomas, Khunti, K., Curcin, V., Molokhia, M., Millett, C., Majeed, A., and Paul, S., Obesity paradox in people newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes with and without prior cardiovascular disease, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 16, pp. 317-25, 2014.
J. E. Thistle, Petrick, J. L., Yang, B., Bradley, M. C., Graubard, B. I., and McGlynn, K. A., Domperidone use and risk of primary liver cancer in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Cancer Epidemiol, vol. 55, pp. 170-175, 2018.
[Page last reviewed 7 September 2020]