Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 June 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 205 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2528 results:
[ Author(Desc)] Title Type Year
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V. Abbing-Karahagopian, Huerta, C., Souverein, P. C., de Abajo, F., Leufkens, H. G., Slattery, J., Alvarez, Y., Miret, M., Gil, M., Oliva, B., Hesse, U., Requena, G., de Vries, F., Rottenkolber, M., Schmiedl, S., Reynolds, R., Schlienger, R. G., de Groot, M. C., Klungel, O. H., van Staa, T. P., van Dijk, L., Egberts, A. C., Gardarsdottir, H., and De Bruin, M. L., Antidepressant prescribing in five European countries: application of common definitions to assess the prevalence, clinical observations, and methodological implications, Eur J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 70, pp. 849-57, 2014.
V. Abbing-Karahagopian, Kurz, X., de Vries, F., van Staa, T. P., Alvarez, Y., Hesse, U., Hasford, J., Dijk, L., de Abajo, F. J., Weil, J. G., Grimaldi-Bensouda, L., Egberts, A. C., Reynolds, R. F., and Klungel, O. H., Bridging differences in outcomes of pharmacoepidemiological studies: design and first results of the PROTECT project, Curr Clin Pharmacol, vol. 9, pp. 130-8, 2014.
K. M. Abel, Heatlie, H. F., Howard, L. M., and Webb, R. T., Sex- and age-specific incidence of fractures in mental illness: a historical, population-based cohort study, J Clin Psychiatry, vol. 69, pp. 1398-403, 2008.
K. M. Abel, Hope, H., Swift, E., Parisi, R., Ashcroft, D. M., Kosidou, K., Osam, C. S., Dalman, C., and Pierce, M., Prevalence of maternal mental illness among children and adolescents in the UK between 2005 and 2017: a national retrospective cohort analysis, Lancet Public Health, vol. 4, pp. e291-e300, 2019.
H. A. Abenhaim, Tulandi, T., Wilchesky, M., Platt, R., Spence, A. R., Czuzoj-Shulman, N., and Suissa, S., Effect of Cesarean Delivery on Long-term Risk of Small Bowel Obstruction, Obstet Gynecol, vol. 131, pp. 354-359, 2018.
F. N. Aberra, Brensinger, C. M., Bilker, W. B., Lichtenstein, G. R., and Lewis, J. D., Antibiotic use and the risk of flare of inflammatory bowel disease, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, vol. 3, pp. 459-65, 2005.
F. N. Aberra, Stettler, N., Brensinger, C., Lichtenstein, G. R., and Lewis, J. D., Risk for active tuberculosis in inflammatory bowel disease patients, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, vol. 5, pp. 1070-5, 2007.
A. Abhishek, Nakafero, G., Kuo, C. F., Mallen, C., Zhang, W., Grainge, M. J., and Doherty, M., Rheumatoid arthritis and excess mortality: down but not out. A primary care cohort study using data from Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 57, pp. 977-981, 2018.
A. Abhishek, Doherty, M., Kuo, C. F., Mallen, C. D., Zhang, W., and Grainge, M. J., Rheumatoid arthritis is getting less frequent-results of a nationwide population-based cohort study, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 56, pp. 736-744, 2017.
D. Abrahami, Douros, A., Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., Renoux, C., Bitton, A., and Azoulay, L., Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and incidence of inflammatory bowel disease among patients with type 2 diabetes: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 360, p. k872, 2018.
D. Abrahami, Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., Pollak, M. N., and Azoulay, L., Incretin-based Drugs and the Incidence of Colorectal Cancer in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes, Epidemiology, vol. 29, pp. 246-253, 2018.
D. Abrahami, Douros, A., Yin, H., Yu, O. H., Faillie, J. L., Montastruc, F., Platt, R. W., Bouganim, N., and Azoulay, L., Incretin based drugs and risk of cholangiocarcinoma among patients with type 2 diabetes: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 363, p. k4880, 2018.
S. Abtahi, Burden, A. M., Geusens, P., van den Bergh, J. P., Van Staa, T., and de Vries, F., The Association of Oral Bisphosphonate Use With Mortality Risk Following a Major Osteoporotic Fracture in the United Kingdom: Population-Based Cohort Study, J Am Med Dir Assoc, 2019.
K. Abuabara, Azfar, R. S., Shin, D. B., Neimann, A. L., Troxel, A. B., and Gelfand, J. M., Cause-specific mortality in patients with severe psoriasis: a population-based cohort study in the U.K, Br J Dermatol, vol. 163, pp. 586-92, 2010.
F. A. Achana, Fleming, K. M., Tata, L. J., Sultan, A. A., and Petrou, S., Peripartum hysterectomy: an economic analysis of direct healthcare costs using routinely collected data, Bjog, vol. 125, pp. 874-883, 2018.
R. Ackers, Murray, M. L., Besag, F. M., and Wong, I. C., Prioritizing children's medicines for research: a pharmaco-epidemiological study of antiepileptic drugs, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 63, pp. 689-97, 2007.
R. Ackers, Besag, F. M., Wade, A., Murray, M. L., and Wong, I. C., Changing trends in antiepileptic drug prescribing in girls of child-bearing potential, Arch Dis Child, vol. 94, pp. 443-7, 2009.
R. Ackers, Besag, F. M., Hughes, E., Squier, W., Murray, M. L., and Wong, I. C., Mortality rates and causes of death in children with epilepsy prescribed antiepileptic drugs: a retrospective cohort study using the UK General Practice Research Database, Drug Saf, vol. 34, pp. 403-13, 2011.
A. Adiamah, Ban, L., West, J., and Humes, D. J., The risk of venous thromboembolism after surgery for esophagogastric malignancy and the impact of chemotherapy: a population-based cohort study, Dis Esophagus, 2019.
A. Afonso, Schmiedl, S., Becker, C., Tcherny-Lessenot, S., Primatesta, P., Plana, E., Souverein, P., Wang, Y., Korevaar, J. C., Hasford, J., Reynolds, R., de Groot, M. C., Schlienger, R., Klungel, O., and Rottenkolber, M., A methodological comparison of two European primary care databases and replication in a US claims database: inhaled long-acting beta-2-agonists and the risk of acute myocardial infarction, Eur J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 72, pp. 1105-16, 2016.
F. Ahmadizar, Souverein, P., de Boer, A., and van der Zee, A. H. Maitlan, Undertreatment of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: long-term follow-up on time trends in the occurrence of cardiovascular disease, risk factors and medications use, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 84, pp. 776-785, 2018.
H. Ahmed, Farewell, D., Francis, N. A., Paranjothy, S., and Butler, C. C., Risk of adverse outcomes following urinary tract infection in older people with renal impairment: Retrospective cohort study using linked health record data, PLoS Med, vol. 15, p. e1002652, 2018.
H. Ahmed, Farewell, D., Jones, H. M., Francis, N. A., Paranjothy, S., and Butler, C. C., Antibiotic prophylaxis and clinical outcomes among older adults with recurrent urinary tract infection: cohort study, Age Ageing, vol. 48, pp. 228-234, 2019.
N. J. Ailabouni, Marcum, Z. A., Schmader, K. E., and Gray, S. L., Medication Use Quality and Safety in Older Adults: 2018 Update, J Am Geriatr Soc, 2019.
F. O. Aina, Smeeth, L., Hubbard, R., Hurt, L. S., and Fletcher, A. E., Hormone replacement therapy and cataract: a population-based case-control study, Eye (Lond), vol. 20, pp. 417-22, 2006.
R. K. Akyea, Kai, J., Qureshi, N., Iyen, B., and Weng, S. F., Sub-optimal cholesterol response to initiation of statins and future risk of cardiovascular disease, Heart, 2019.
S. Alageel and Gulliford, M. C., Health checks and cardiovascular risk factor values over six years' follow-up: Matched cohort study using electronic health records in England, PLoS Med, vol. 16, p. e1002863, 2019.
D. Alarkawi, Ali, M. S., Bliuc, D., Pallares, N., Tebe, C., Elhussein, L., Caskey, F. J., Arden, N. K., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Abrahamsen, B., Diez-Perez, A., Pascual, J., Perez-Saez, M. J., Center, J. R., Judge, A., Cooper, C., Javaid, M. K., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Oral bisphosphonate use and all-cause mortality in patients with moderate-severe (grade 3B-5D) chronic kidney disease: a population-based cohort study, J Bone Miner Res, 2020.
C. I. Alatorre, Hoogwerf, B. J., Deeg, M. A., Nelson, D. R., Hunter, T. M., Ng, W. T., and Rekhter, M. D., Factors associated with stroke, myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, unstable angina, or mortality in patients from real world clinical practice with newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes and early glycemic control, Curr Med Res Opin, vol. 34, pp. 337-343, 2018.
N. Al-Attar, Johnston, S., Jamous, N., Mistry, S., Ghosh, E., Gangoli, G., Danker, W., Etter, K., and Ammann, E., Impact of bleeding complications on length of stay and critical care utilization in cardiac surgery patients in England, J Cardiothorac Surg, vol. 14, p. 64, 2019.
C. Alexakis, Saxena, S., Chhaya, V., Cecil, E., Curcin, V., and Pollok, R., Do Thiopurines Reduce the Risk of Surgery in Elderly Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease? A 20-Year National Population-Based Cohort Study, Inflamm Bowel Dis, vol. 23, pp. 672-680, 2017.
C. Alexakis, Saxena, S., Chhaya, V., Cecil, E., Majeed, A., and Pollok, R., Smoking Status at Diagnosis and Subsequent Smoking Cessation: Associations With Corticosteroid Use and Intestinal Resection in Crohn's Disease, Am J Gastroenterol, vol. 113, pp. 1689-1700, 2018.
M. Alexander, Ding, Y., Foskett, N., Petri, H., Wandel, C., and Khwaja, O., Population prevalence of Down's syndrome in the United Kingdom, J Intellect Disabil Res, vol. 60, pp. 874-8, 2016.
M. Alexander, Petri, H., Ding, Y., Wandel, C., Khwaja, O., and Foskett, N., Morbidity and medication in a large population of individuals with Down syndrome compared to the general population, Dev Med Child Neurol, vol. 58, pp. 246-54, 2016.
L. Alexandre, Clark, A. B., Bhutta, H. Y., Holt, S., Lewis, M. P., and Hart, A. R., Statin use is associated with reduced risk of histologic subtypes of esophageal cancer: a nested case-control analysis, Gastroenterology, vol. 146, pp. 661-8, 2014.
L. Alexandre, Clark, A. B., Bhutta, H. Y., Chan, S. S., Lewis, M. P., and Hart, A. R., Association Between Statin Use After Diagnosis of Esophageal Cancer and Survival: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Gastroenterology, vol. 150, pp. 854-65.e1; quiz e16-7, 2016.
K. Alexandropoulou, van Vlymen, J., Reid, F., Poullis, A., and Kang, J. Y., Temporal trends of Barrett's oesophagus and gastro-oesophageal reflux and related oesophageal cancer over a 10-year period in England and Wales and associated proton pump inhibitor and H2RA prescriptions: a GPRD study, Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol, vol. 25, pp. 15-21, 2013.
A. K. Ali, Hartzema, A. G., Winterstein, A. G., Segal, R., Lu, X., and Hendeles, L., Application of multicategory exposure marginal structural models to investigate the association between long-acting beta-agonists and prescribing of oral corticosteroids for asthma exacerbations in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Value Health, vol. 18, pp. 260-70, 2015.
R. Alikhan, Lefevre, C., Menown, I., Lister, S., Bird, A., You, M., Evans, D., and Sammon, C., Risk of Recurrent Bleeding Events in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Treated with Vitamin K Antagonists: A Clinical Practice Research Datalink Study, TH Open, vol. 3, pp. e316-e324, 2019.
V. Allan, Sammon, C. J., McDonald, L., Mehmud, F., Alikhan, R., and Ramagopalan, S. V., Impact of atrial fibrillation awareness campaigns: interrupted time series using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Future Cardiol, 2019.
C. Allen and Donegan, K., The impact of regulatory action on the co-prescribing of renin-angiotensin system blockers in UK primary care, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 26, pp. 858-862, 2017.
A. Alonso, Jick, S. S., Olek, M. J., Ascherio, A., Jick, H., and Hernan, M. A., Recent use of oral contraceptives and the risk of multiple sclerosis, Arch Neurol, vol. 62, pp. 1362-5, 2005.
A. Alonso, Jick, S. S., and Hernan, M. A., Allergy, histamine 1 receptor blockers, and the risk of multiple sclerosis, Neurology, vol. 66, pp. 572-5, 2006.
A. Alonso, Jick, S. S., Jick, H., and Hernan, M. A., Antibiotic use and risk of multiple sclerosis, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 163, pp. 997-1002, 2006.
A. Alonso, Jick, S. S., Olek, M. J., and Hernan, M. A., Incidence of multiple sclerosis in the United Kingdom : findings from a population-based cohort, J Neurol, vol. 254, pp. 1736-41, 2007.
A. Alonso, Rodriguez, L. A., Logroscino, G., and Hernan, M. A., Gout and risk of Parkinson disease: a prospective study, Neurology, vol. 69, pp. 1696-700, 2007.
A. Alonso, Logroscino, G., Jick, S. S., and Hernan, M. A., Incidence and lifetime risk of motor neuron disease in the United Kingdom: a population-based study, Eur J Neurol, vol. 16, pp. 745-51, 2009.
A. Alonso, Rodriguez, L. A., Logroscino, G., and Hernan, M. A., Use of antidepressants and the risk of Parkinson's disease: a prospective study, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol. 80, pp. 671-4, 2009.
A. Alonso, Logroscino, G., Jick, S. S., and Hernan, M. A., Association of smoking with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis risk and survival in men and women: a prospective study, BMC Neurol, vol. 10, p. 6, 2010.
R. Alsaggaf, St George, D. M. M., Zhan, M., Pfeiffer, R. M., Wang, Y., Wagner, K. R., Greene, M. H., Amr, S., and Gadalla, S. M., Cancer Risk in Myotonic Dystrophy Type I: Evidence of a Role for Disease Severity, JNCI Cancer Spectr, vol. 2, p. pky052, 2018.
[Page last reviewed 5 June 2020]